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Showing 269 results for Type of Study: Orginal Research

Taraneh Emamgholi Khoshehchin , Fatemeh Shojae, Elahe Ahmadnia ,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (2-2009)
Abstract

  Background and Objective: In today's complicated world learning is of paramount importance, with education as the base of all learning: Also education in particular clinical education requires appropriate equipment and facilities for learning even provision of creature comfort for student plays a significant role.

  This study was carried out with the aim of assessing the educational facilities of the hospitals from the standpoint of midwifery student of Zanjan University of medical sciences.

 

  Material and Methods: In this descriptive study thirty six third term and fifth term midwifery students of associate's level participated. Data collecting tool included a questionnaire which was designed based on Likert scale, and investigated the student's point of view on hospital's educational facilities. This questionnaire was completed at one stage by the sample units. To analyses the data descriptive statistics and SPSS11 software were utilized.

 

  Results: The obtained results from this study showed that the majority of students assessed the educational facilities of the hospitals as average. However, a couple of items like the number of lockers accessible to the students in the hospitals (64.42 %), a resting place for the students (69.44%), and diversity of the patients for familiarity with different cases of disease (72.18%) were low or very low.

 

  Conclusion: Although hospitals facilities were evaluated as average improvement of positive and rectifying the defects could be an effective step toward enhancement of clinical education. Thus, improving the equipment and facilities should be considered as a major task by the university authorities. It is also suggested that through frequent evaluation of clinical fields and the comparison of present situation with the previous and the next situation, the negative and positive aspects of clinical education be recognized.


Fariba Arbooni, Abbasali Nourian, Seyed Noradin Mousavi Nasab,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (2-2009)
Abstract

  Background and Objective: Faculty evaluation by students is the most common method of educational quality assessment. Through such evaluation, faculty strengths and weaknesses can be revealed. In the current study, the domains on the evaluation forms used in faculty of Medicine, Paramedical and Nursing faculties are studied through students' eyes.

  Materials and methods: In this descriptive study, 1683 faculty evaluation forms (73 people) were considered. They included 15 items for students of medicine, 21 items for paramedical and nursing students. The Liker scale was used to find out students' attitude towards education, rules and discipline at the university. The maximum score was 100. Data was analyzed by SPSS software.

  Results: Results showed that on average paramedical faculty performed better than other faculties (M=85.5O SD= ± 3.61). Regarding rules observance, Paramedical faculty had a mean of 91.01 (SD= ± 3.89) 0n the attitude domain Medical faculty had a mean of 90.48(SD= ± 5.45) and Nursing faculty had the highest mean of rules observance domain (M=88.34 SD= ± 4.25). Education domain showed lowest level in all faculties. The produced mean results were significant (P=0.001).

 

 

  Conclusion: It seems that holding workshops, improving teaching methods, granting sabbatical leave, and encouraging research work com promote educational level in different faculties and improve faculty activity.


Ataollah Maleki,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (2-2009)
Abstract

  Second language learners encounter communication problems when they attempt to use the target language. One way to overcome the problems is using effective strategies. Thus, L2 learners can benefit from teaching communication strategies to use them effectively. However, teaching and teach ability of CS is a controversial issue.

  In this paper, it is discussed that teaching CS is useful and feasible and that techniques can be introduced to teach them. It is claimed that the Bottom – Up

  Approach is the framework within which such techniques can be put to use and create an atmosphere of easy communication and learning.


Abbas Ezzatshokati, Abbas Ali Nourian, Seyed Noradin Mousavi Nasab ,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (2-2009)
Abstract

  Background and Objective: One way to promote education quality is to evaluate faculty activities by students, departmental heads, and the dean. The degree of correspondence between students' and departmental heads' evaluation shows how honest they are in their assessment. The current paper intends to find the truth.

 

  Materials and Methods : Questionnaires were used to conduct the study. It included 18 questions for the faculty, 16 for the students and 28 for the residents. The validity of the questionnaires was already established. Also, reliability of the tests was proved by retests. Opinions were rated on the liker scale. 106 (32 females and 74 males) faculty members, 25 departmental heads and qzl out of lloo students filled out the questionnaires. Spss software was used to analyze the data.

 

  Result: In 61% of cases, correspondence was found between students' and departmental heads' evaluation of the faculty. As departmental heads' expectations differ from those of the students, lack of total correspondence is not unusual. However, in final analysis, 61% correspondence is optimal and acceptable.

 

  Conclusion: It seems that holding workshops, providing material and spiritual support, reducing work load, granting sabbatical leave, and reducing conflict of interest between departmental heads and the faculty can increase the degree of correspondence of evaluation. Also, using maximal adjustment correspondence technique can make the results more accurate.


Ahmad Asl Hashemi,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (2-2009)
Abstract

  Background and Objective : Now day’s natural disasters are one of the most important sustainable development. Lack of preparedness bring about substantial property and lose of lives in the world. Some ties not affordable. Water pollution, refugees and increase in the case of vector, are considered of effects of the pheromone. To reduce if undesirable programming is necessary .Thereby assessing effectiveness of health actions of disaster unit is beginning to improve the attitude and Knowledge of student in case of disasters.

 

  Methods and Materials: This is descriptive, analytical and interventional study. The sample size is 60 study of environmental and disease prevention after matching the sample based on their pretest grade point average, they were groped in to case and control. The case grope was thought using health action. In disaster for a term and after intervention at the end of term. Both groups took an attitude and knowledge test which was simpler to pretest. Data was analysis using SPSS and nonparametric test.

 

  Result : Finding indicate that the grade point average of subject in control grope did show substantial change, but the case grope G.P.A increased in 12.74 percent in the knowledge. Average point of attitude in case groups also increase in 57.86percents of the subjects. Wilcocsan test indicate that there was meaningful difference between attitude and knowledge of tone groups (PV, 0.0001). On the other hand between and attitude and Knowledge in control groups there was no different (Pv, 0.001). Results of control comparison mean values of attitude and knowledge after intervention in both groups using Mannwhitnecy U.test shoved that educational programmed in health action on disaster was effective(pv,0.001). In this shady between major study field, sex of subjects and level of knowledge, awareness showed no meaningful relationship (PV, 0.001).

 

  Conclusion: Findings showed the effectiveness of the health action disorder units in improving the attitude and knowledge of students, she by it is recommended to use. Those kind of educational programs use that kind of deviational programs for student in all major fields due to the fact that iron is disasters risk area.


Mohammad Masod Vakili, Abbas Ali Nourian, Seyed Noradin Mousavi Nasab ,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (2-2009)
Abstract

  Background and Objective : Although educational conditions and facilities play an important role in learning process, human power, in particular the teacher is one of the key components of educational environment. The teacher is central to create ideal situations in order to achieve educational goals. The teacher can compensate for the subject matter and educational equipment deficiency and by contrast he/she might change an ideal teaching condition and subject into a passive and boring environment due to inability in establishing a favorable emotional rapport. Not only the skills and knowledge of the teacher but also his/her overall personality contributes to learning process and change.

Materials and Methods: This cross – sectional study was carried out to determine the attitude of students and teaching staff towards a good teacher. The studied community included the whole teaching staff (144 people) and 50% of 850 students of university of medical sciences of zanjan who were selected through random sampling.

  Means of data collecting were two separate questionnaires which were filled out by studied individuals. The collected data were extracted through excel statistical software and analyzed by SPSS.

  Results : The results showed that in educational regulations domain from the students’ viewpoints, the accessibility of the teacher and from the teachers’ viewpoints punctuality of the teacher were important while in scientific – educational domain from both students’ and teachers’ viewpoints mastery was important and in evaluation and monitoring domain from the students’ viewpoints responsibility to answer students’ questions and from the teachers’ viewpoints putting forward questions in each session and in behavior – ethics domain eloquence were the most important characteristics of a good teacher.

  Conclusion : We can conclude from the research findings that a good teacher is required to have skills in teaching style, behavior and ethics, assessment and evaluation as well as scientific expertise and the learner pays careful attention to those abilities.


Sedighe Kamali, Elham Jafari,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (2-2009)
Abstract

  Background and objective: The continuous examination of the current situation, and recognizing the strengths and improving the weaknesses are necessary for promoting the quality of clinical education. Different evaluation methods have been introduced for evaluating clinical skills. Using logbook is common in clinical units. The purpose of this study was to evaluate midwifery clinical teachers and students viewpoints towards using logbook.

  Material and Methods : This descriptive cross-sectional study, carried out on 16 midwifery clinical teachers and 60 midwifery students of Zanjan Nursing and Midwifery School. Cases of the study selected through Census methods sampling. A researcher made questionnaire consisted of 3 domains of necessity, content and method of execution was used for data collection. Questions related to each of these areas were scored on a five point scale. The data was analyzed by SPSS software using frequency distribution.

  Results : Most subjects concerning urgency domain were confirmed by both clinical teachers and students. While the situation of quality of content and implementation of logbook was not optimal. The most important weaknesses of logbook were lake of requirements, Regulations, List of References, Conferences and other educational activities, Professional ethics skills and possibility of Student assessment. Most students and teachers did not complete logbook daily.

  Conclusion : Considering the importance of using logbook in the clinical evaluation of students, and the logbook weaknesses, Reload this tool is recommended.


Rahim Sorori-Zanjani , Javad Tajkey, Saeeideh Mazloomzade, Mohammad Reza Jafari,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (2-2009)
Abstract

  Background and Objective : Job selection is the most important and basic apprehension of a person. Pharmacy is one of medical fields which have favorable interest and selection among most young people. Finding and improving of students' motivations and interests can improve their success. This study was performed to find the field selecting motivations among Zanjan pharmacy students in 1387.

  Materials and Methods: In the present descriptive study, we used a questionnaire (consists of 17 questions) about Pharmacy major entrance motivations. The questioners were filled by pharmacy students (89 persons). Data were analyzed by descriptive statistical analysis and Mann-Whitney U test.

 Results: The most important motivation of pharmacy field selection were job opportunity, interested in drug compounding and social opportunity, on the other hand the lest effective factors were friend and family suggestion and hospital working. Sex compression showed that in the boy students higher incomes and social opportunity were more important than the girls.

 Conclusions: It seems that the causes of field selection among Zanjan pharmacy students are similar to medical and dentistry students. Knowing the causes of field selection we can improve the place of pharmacists as medical team.


Yahya Jaberi, Farideh Nahavandi,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (9-2009)
Abstract

  Background and objective: Student evaluation is a special concern in medical education, and validity is one of the most important evaluation characteristics. There are different kinds of validity. Criterion validity is a degree of correlation between an evaluation and another reference evaluation.

  Medical education for the general physician consists of four discrete courses. Indeed, the average of course scores and comprehensive basic science examination score and score on pre- internship examination are about predicting success of a student in following course. We consider this as criterion validity.

  Material and Methods : We studied average courses score and comprehensive basic science examination and pre-internship examination score of 58 students after all courses were completed. Also, the summative average of previous courses was calculated. The correlation between all single and summative averages and the following course was calculated.

  Results: Most calculated correlations were above 0.5, but they decreased gradually from basic sciences to clinical sciences. Correlation between basic science average score and pathophysiology average score(0.834) was the highest and correlation between pre-internship exam score with internship average score(0.415) was the lowest. Comprehensive basic sciences examination score and pre-internship examination score did not have a higher coefficient correlation with the following courses compared with the basic science average score and externship average score. The summative average of previous courses showed higher correlation with the following course compared with the single course average.

  Conclusion: It seems that the evaluation method determine correlations. Comprehensive basic science examination and pre-internship examination both were performed on a single day with MCQ method. All course examinations were performed along with the courses and contained multiple examinations in most of which other methods including OSCE and Tutor Report are used.


Qiti Karimkhanlooey, Seyed Noradin Mosavi Nasab, Arefe Fatazi,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (9-2009)
Abstract

  Background and objective: Online education is one of the fastest growing modes of teaching which afford great flexibility in terms of how, when and where students can learn. This is particularly relevant in higher education since students might often need to manipulate their own learning.

  A number of studies have compared learning outcomes across online courses with traditional ones
(e.g., Alavi, Yoo, and Vogel, 1997 Hiltz, 1993 Hiltz and Johnson, 1990 Leinder and Jarvenpaa, 1993 Piccoli, Ahmad and Ives, 2001).These and other research studies have shown that there are no significant differences between two modes of delivery.

  Material and Methods: English language instruction in general and ESP in particular have benefited from such developments around the world. This research was conducted in order to compare the achievement of the participants toward an online new course. This is the first online course in ESP in the Ministry of Health.

  Results: The course was developed according to the results of a needs analysis questionnaire. We conducted the study. The results correspond to some previous studies such as those of Russel (1999). The statistical analysis revealed that there was no significant difference in achievement of students who were learning English through the two modes of instruction.


Ataollah Maleki,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (9-2009)
Abstract

  Background and objective: Students entering Zanjan Medical Sciences University lack the necessary proficiency in English to advance their knowledge in medicine. At university they have to pass many compulsory English courses as partial fulfillment of their degree. However, the final outcome is poor and bleak. The problem may be due to poor teaching methods and texts. Grammar-Ttranslation Method of teaching English has been a rule here rather than an exception. Therefore, the former has been compared with the modern Communicative Language Teaching Method to observe the outcome.

  Material and Methods: Two groups of the environmental health students were non-randomly chosen, and were randomly assigned to two classes. Each of the classes was taught with one of the methods under consideration. The course lasted about one academic term. Before the beginning of the course, a preliminary TOEFL test was administered to tap both groups level of proficiency. The same test was repeated at the end of the term. Later, results of both tests were analyzed and compared using tables and t-tests.

  Results: Analysis of data confirmed our hypothesis that there is a relationship between language teaching method and learning the language (p=0.431). The findings of the research also confirmed the fact that test distribution was normal and balanced.

  Conclusion: In general the findings of the study confirmed the proposed hypothesis. The mean difference between the scores before and after the intervention was meaningful (p=0.046). The difference between means of scores in the old method was 1.07 whereas the difference between means of scores in the new method was 1.575, which was significant. Hence, using the new method is highly recommended.


Faranak Sharifi,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (9-2009)
Abstract

  Background and objective: Residency curriculum development in clinical courses has been initiated in the Ministry of Health in recent years and the curriculum for internal medicine residency has been completed. Regarding the role of critical appraisal in the improvement of these programs, this article will discuss advantages and disadvantages of the curriculum plan for internal medicine.

  Material and Methods : In this study after reviewing all segments of the curriculum, we considered Harden's criteria for curriculum developments as gold standard and compared the steps for developing the present curriculum to them.

  Results: student-centricity and problem-based learning have been well-considered by the developers in this curriculum and this is an advantage for this program. Integration of general internal medicine to subspecialties courses also has been considered well in this program. Students have not been involved sufficiently in the developing steps of the curriculum. Furthermore an efficient management system was not considered for the integrated learning process. On the other hand a huge core and less elective courses in the curriculum make it difficult to be operational.

  Conclusion: The program might be operational if more attention is paid to management system reinforcement, involving students to get their feedback and considering them in the program evaluation.


Mohammad Reza Mehrasbi,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (9-2009)
Abstract

  Background and objective: Teaching is an educational activity that results in learning. Learning causes some changes in senses, skills and knowledge of students. There are different methods for teaching. The most popular method is lecturing Another less known method is problem- based learning (PBL).

  Material and Methods: To compar these two methods, we selected two groups of environmental heath students. Pump application in water course was taught by lecture and waste water facilities course was taught by PBL method for groups 1 and 2 respectively. At the end of the semester, the actual project had to be designed. The designing methods were assessed in 10 sections. The sections were scored on a 3-point scale.

  Results: In group 1, 32.7, 36.4and 30.8 percent of learners received 1, 2 and 3 but these values were 3.4, 12.5 and 84 percent for groups.

  Conclusion: The results showed that the PBL method is better than lecturing method for teaching the courses of "pump application in water and wastewater facilities".


Rahim Sorouri Zanjani , Emad Kosarieh, Maryam Rastgar, Mohammad Masod Vakili,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (9-2009)
Abstract

  Background and objective: The use of modern diagnostic methods and techniques in dentistry has caused huge changes in patient treatment modality. One of the most important diagnostic techniques in dentistry is radiography. To be beneficial to patients, it requires dentist sufficient knowledge of its use. The aim of this study was to evaluate knowledge of Zanjan dentists this topic.

  Material and Methods : This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. The test group consisted of 44 dentists (general and specialized) practicing in both governmental centers or private offices in Zanjan.

  Results: The results of this study showed that of 20 questions in the questionnaire, the lowest score was 5 and the highest was 18 with the mean of 11.5 and the standard deviation of 3.25. In the test group, 9.1% were well-informed, 7.3%were moderately, and 13.6% were less-informed about the subject. There was no significant statistical relationship between knowledge of x-ray use and the level af academic experience, the year of graduation and sex.

  Conclusion: The results of this study showed the importance of offering regular in-sevice courses for maintaining and enhancing dentists ' knowledge and introducing new diagnostic and radiographic methods.


Hossein Masomy Jahandy, Rahim Sourrory Zanjani, , ,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (9-2009)
Abstract

  Background and objective: Teacher evaluation by students has been done for a long time. This study was conducted to learn more about students ' views.

  Material and Methods : This is a descriptive-analytical study which was carried out at Zanjan Medical Sciences University. 250 students were selected in each faculty and questionnaires were distributed among them. Later, the questionnaires were collected and analyzed.

  Results: The results of the study showed that of 742 students %85.6 agreed with the evaluation process.

  Conclusion: The results of this study have shown that teacher evaluation form is acceptable and should be continued.


Sadighe Kamali, Elham Jafari, Afsane Fathi,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (9-2009)
Abstract

  Background and objective: One of the biggest problems in education is academic failure. So the mental health and academic achievement in this group are of particular importance. Some studies suggest that there is a direct relationship between self-esteem and educational achievement, however, some experts doubt this direct relationship. This study was done to determine the correlation between academic achievement and self-esteem in students of Zanjan Faculty Nursing and Midwifery.

  Material and Methods: This study was a correlation study . All students of Zanjan Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, which at least had two semester academic study history (n=182) participated in the study. Data was collected by questionnaires. The questionnaires consisted of two parts individual and educational characteristics of subjects and Cooper Smith inventory containing 58 items. The data was analyzed by SPSS 11 software.

  Results: Pearson correlation coefficient revealed a significant relationship between students self-esteem and their educational status (r=0.31), but self-esteem had no statistically significant relationship with age and gender (p>0.05) . Academic achievement of female students was significantly better than male students (p<0.05).

  Conclusion: Since there is a positive correlation between the students' self-esteem and academic achievement, it seems using methods to strengthen students' self-esteem can prevent their academic failure.


F Shojaei, T Emamgholi Khoshe Chin , Ah Rafiee, N Masoumi,
Volume 2, Issue 3 (2-2010)
Abstract

  Background and objective: One of the main task for nursing educators is development of appropriate environment for crirtcal thinking in classroom and clinical setting. New teaching method is essential for this aim. In this study researchers have tried to introduce a new method for evaluating nursing students clinical skill using peers and assessing their views about this method in development of critical thinking.

  Materials and Methods: There action research method they were asked to for evaluating clinical skill acquired in fundamental training class by nursing students: form two groups and evaluate each other by a standard skill checklist during laction and give their feedback. Also, a questionnaire was prepared to assess the students view about this method. Later, the and these questionnaires were gathered and analysed.

  Results: Based on this study 87% of students hadn’t any experience about peer evaluation. By assessing their view about using this method, high score was related to learning, anexiety reductine, motivation and easy usage. Low score was related to trusty of this method.

  Conclusion: The trainer can provide more active, consant and critical learning by peer evaluation in educating students and acquire more autonomy, self-confidence and better decisionmaking in problem solving.


G Karimkhanloui, F Alipanahi , Sn Mousavi Nasab ,
Volume 2, Issue 3 (2-2010)
Abstract

  Background and objective: Current advances in computer technology and the rapid pace of change in communications affect the way English language (EL) teachers use information technology (IF) to develop students’ writing skills. With the advent of ICT there is now a wide range of opportunities open to classroom teachers. In our opinion, writing is the most important form of communication. It would appear, however, to be one of the hardest to master, for written words require thought and organization. But no matter how hard writing might appear Computer Mediated Communication (CMC) can be a valuable cure for the complex process of writing.

  Material and Methods: To conduct this study 30 students were randomly selected from population of 100 students from Institute of Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences (IASBS). They were randomly assigned to control and experimental groups. After being subjected to the instruction both groups were given identical posttests and the results were compared. Not only did the experimental group do better than the control group on posttests but also the length of their writing was shorter and more effective than that of control group.

  Results: The study showed that by using computers, students become better problem solvers and better communicators. Networking people "puts an inspiring, enticing, and usable set of tools within reach of the mass of computer users, empowering them to go beyond simply processing information to repurpose, design, publish, and express" (Mello, 1996). Through this increased electronic access to the world around them, students' social awareness and confidence increases. Networking frees them from the limitations of traditional writing tools that often inhibit and restrict writing processes.

  Conclusions: Learning is transformed from a traditional passive exercise to an experience of discovery, exploration, and excitement. Students begin to realize their full potential when they are empowered to contribute and collaborate as a team to accomplish their writing tasks more effectively.


A Mohammadi, Mm Vakili,
Volume 2, Issue 3 (2-2010)
Abstract

  Background and Objective : Satisfaction is costumer response to an organization success. Costumer satisfaction is used as an important and strategic tool in organization in order to achieve competitive advantage. Thus, higher education institutes increasingly pay attention to satisfying students' expectations as primary costumers. Hence, this study was implemented in order to measure students' satisfaction of educational services quality in Zanjan University of medical sciences.

  Materials and Methods: This study was implemented in Zanjan University of medical sciences in 2009. For implementing the study, the sample 320 of students was selected randomly by stratified sampling. In order to measure services quality (SQ), the questionnaire SERVQUAL was used. In addition to SQ questions, this questionnaire contained 6 questions about overall satisfaction of educational services. Data were analyzed by SSPS 11.5 program and descriptive and analytical statistics such as mean, one-way ANOVA, correlation and multiple regressions were used.

  Results: Mean scores of students' satisfaction of educational SQ was (2.76 ± 1 .06). In context of overall satisfaction of educational services, the largest mean score (3.17) and the least mean score (2.24) were related to faculties of pharmacology and medicine respectively. One-way ANOVA test showed that the observed difference in mean score of overall satisfaction of educational services quality was statistically significant on the basis of faculty (P< 0.001, f = 14.02). Pearson correlation coefficient showed that there was statistically significant positive relation between overall satisfaction and quality of educational services (r = .51), empathy (r = .49) and assurance (r = .46), (p < .01). Multiple regression analysis showed that there was statistically significant positive relation between students overall satisfactions and responsiveness and assurance dimensions (p < .05).

  Conclusion: findings of this study showed thatresponsiveness and assurance aspects are more important than other educational SQ aspectsforsatisfying students of educational services quality. Thus, managers, policy makers and lecturers can use results of this research in reallocation of resources and designing strategies of educational services quality improvement.


Sa Ghoreishi,
Volume 2, Issue 3 (2-2010)
Abstract

  Background and objective: The attitudes of medical students' toward psychiatry have been studied extensively in other countries. A positive attitude to psychiatry may make future doctors more responsive to the psychological needs and morbidity of patients in all branches of medicine. Large numbers of emotionally disturbed patients present themselves to non-psychiatric physicians, and much of somatic medicine is psychologically influenced. The purpose of this study was to assess medical students' attitudes toward psychiatry as well as to examine whether attitudes toward psychiatry improved during psychiatric attachment.

  Materials and Methods: 144 Medical students' of Zanjan Medical University in physiopathology, clerkship and Internship participated in the study with filling the "Attitude to Psychiatry Questionnaire". Also, clerkship medical students were divided into two groups. One group was those who had not stayed in the psychiatric ward and the other groups were those who had stayed in the psychiatric ward. Then, the attitudes of two groups were compared.

  Results: All of the students had favorable attitude to psychiatry with the mean score of 80/74 on "Attitude to Psychiatry Questionnaire"(neutral score 72).Improvement in attitudes was related to the increased motivation to pursue psychiatry as a career (p: 0/01 n: 144). Also, in comparing with two clerkship groups, it was found that attachment to psychiatric ward in proved attitude toward psychiatry among medical students (P: 0/015, n: 57).

  Conclusions: The study confirms earlier reports of a significant positive impact of undergraduate psychiatric attachment on medical students' attitudes toward psychiatry. Thus, teaching psychiatry at an undergraduate level may have important implications, because future doctors respond to patient's psychological difficulties.

 



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