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Showing 63 results for Validity

Abbas Ezzatshokati, Abbas Ali Nourian, Seyed Noradin Mousavi Nasab ,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (2-2009)

  Background and Objective: One way to promote education quality is to evaluate faculty activities by students, departmental heads, and the dean. The degree of correspondence between students' and departmental heads' evaluation shows how honest they are in their assessment. The current paper intends to find the truth.


  Materials and Methods : Questionnaires were used to conduct the study. It included 18 questions for the faculty, 16 for the students and 28 for the residents. The validity of the questionnaires was already established. Also, reliability of the tests was proved by retests. Opinions were rated on the liker scale. 106 (32 females and 74 males) faculty members, 25 departmental heads and qzl out of lloo students filled out the questionnaires. Spss software was used to analyze the data.


  Result: In 61% of cases, correspondence was found between students' and departmental heads' evaluation of the faculty. As departmental heads' expectations differ from those of the students, lack of total correspondence is not unusual. However, in final analysis, 61% correspondence is optimal and acceptable.


  Conclusion: It seems that holding workshops, providing material and spiritual support, reducing work load, granting sabbatical leave, and reducing conflict of interest between departmental heads and the faculty can increase the degree of correspondence of evaluation. Also, using maximal adjustment correspondence technique can make the results more accurate.

Yahya Jaberi, Farideh Nahavandi,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (9-2009)

  Background and objective: Student evaluation is a special concern in medical education, and validity is one of the most important evaluation characteristics. There are different kinds of validity. Criterion validity is a degree of correlation between an evaluation and another reference evaluation.

  Medical education for the general physician consists of four discrete courses. Indeed, the average of course scores and comprehensive basic science examination score and score on pre- internship examination are about predicting success of a student in following course. We consider this as criterion validity.

  Material and Methods : We studied average courses score and comprehensive basic science examination and pre-internship examination score of 58 students after all courses were completed. Also, the summative average of previous courses was calculated. The correlation between all single and summative averages and the following course was calculated.

  Results: Most calculated correlations were above 0.5, but they decreased gradually from basic sciences to clinical sciences. Correlation between basic science average score and pathophysiology average score(0.834) was the highest and correlation between pre-internship exam score with internship average score(0.415) was the lowest. Comprehensive basic sciences examination score and pre-internship examination score did not have a higher coefficient correlation with the following courses compared with the basic science average score and externship average score. The summative average of previous courses showed higher correlation with the following course compared with the single course average.

  Conclusion: It seems that the evaluation method determine correlations. Comprehensive basic science examination and pre-internship examination both were performed on a single day with MCQ method. All course examinations were performed along with the courses and contained multiple examinations in most of which other methods including OSCE and Tutor Report are used.

M Danaei, Ma Hosseini, B Habibkhoda, M Falahi, F Shokooh,
Volume 2, Issue 3 (2-2010)

  Background and objective : Nowadays universities are expected to be accountable for needs of their societies. Knowledge transfer (KT) will address this through exchange of the knowledge between universities and other organizations and public sector. KT seeks to ensure sharing of knowledge between universities as the creators of knowledge and the wider community as recipient of that knowledge. Translation of research findings to the language of audiences and stakeholders constitute a fundamental part of knowledge transfer. The purpose of this research was to study the status of knowledge translation and identifying its influencing factors in the University of Social Welfare & Rehabilitation in Iran.

  Materials and methods: This descriptive study was a performance evaluation with all research staff of the university as its subject population. A sample of 40 faculties with convenience sampling was selected and participated in this study. Research tool was a questionnaire originally developed by KT committee of another university (TUMS) that was modified for this study and its validity and reliability was reassessed (alpha =94%). 47% of participants were female, 50% holding a PhD, 68% faculty members, 53% having more than ten years job experience, 85% having a research experience and more than 70% were connected to organizations other than their own.

  Results: Findings showed that mean score of items related to users need assessment and translation of it in to a research project was 2.78.Mean score of items related to the production of reliable evidence for decision-making was 2.87.Mean score of items regarding application of research findings by the end users was 2.62 and the total mean was 2.75. There was no significant difference in KT regarding sex, job and research experience.

  Conclusion: Results suggest that overall knowledge translation status in this university has been moderate, being lower than the expected level. Therefore, the appropriate transfer of research findings must be promoted through strategies that eliminate obstacles and encourage researchers to produce and translate research information available and accessible to stakeholders for use in practice, planning & policy-making.

Parand Poorghaneh, Mohammad Ali Hosseini,
Volume 3, Issue 4 (4-2010)

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Background and Objective: Clinical learning is an important section of nursing education. In clinical learning, students put to use what they have learned theoretically. This can be an effective factor in nursing students' clinical learning. Nursing students spend a long time in clinical learning thus they are very well aware of the role of nurses in students learning and education.

Methods and Materials: This study is a descriptive survey. Sampling method was based on census.Samples were 104 nursing students of Guilan University of Medical Sciences. Its content validity and reliability were estimated by Chronbach α (89%). Analysis was done by SPSS software.

Results: Findings indicated that majority of nursing students agreed with the nurses' important role in clinical education. Also, they agreed that students increase their efficiency with nurses' support.

Conclusion: Regarding the importance of nurses' role in nursing students’ clinical education and learning, education authorities should highlight this role for promoting student learning.


Majid Darabi, Jamshid Naranjkar, Mohsen Farmahinifarahani, Ehya Qarshasbi, Iran Yousefi,
Volume 5, Issue 8 (8-2012)

Background and Objective: Quality of education is the main characteristic of higher education and its improvement depends on the mechanisms of evaluation. Evaluation is also a systematic process for collection, analysis and interpretation of information to study achievement of educational goals. Regarding the necessity of improvement of educational quality especially in medical sciences, the authorities of medical college of shahed university felt obliged to use accreditation model for evaluation and improvement of educational quality in Medical Faculty shahed university. Materials and Methods: Method of this study is applied and descriptive which aims at studying ten factors including mission and goals, management and organizational structure, academic staff, students, education process and learning, courses, educational programs, graduates, premises and facilities of education, research and treatment (laboratory and diagnosis), investigation and non-academic staff, and management. Statistical data were collected from the chairman, deputies, heads of departments, academic staff, students, graduates and employees. To collect the data, we used seven questionnaires whose reliability and validity were considered and confirmed. To judge acceptability of any of the evaluated parameters we used five point Likert scale. Results: of ten factors, one was acceptable, seven relatively acceptable and two were unacceptable. Conclusion: If implemented the results of this study may improve educational quality of medical faculties.
P Baharvand, Mr Nazer,
Volume 5, Issue 9 (1-2013)

Background and Objective: The 360-degree evaluation is a method which is used to assess performance of medical students. It is important for instruments such as questionnaires for 360-degree assessment to be reliable and valid. This study has been designed with the objective to assess validity and reliability of 360-degree questionnaires. Materials and Methods: At first, some questionnaires were developed based on an extensive literature review and expert panel views. Then they were distributed among a sample of faculty members, medical students, nurses, and patients. The collected data was analyzed with spss15 soft ware. Mean scores of the respondents in each category were calculated. Cronbach’s alpha was run to examine the internal consistency. Factor analysis was used to clarify the factorial structure of the data. Pearson Correlation Coefficient was computed to examine the correlation between the evaluators' scores. Results: The instruments' content and face validity were acceptable. Factor analysis confirmed the factor structure of the questionnaires. However, no significant correlation was found between the questionnaires. Conclusion: Based on this study, 360-degree assessment tools are reliable and valid measures for evaluating performance of medical student.
S J Mirmohammadi Meybodi, , , , ,
Volume 5, Issue 9 (1-2013)

Background and Objective: Effective teaching is a set of teacher's behaviors that causes educational goals to be obtained and the quality of education to be improved. Students' feedback on teaching as the main stakeholders with tangible information for evaluation of teachers provides special information for the teacher who can take advantage of it to be more effective and improve his or her performance. Therefore, we decided to study the characteristics effective teaching based on viewpoints of medical students at Yazd Shaheed Sadoqi University of Medical Sciences. Material and Methods: The study is descriptive-analytical. The population consisted of 256 students studying at Yazd Medical Sciences University. Data collection instrument was a questionnaire whose reliability and validity were confirmed in previous studies. A multi-staged stratified sampling method was used to collect data. SPSS, Chi square test, ANOVA and T-test were run. Results: The survey results indicated that the priorities for effective teaching were teacher personality, teaching skills, personal attributes, assessment of skills, and observing educational rules. On the whole, according to the students, the most important characteristics of effective teaching are student mastery of the course (2.76), teachers' politeness (2.73) and their respect for students (2.7). Conclusion: Based on students' views, holding appropriate and targeted workshops and training courses, empowering teachers with new and effective teaching methods, and research-based instructional strategies are vital. Also, teaching communication skills as well as good evaluation techniques are important.
Rajabali Hokmabadi, Hossin Fallah,
Volume 6, Issue 10 (7-2013)

Background and Objective: Teachers are the pillars of any educational system and their personal characteristic is one of the factors that affect their professional ability. The purpose of this study was to determine characteristics of ideal university teachers according to their students. Materials and Methods: The current cross - sectional study was conducted in 2012 in Health collage of University of North Khorasan. The research population included 100 Health students which were selected on the census. A questionnaire was used to collect data. The validity and reliability of the questionnaire was determined and SPSS was used for data analysis. Results: Characteristics of an ideal teacher included mastery (M=4.68), fluency (M=4.6), communication skill (M=4.54), and flexibility (4.27). Conclusion: According to research results, fluency, friendliness, ability to communicate with students, and being knowledgeable must be considered in employing faculty members.
Mehdi Sobhaninejad, Mina Ahmadian,
Volume 6, Issue 11 (10-2013)

Background and Objective: The clinical curriculum of medical teachers has to be in line with the theoretical curriculum. The present study has compared five aspects of the teachers' interaction between theoretical curriculum and the clinical curriculum. Materials and Method: The method was a descriptive survey. From the stager and intern students of Shahed University, in the academic year 1391-92 (N=175), and with recourse to Krjsy and Morgan table, 120 samples were selected. The researcher-made questionnaire on the interactive aspects of the professors (with reliability confirmed by the experts) was used. Two sections of clinical and theoretical education with recourse to Cronbach alpha presented a validity of 0.97 and 0.95. Results: There existed a meaningful difference between the way of interaction of the professors with students, with their colleague, with people and with the two theoretical and clinical curriculums. The rating average of professors' interactions in both types of curricula included the interaction of professors with the patients, with students, with themselves, with society and with colleagues. Thus, the differences in the various types of interactions in two curriculum types did not change the ratings. Conclusion: The decline in the interaction of professors with the students, society and themselves in clinical curriculum compared to that of the theoretical curriculum is the result of professors' paradoxical actions. Interestingly, the interaction with the college in clinical curriculum increases, which by itself is the sign of a paradox between the teaching and practicing of professors and bears various meanings from students' viewpoints.
Rouhollah Bagherimajd, Sekineh Shahei, Yadollah Mehralizadeh,
Volume 6, Issue 12 (12-2013)

  Background and Objective : Electronic learning is a pre-constructed and programmed use of electronic system and computer for supporting the process of learning. The goal of electronic training is to enable anyone to use machines for learning purpose. The aim of this study is to investigate the obstacles to the development of E-learning in educational system in Shahid Chamran University.

  Materials and Methods : This study has been done with a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods. Samples consist of 163 people at Shahid Chamran University. Stratified random sampling was used. Descriptive and inferential statistics were employed for data analysis.

  Results : We found that administrative , technological , organizational , and individual factor s were significantly effective on challenges in the e-learning program at Shahid Chamran University. The mean values for the mentioned factors were 4.07, 4.03, 3.85, 3.83 respectively.

  Conclusion : A combination of the mentioned factors is effective on e-learning for higher education


Alinaghi Kazemi, Abbasali Nourian, Noureddin Mosavinasab, Mona Eskandari, Maryam Ghaffari,
Volume 6, Issue 12 (12-2013)

  Background and objective: There are many accredited free open access journals in medical subjects. We do not know how much researchers in this country are aware of them. The aim of this study is to learn about the knowledge of faculty members of Zanjan University of Medical Science about such journals.

  Materials and methods: This is a descriptive cross- sectional study. The questionnaires were made after a pilot study to check the validity of the questions. Of 189 faculty members 95 filled out the questionnaires. Data were analyzed using the Chi-Square testes. The frequencies and the means were also calculated.

  Results: 34.7% of the participants were familiar with free open access journals, but most of them were unaware of the following points: validity of articles, suitability of reviewers, copyright declaration, and financial resources. However, most faculty members believed that free electronic information sources provide the opportunity for high citation . There are high impact factor journals which are widely available and publish articles earlier than others. Most of the participants believed that two important benefits of e-journals are easy accessibility and being free of charge.

  Conclusion: Most participants of our study were not fully familiar with free open access journals. It is recommended that faculty members be made more aware of such journals.


Mahbobeh Khorsandi, Kobra Aliabadi, Mohsen Shamsi,
Volume 6, Issue 12 (12-2013)

  Background and Objective : Evaluation in medical educational is very important. The aim of this study was to compare the view of students and faculty members about teachers' online evaluation at Arak University of Medical Sciences.

  Materials and Methods : This is a cross- sectional study which was carried out with 758 students and 122 professors at Arak University of Medical Sciences in 2011. Data was collected with a reliable and valid questionnaire (consisting of safety, evaluation of environment, accuracy and economic items) with 5-choice Likert scale. T-test was used for data analysis.

  Results : Results showed that the mean score of teachers and students with regard to online teaching method was 62.35 ± 7.30 and 57.89 ± 12.31 respectively and that the difference was significant (p<0/001) .

  Conclusion : Considering the positive attitudes of teachers and students toward online evaluation method, using this method is recommended.


Mansooreh Aliasgharpour, Neda Sanaie, Fatemeh Bahramnezhad, Anoshravan Kazemnezhad,
Volume 6, Issue 12 (12-2013)

  Background and Objective: One of the problems in the evaluation process is lack of clear item prioritization of evaluation tools. Given the importance of assessment for sound judgment , this study was done to compare the students' and professors' views about the priority of clinical assessment tools .

  Materials and Methods: The present study is a descriptive-analytical study with 30 nursing students (the target group) and 10 faculty members (panel of experts) from the dialysis unit. At the beginning , priotity items were used to assess the importance of students' views and to prevent possible failure of students to respond to open questions of the questionnaire.Then, Tthey were analyzed using nominal group technique. Later, content validity index was calculated using the opinions of the teachers. Tools for prioritizing was developed and were given to the students and teachers . Data were collected and analyzed with SPSS software using descriptive and analytical statistical tests .

  Results: Findings showed that there was no significant difference (p> 0.05) between the teachers' and students' options regarding item prioritization. However, after collecting opinions of the students and the teachers about the items, we found that both teachers and students had chosen high-prioritized items.


  Conclusion: clinical evaluation tools are helpfut at dialysis unit.

Zahra Taghvaei Yazdeli, Ali Yazdkhasti, Hamid Rahimi,
Volume 6, Issue 12 (12-2013)

  Background and Objective : Experiences that the learners gain in the education system is not limited to the explicit curriculum other factors in the form of a hidden curriculum have a significant role in shaping students' learning. The purpose of this research was to study the hidden curriculum components in Kashan University of Medical Sciences based students' views.

  Materials and Methods : This was a descriptive- survey study. The statistical population included all students of Kashan University of Medical Sciences in 2012- 2013 of which 111 students were selected by random stratified sampling method. To collect research data, we used the hidden curriculum questionnaire with 36 items, whose reliability coefficient was computed through Cronbach alpha (0.86). The questionnaire's content validity was confirmed by a panel of experts. Data analysis was carried out by descriptive and inferential statistics using SPSS statistical software.

  Results : Findings showed that hidden curriculum mean (3.26) was higher than average (3). Also, there was not a significant difference between the students' views about the hidden curriculum.

  Conclusion : Change and improvement of the hidden curriculum elements is necessary.


Ali Kebriaei, Mohammad Sabahi Bidgoli, Ali Saeedi,
Volume 6, Issue 12 (12-2013)

  Background and Objective: Using personal time management skills is one of the most important factors in academic achievement. Students can use it to plan and organize their time schedule . This study was performed to investigate using personal time management skills and its relationship with time spending satisfaction.

  Materials and Methods : This cross-sectional descriptive-analytic research was performed in 2010 with 332 students of Zahedan University of Medical Sciences. Samples were selected through stratified sampling and in each category by systematic sampling . A questionnaire was used to measure students’ time management skills in four aspects. Validity and reliability of the questionnaire was assessed. Data were analyzed by SPSS software.

  Results : Students’ personal time management skills was from moderate to low. Students’ performance was better in time planning aspect and poorer in commitment to implementing aspect. Students’ were relatively satisfied with time management. There was a significant relationship between students’ personal time management skills and students’ time satisfaction. Students of School of Rehabilitation Sciences were the best and students of Health School were the poorest in time management. Female students' scores were higher than those of males.

  Conclusion: Students’ personal time management skills were less than average. Thus, it seems necessary to plan for improving students' time management skills in order to enhance their satisfaction.


Zahra Mahdavi Lenji, Fatemeh Ghaedi Heidari,
Volume 7, Issue 13 (4-2014)

Background and Objective: Ethical codes are developed as practical guidance for nursing care and are references of decisions-making by nurses in care process. With regard to the importance of morality issue in nursing, observance of ethical codes among nursing students and nursing practitioners in Al-Zahra hospital in Isfahan was studied. Materials and Methods: This research is a descriptive- analytic study. Data gathering tool was 31-item questionnaire adopted from ethical codes for nurses developed by ministry of health medical education. In addition to individual information, this questionnaire includes two parts of ethical codes related to provision of clinical services (23 item) and those related to relationship of treatment team (8 item).The validity and reliability of the questionnaire was estimated(α=90%). Simple sampling was utilized to select 32 nursing students and 40 nursing practitioners in Al-Zahra hospital. Data were analyzed with SPSS version 18 and t test. Results: The average age was 22.29(1.37) and 29.47(7.34). Most of the students (93.8%) and nurses (87.5%) were women. There was no significant difference between the two groups in ethical codes related to provision of clinical services, but thenurses gained significantly more score in ethical codes compared to the treatment group (p=0.04). Conclusion: It is recommend that managers and nursing educators pay more attention to the observance of ethical codes related to provision of clinical services by nursing students and nurses.
Abbas Allami, Fatheme Saffari,
Volume 7, Issue 13 (4-2014)

Background and Objective: The aim of OSCE is to evaluate students' clinical skills in clinical courses. Using written scenarios are common in designing OSCE stations in our country. The objective of this study was to determine the correlation of OSCE and Pre-Internship for this type of station designing. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was done on OSCE scores of 48 fifth-year medical students.Correlation of all station scores of the OSCE exam with the Pre-Internship exam scores were calculated. To determine the internal consistency within stations, we determined each station's correlation with the total score of a student's test for OSCE. Results: In this study, there was no significant relationship within Pre-Internship exam scores and the OSCE scores. Negative correlations were found between the model and the procedures station scores with Pre-Internship scores. Correlation coefficient of Pre-internship scores with 3 practical stations mean scores were a -0.07 (p=0.65) and its correlation with 6 stations based on written scenario scores calculated was 0.32 (p=0.02). Internal medicine with a correlation coefficient of 0.81 was the highest and eye examination station with 0.17 had the lowest correlation coefficient of internal consistency. Correlation of the two stations of neurology and surgery scores with both Pre-Internship and OSCE was significant and approximately similar. Conclusion: We suggest avoiding the station design based on written scenarios (without presence model or standard patient). Otherwise, OSCE should be measured the same as clinical competencies are assessed with Pre-Internship exam.
Mohamad Reza Mansoorian, Marzeih Hosseiny, Shahla Khosravan, Ali Alami,
Volume 7, Issue 13 (4-2014)

Background and Objective: Objective evaluation of clinical and professional competency is one of the most important aspects in medical students' clinical education. Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS) evaluates a large spectrum of technical and basic skills in an experimental setting. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of two methods of evaluation Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS) and Traditional Practical Examination (TPE) on students' satisfaction in Gonabad Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery. Materials and Methods: This study was a quasi-experimental research. The samples consisted of 45 nursing and medical emergency students who selected Practical Principles and Techniques. They were collected by the census methods and were evaluated by both Objective Structural Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS), and traditional methods. For data gathering, a researcher- made questioner was used to poll about methods and check lists of skills assessment that were prepared by considering the standards of nursing skills. Moreover, its validity and reliability had been confirmed. The data was analyzed with a paired t- test and independent t-test using of Spss/20 software. Results: The mean score of OSATS was higher than that of TPE and the difference was statistically significant (P = 0.00). Also level of OSATS was higher than that of TPE (P = 0.00). 93.3% of students agreed with the evaluation by OSATS in future. Conclusion: It is concluded that Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS) can evaluate more practical skills and gain more students’ satisfaction. Teachers also have a positive attitude towards this type of evaluation.
Narges Toghian Chaharsoughi, Alireza Irajpour,
Volume 7, Issue 15 (9-2014)

Abstract Introduction: Critical thinking is an important aspect of the nursing profession and is considered particularly critical in the clinical activity. But there were no important notice on it. It seems that it's necessary to assess barriers of critical thinking in nurses and nursing students. So we can match theoretical teaching with clinical experiences, because decision making is not possible only with stereotype teaching and need creative solution. Materials and Method: This cross–sectional was done on three groups of teachers, students and nurses. Sampling methods for teachers was censuses and for students and nurses were randomization. We used a researcher-made tool that its validity and reliability was approved by members of university and test-retest method respectively. We used using descriptive and analytical statistics were used to analysis results. Results: The comparison of individual, organizational and personality dimensions were done by One way ANOVA test and showed no significant difference between three groups (p>0.05). However, this difference was significant in educational dimension (p<0.02). Tukey-test showed the difference between students and nurses group (sig=0.031 and CI=95%). Conclusion: The use of critical thinking is an undeniable necessity to resolve barriers of it. Using active learning method, new education methods such as concept mapping, problem base learning, designing case reports, put importance on teacher's role as a critical thinker and encourage students to write their clinical experience can be effective solutions.
Zahra Kazempour, Hasan Ashrafi-Rizi,
Volume 7, Issue 15 (9-2014)

Introduction: Nowadays, usefult study is considered as an important element in social development and progress through which the public and epecially university students gain a lot. The purpose of this research is to determine factors affecting on useful study among students of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (IUMS) in 2012. Methods: This is an applied survey research in which the data were collected by a researcher made questionnaire. Its validity and reliability were confirmed by library and information sciences specialists and cronbach's alpha (r=82/50) respectively. Statistical population consisted of all students in Isfahan University of Medical Scinces and the samples were 374. Sampling method was random stratified sampling.Data were analyzed by descriptive (frequency destribution, mean…) and inferential (T-test, ANOVA and Tukey) statistics through SPSS software. Results: The findings showed that the mean level score of factors affecting on useful study among students was 2/39 ./4981 that it was less than average. The most means were lack of concentration at the time of study with mean 3/33 1/217, study without help other people with mean 3/27 1/203 and lack of deep breathing at the time of study with mean 3/16+1/458, respectively and the least means were walking at the time of study with mean 1/56+./946, breathing of the heart with mean 1/58 ./847 and enjoying from irregular place with mean 2/41 ./515 respectively. Also, comparison between student's gender, resident type and educational level with factors affecting on showed significant difference, but there was not the same in different colleges. Conclusions: The results showed that factors affecting on useful study among students of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences were less than average, so it is good status, but there were problems such as lack of concentration at the time of study, study without help other people and lack of deep breathing at the time of study. Also, son students, dormitory students, and BA and MS students were exposure factors affecting on useful study. Generally all students and education practitioners should pay special attention to factors affecting on useful study.

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