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Showing 67 results for Reliability

Abbas Ezzatshokati, Abbas Ali Nourian, Seyed Noradin Mousavi Nasab ,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (2-2009)

  Background and Objective: One way to promote education quality is to evaluate faculty activities by students, departmental heads, and the dean. The degree of correspondence between students' and departmental heads' evaluation shows how honest they are in their assessment. The current paper intends to find the truth.


  Materials and Methods : Questionnaires were used to conduct the study. It included 18 questions for the faculty, 16 for the students and 28 for the residents. The validity of the questionnaires was already established. Also, reliability of the tests was proved by retests. Opinions were rated on the liker scale. 106 (32 females and 74 males) faculty members, 25 departmental heads and qzl out of lloo students filled out the questionnaires. Spss software was used to analyze the data.


  Result: In 61% of cases, correspondence was found between students' and departmental heads' evaluation of the faculty. As departmental heads' expectations differ from those of the students, lack of total correspondence is not unusual. However, in final analysis, 61% correspondence is optimal and acceptable.


  Conclusion: It seems that holding workshops, providing material and spiritual support, reducing work load, granting sabbatical leave, and reducing conflict of interest between departmental heads and the faculty can increase the degree of correspondence of evaluation. Also, using maximal adjustment correspondence technique can make the results more accurate.

M Danaei, Ma Hosseini, B Habibkhoda, M Falahi, F Shokooh,
Volume 2, Issue 3 (2-2010)

  Background and objective : Nowadays universities are expected to be accountable for needs of their societies. Knowledge transfer (KT) will address this through exchange of the knowledge between universities and other organizations and public sector. KT seeks to ensure sharing of knowledge between universities as the creators of knowledge and the wider community as recipient of that knowledge. Translation of research findings to the language of audiences and stakeholders constitute a fundamental part of knowledge transfer. The purpose of this research was to study the status of knowledge translation and identifying its influencing factors in the University of Social Welfare & Rehabilitation in Iran.

  Materials and methods: This descriptive study was a performance evaluation with all research staff of the university as its subject population. A sample of 40 faculties with convenience sampling was selected and participated in this study. Research tool was a questionnaire originally developed by KT committee of another university (TUMS) that was modified for this study and its validity and reliability was reassessed (alpha =94%). 47% of participants were female, 50% holding a PhD, 68% faculty members, 53% having more than ten years job experience, 85% having a research experience and more than 70% were connected to organizations other than their own.

  Results: Findings showed that mean score of items related to users need assessment and translation of it in to a research project was 2.78.Mean score of items related to the production of reliable evidence for decision-making was 2.87.Mean score of items regarding application of research findings by the end users was 2.62 and the total mean was 2.75. There was no significant difference in KT regarding sex, job and research experience.

  Conclusion: Results suggest that overall knowledge translation status in this university has been moderate, being lower than the expected level. Therefore, the appropriate transfer of research findings must be promoted through strategies that eliminate obstacles and encourage researchers to produce and translate research information available and accessible to stakeholders for use in practice, planning & policy-making.

Parand Poorghaneh, Mohammad Ali Hosseini,
Volume 3, Issue 4 (4-2010)

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Background and Objective: Clinical learning is an important section of nursing education. In clinical learning, students put to use what they have learned theoretically. This can be an effective factor in nursing students' clinical learning. Nursing students spend a long time in clinical learning thus they are very well aware of the role of nurses in students learning and education.

Methods and Materials: This study is a descriptive survey. Sampling method was based on census.Samples were 104 nursing students of Guilan University of Medical Sciences. Its content validity and reliability were estimated by Chronbach α (89%). Analysis was done by SPSS software.

Results: Findings indicated that majority of nursing students agreed with the nurses' important role in clinical education. Also, they agreed that students increase their efficiency with nurses' support.

Conclusion: Regarding the importance of nurses' role in nursing students’ clinical education and learning, education authorities should highlight this role for promoting student learning.


, ,
Volume 3, Issue 5 (2-2011)

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Background and Objective: Higher education plays an important role in economic, social and cultural development of community. For this important mission, higher education has increasingly paid attention to services quality during the two last decades. Hence, this study was conducted in order to evaluate educational services quality in Zanjan University of medical sciences. 

Material and Methods: This study was conducted in Zanjan University of Medical Sciences in 2009. For conducting the study, a sample of 320 of students was selected randomly by stratified sampling. For collecting data related to students' expectations and perceptions, the questionnaire SERVQUAL was used. Data was analyzed by SSPS 11.5 program and descriptive and analytical statistics such as mean, paired t ‑test and one-way ANOVA were used.

Results: The largest mean score (3.45) and the least mean score (2.05) of students perceptions were related to recording and keeping documents with high reliability and allocating time to deal with educational issues in responsiveness dimension respectively. The largest and the least mean score of students perceptions of educational services quality were for  reliability (3.16) and responsiveness (2.56) dimensions respectively. Gap in mean scores of students' expectations and perceptions in all of the educational services quality dimensions was statistically significant  (p < .001).Difference in mean scores of educational services quality was statistically significant with regard to the faculty (P< 0.001, f = 24.22). 

Conclusion: On the basis of findings of this study, the largest gap of quality was in the responsiveness dimension. Improving responsiveness, depend on factors such as: empowerment of academic staff and employees, accessibility of students to academic staff and managers, allotting enough time for consultation and solving educational problems. Thus, managers and policy makers can use results of this research in designing strategies of educational services quality improvement.

Mr Hamid Rahimi, Mr Ali Siadat, Mr Reza Hoveida, Mr Hasanali Nasrabadi, Mr Arash Shahin,
Volume 4, Issue 6 (10-2011)

Background and objective: The analysis of organizational pathology in University of Isfahan medical sciences based on six box model and its relationship with organizational health is the good of the study. The research questions were examined while considering organizational pathology university of Isfahan medical sciences based on six box model and relationship with organizational health and considering the demographic variables. Material and Methods: Research method was descriptive - correlation type. Statistical population consisted of 643 faculty members of university of Isfahan medical sciences on in 2010-2011 academic years. 91 persons were selected by stratified random sampling method. Research instrument were organizational pathology questionnaires with 77 items and organizational health questionnaires with 26 items. Reliability of the questionnaires was estimated by Cronbach's alpha. (0.94 and 0.96).The Data was analysis through inferential statistics (correlation test, regression and variance analysis). Results and Conclusion: Research findings revealed there is negative relationship between dimension of organizational pathology and organizational health. There is a positive and significant difference between views of faculty members about organizational diagnosis on based on gender and ranking but there wasn’t significant difference between academic field and employment status. There is a positive and significant difference between views of faculty members about organizational health on basis ranking but there wasn’t significant difference between gender, academic field and employment status.
Saied Rajaeepoor, Hamid Rahimi, Razieh Aghababaei,
Volume 4, Issue 7 (2-2012)

Abstract Background and Objectives: The main purpose of this research was the analysis of self leadership strategies and its relationship with psychological empowerment faculty members at University of Isfahan Medical Science.. Material and methods: Research type was applied and descriptive correlative. Statistical population of research included all faculty members at University of Isfahan Medical Science in 2010-2011 academic year who were 643. Statistical sample was 106 who were selected by random stratified sampling method. Results: To gather data, two questionnaires were used: Self- leadership questionnaire with 31 items and researcher made questionnaire of psychological empowerment with 20items. The reliability coefficients of questionnaires were obtained through Cronbach alpha as 0.81 and 0.87. Collected data was analyzed at level of inferential statistics (correlation coefficient, multivariate variance and regression). Conclusion: Result of study showed that there is a significant and positive relation between the Self- leadership behavioral- focused strategies, natural reward strategies, constructive thought strategies and psychological empowerment and among self- leadership strategies, behavioural- focused strategies have significant proportion in anticipating psychological empowerment.
Majid Darabi, Jamshid Naranjkar, Mohsen Farmahinifarahani, Ehya Qarshasbi, Iran Yousefi,
Volume 5, Issue 8 (8-2012)

Background and Objective: Quality of education is the main characteristic of higher education and its improvement depends on the mechanisms of evaluation. Evaluation is also a systematic process for collection, analysis and interpretation of information to study achievement of educational goals. Regarding the necessity of improvement of educational quality especially in medical sciences, the authorities of medical college of shahed university felt obliged to use accreditation model for evaluation and improvement of educational quality in Medical Faculty shahed university. Materials and Methods: Method of this study is applied and descriptive which aims at studying ten factors including mission and goals, management and organizational structure, academic staff, students, education process and learning, courses, educational programs, graduates, premises and facilities of education, research and treatment (laboratory and diagnosis), investigation and non-academic staff, and management. Statistical data were collected from the chairman, deputies, heads of departments, academic staff, students, graduates and employees. To collect the data, we used seven questionnaires whose reliability and validity were considered and confirmed. To judge acceptability of any of the evaluated parameters we used five point Likert scale. Results: of ten factors, one was acceptable, seven relatively acceptable and two were unacceptable. Conclusion: If implemented the results of this study may improve educational quality of medical faculties.
P Baharvand, Mr Nazer,
Volume 5, Issue 9 (1-2013)

Background and Objective: The 360-degree evaluation is a method which is used to assess performance of medical students. It is important for instruments such as questionnaires for 360-degree assessment to be reliable and valid. This study has been designed with the objective to assess validity and reliability of 360-degree questionnaires. Materials and Methods: At first, some questionnaires were developed based on an extensive literature review and expert panel views. Then they were distributed among a sample of faculty members, medical students, nurses, and patients. The collected data was analyzed with spss15 soft ware. Mean scores of the respondents in each category were calculated. Cronbach’s alpha was run to examine the internal consistency. Factor analysis was used to clarify the factorial structure of the data. Pearson Correlation Coefficient was computed to examine the correlation between the evaluators' scores. Results: The instruments' content and face validity were acceptable. Factor analysis confirmed the factor structure of the questionnaires. However, no significant correlation was found between the questionnaires. Conclusion: Based on this study, 360-degree assessment tools are reliable and valid measures for evaluating performance of medical student.
Hamid Rahimi, Ali Yazdekhasty, Razieh Aghababaei,
Volume 5, Issue 9 (1-2013)

Background and Objective: The purpose of this research was an analysis of the relationship between negotiation styles and managers' conflict management strategies at Kashan University of Medical Sciences. The research questions were set forth on the basis of such styles (factual, analytic, normative and intuitive) and conflict management strategies (problem solving, control and avoidance of confrontation). Materials and Methods: The research method was descriptive – correlative. Statistical population included 95 managers of Kashan state and Azad University. 84 managers were selected as the statistical sample utilizing classified random sampling. Data was collected by 2 close ended negotiation skills and conflict management questionnaires on the basis of Likert 5 grade scale. Reliability of the questionnaires was estimated to be 0.90 and 0.88. Results: The results indicated that the most common negotiation style used by managers was the factual style, and the least was analytical negotiation style.
S J Mirmohammadi Meybodi, , , , ,
Volume 5, Issue 9 (1-2013)

Background and Objective: Effective teaching is a set of teacher's behaviors that causes educational goals to be obtained and the quality of education to be improved. Students' feedback on teaching as the main stakeholders with tangible information for evaluation of teachers provides special information for the teacher who can take advantage of it to be more effective and improve his or her performance. Therefore, we decided to study the characteristics effective teaching based on viewpoints of medical students at Yazd Shaheed Sadoqi University of Medical Sciences. Material and Methods: The study is descriptive-analytical. The population consisted of 256 students studying at Yazd Medical Sciences University. Data collection instrument was a questionnaire whose reliability and validity were confirmed in previous studies. A multi-staged stratified sampling method was used to collect data. SPSS, Chi square test, ANOVA and T-test were run. Results: The survey results indicated that the priorities for effective teaching were teacher personality, teaching skills, personal attributes, assessment of skills, and observing educational rules. On the whole, according to the students, the most important characteristics of effective teaching are student mastery of the course (2.76), teachers' politeness (2.73) and their respect for students (2.7). Conclusion: Based on students' views, holding appropriate and targeted workshops and training courses, empowering teachers with new and effective teaching methods, and research-based instructional strategies are vital. Also, teaching communication skills as well as good evaluation techniques are important.
َabolfazl Mostafavi, Paria Ramezanloo, Nadia Asgari,
Volume 5, Issue 9 (1-2013)

Background and Objective:Pharmacy faculty members at Isfahan University of Medical Sciences have observed that pharmacy students enter this profession highly motivated, but later develop the attitude of “just learn what is necessary to pass the exam” as they progress through the curriculum. For pharmacy students to become a lifelong learner having a motivation to make an effort towards educational goals is a must. We sought to evaluate pharmacy students' motivations in selecting pharmacy career and track factors which may affect their incentives through the curriculum. Material and Method: A researcher- made questionnaire developed according to existing resources and previous studies. Cronbach's alpha was used as the measure of reliability for Likert type scales questionnaire and it was validated by a panel of experts and pharmacy students. Results:Two hundred and seventy students were enrolled in the study, 128 of them were girls and 83 were boys. Six students did not return the questionnaire. The first and most important motives for choosing the pharmacy field was the social status pharmacists have in the community. Suitable salary, getting a degree, giving service to the community, interest in chemistry courses, family and friends' recommendations, and extensive areas for research were the next motives. Scores on the survey instrument indicated that all of the pharmacy students initially had high motivation for pharmacy field however, this was declined as the course progressed. Conclusion:Overall, the majority of students were satisfied by choosing this field and believed that they would reach their predetermined goals.
Rajabali Hokmabadi, Hossin Fallah,
Volume 6, Issue 10 (7-2013)

Background and Objective: Teachers are the pillars of any educational system and their personal characteristic is one of the factors that affect their professional ability. The purpose of this study was to determine characteristics of ideal university teachers according to their students. Materials and Methods: The current cross - sectional study was conducted in 2012 in Health collage of University of North Khorasan. The research population included 100 Health students which were selected on the census. A questionnaire was used to collect data. The validity and reliability of the questionnaire was determined and SPSS was used for data analysis. Results: Characteristics of an ideal teacher included mastery (M=4.68), fluency (M=4.6), communication skill (M=4.54), and flexibility (4.27). Conclusion: According to research results, fluency, friendliness, ability to communicate with students, and being knowledgeable must be considered in employing faculty members.
Mehdi Sobhaninejad, Mina Ahmadian,
Volume 6, Issue 11 (10-2013)

Background and Objective: The clinical curriculum of medical teachers has to be in line with the theoretical curriculum. The present study has compared five aspects of the teachers' interaction between theoretical curriculum and the clinical curriculum. Materials and Method: The method was a descriptive survey. From the stager and intern students of Shahed University, in the academic year 1391-92 (N=175), and with recourse to Krjsy and Morgan table, 120 samples were selected. The researcher-made questionnaire on the interactive aspects of the professors (with reliability confirmed by the experts) was used. Two sections of clinical and theoretical education with recourse to Cronbach alpha presented a validity of 0.97 and 0.95. Results: There existed a meaningful difference between the way of interaction of the professors with students, with their colleague, with people and with the two theoretical and clinical curriculums. The rating average of professors' interactions in both types of curricula included the interaction of professors with the patients, with students, with themselves, with society and with colleagues. Thus, the differences in the various types of interactions in two curriculum types did not change the ratings. Conclusion: The decline in the interaction of professors with the students, society and themselves in clinical curriculum compared to that of the theoretical curriculum is the result of professors' paradoxical actions. Interestingly, the interaction with the college in clinical curriculum increases, which by itself is the sign of a paradox between the teaching and practicing of professors and bears various meanings from students' viewpoints.
Rouhollah Bagherimajd, Sekineh Shahei, Yadollah Mehralizadeh,
Volume 6, Issue 12 (12-2013)

  Background and Objective : Electronic learning is a pre-constructed and programmed use of electronic system and computer for supporting the process of learning. The goal of electronic training is to enable anyone to use machines for learning purpose. The aim of this study is to investigate the obstacles to the development of E-learning in educational system in Shahid Chamran University.

  Materials and Methods : This study has been done with a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods. Samples consist of 163 people at Shahid Chamran University. Stratified random sampling was used. Descriptive and inferential statistics were employed for data analysis.

  Results : We found that administrative , technological , organizational , and individual factor s were significantly effective on challenges in the e-learning program at Shahid Chamran University. The mean values for the mentioned factors were 4.07, 4.03, 3.85, 3.83 respectively.

  Conclusion : A combination of the mentioned factors is effective on e-learning for higher education


Shahnaz Kaffashi,
Volume 6, Issue 12 (12-2013)

  Background and Objective : Higher education is fundamental for national development. Education quality is an important factor for education output. The present study seeks to delve into investigating the gap between perceptions and expectations of educational service in Management and Medical Information School of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences.

  Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive cross ‐ sectional study. 247 students of Management and Medical Information studying at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences were selected. Data gathering tools were SERVIQUAL questionnaires which include five factors ( tangibility, reliability, responsiveness, assurance and empathy).Data analysis was carried out using SPSS 15 software and statistics including absolute ANOVA and t-test were employed.

  Results: The results of the t-test revealed a meaningful difference between the students’ perception and their expectation about 5 factors (tangible elements, Reliability, assurance, accountability, collaboration). The students rated ‘empathy ’as having wide gap (-7, 11) and ‘tangible’ as having the narrowest gap of the 6 factors (-3, 72). The results between gaps revealed all quality factors were significant relative to course and course level (0.0001=p) .

  Conclusion: The results indicated that quality of educational services in the school was minimal, and there was a big gap between expectations and perspectives. Therefore, proper planning to enhance service quality and correct the deficiencies is needed.


Mansooreh Aliasgharpour, Neda Sanaie, Fatemeh Bahramnezhad, Anoshravan Kazemnezhad,
Volume 6, Issue 12 (12-2013)

  Background and Objective: One of the problems in the evaluation process is lack of clear item prioritization of evaluation tools. Given the importance of assessment for sound judgment , this study was done to compare the students' and professors' views about the priority of clinical assessment tools .

  Materials and Methods: The present study is a descriptive-analytical study with 30 nursing students (the target group) and 10 faculty members (panel of experts) from the dialysis unit. At the beginning , priotity items were used to assess the importance of students' views and to prevent possible failure of students to respond to open questions of the questionnaire.Then, Tthey were analyzed using nominal group technique. Later, content validity index was calculated using the opinions of the teachers. Tools for prioritizing was developed and were given to the students and teachers . Data were collected and analyzed with SPSS software using descriptive and analytical statistical tests .

  Results: Findings showed that there was no significant difference (p> 0.05) between the teachers' and students' options regarding item prioritization. However, after collecting opinions of the students and the teachers about the items, we found that both teachers and students had chosen high-prioritized items.


  Conclusion: clinical evaluation tools are helpfut at dialysis unit.

Zahra Taghvaei Yazdeli, Ali Yazdkhasti, Hamid Rahimi,
Volume 6, Issue 12 (12-2013)

  Background and Objective : Experiences that the learners gain in the education system is not limited to the explicit curriculum other factors in the form of a hidden curriculum have a significant role in shaping students' learning. The purpose of this research was to study the hidden curriculum components in Kashan University of Medical Sciences based students' views.

  Materials and Methods : This was a descriptive- survey study. The statistical population included all students of Kashan University of Medical Sciences in 2012- 2013 of which 111 students were selected by random stratified sampling method. To collect research data, we used the hidden curriculum questionnaire with 36 items, whose reliability coefficient was computed through Cronbach alpha (0.86). The questionnaire's content validity was confirmed by a panel of experts. Data analysis was carried out by descriptive and inferential statistics using SPSS statistical software.

  Results : Findings showed that hidden curriculum mean (3.26) was higher than average (3). Also, there was not a significant difference between the students' views about the hidden curriculum.

  Conclusion : Change and improvement of the hidden curriculum elements is necessary.


Ali Kebriaei, Mohammad Sabahi Bidgoli, Ali Saeedi,
Volume 6, Issue 12 (12-2013)

  Background and Objective: Using personal time management skills is one of the most important factors in academic achievement. Students can use it to plan and organize their time schedule . This study was performed to investigate using personal time management skills and its relationship with time spending satisfaction.

  Materials and Methods : This cross-sectional descriptive-analytic research was performed in 2010 with 332 students of Zahedan University of Medical Sciences. Samples were selected through stratified sampling and in each category by systematic sampling . A questionnaire was used to measure students’ time management skills in four aspects. Validity and reliability of the questionnaire was assessed. Data were analyzed by SPSS software.

  Results : Students’ personal time management skills was from moderate to low. Students’ performance was better in time planning aspect and poorer in commitment to implementing aspect. Students’ were relatively satisfied with time management. There was a significant relationship between students’ personal time management skills and students’ time satisfaction. Students of School of Rehabilitation Sciences were the best and students of Health School were the poorest in time management. Female students' scores were higher than those of males.

  Conclusion: Students’ personal time management skills were less than average. Thus, it seems necessary to plan for improving students' time management skills in order to enhance their satisfaction.


Zahra Mahdavi Lenji, Fatemeh Ghaedi Heidari,
Volume 7, Issue 13 (4-2014)

Background and Objective: Ethical codes are developed as practical guidance for nursing care and are references of decisions-making by nurses in care process. With regard to the importance of morality issue in nursing, observance of ethical codes among nursing students and nursing practitioners in Al-Zahra hospital in Isfahan was studied. Materials and Methods: This research is a descriptive- analytic study. Data gathering tool was 31-item questionnaire adopted from ethical codes for nurses developed by ministry of health medical education. In addition to individual information, this questionnaire includes two parts of ethical codes related to provision of clinical services (23 item) and those related to relationship of treatment team (8 item).The validity and reliability of the questionnaire was estimated(α=90%). Simple sampling was utilized to select 32 nursing students and 40 nursing practitioners in Al-Zahra hospital. Data were analyzed with SPSS version 18 and t test. Results: The average age was 22.29(1.37) and 29.47(7.34). Most of the students (93.8%) and nurses (87.5%) were women. There was no significant difference between the two groups in ethical codes related to provision of clinical services, but thenurses gained significantly more score in ethical codes compared to the treatment group (p=0.04). Conclusion: It is recommend that managers and nursing educators pay more attention to the observance of ethical codes related to provision of clinical services by nursing students and nurses.
Mohamad Reza Mansoorian, Marzeih Hosseiny, Shahla Khosravan, Ali Alami,
Volume 7, Issue 13 (4-2014)

Background and Objective: Objective evaluation of clinical and professional competency is one of the most important aspects in medical students' clinical education. Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS) evaluates a large spectrum of technical and basic skills in an experimental setting. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of two methods of evaluation Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS) and Traditional Practical Examination (TPE) on students' satisfaction in Gonabad Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery. Materials and Methods: This study was a quasi-experimental research. The samples consisted of 45 nursing and medical emergency students who selected Practical Principles and Techniques. They were collected by the census methods and were evaluated by both Objective Structural Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS), and traditional methods. For data gathering, a researcher- made questioner was used to poll about methods and check lists of skills assessment that were prepared by considering the standards of nursing skills. Moreover, its validity and reliability had been confirmed. The data was analyzed with a paired t- test and independent t-test using of Spss/20 software. Results: The mean score of OSATS was higher than that of TPE and the difference was statistically significant (P = 0.00). Also level of OSATS was higher than that of TPE (P = 0.00). 93.3% of students agreed with the evaluation by OSATS in future. Conclusion: It is concluded that Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS) can evaluate more practical skills and gain more students’ satisfaction. Teachers also have a positive attitude towards this type of evaluation.

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