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Showing 82 results for Medicine

Fariba Arbooni, Abbasali Nourian, Seyed Noradin Mousavi Nasab,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (2-2009)
Abstract

  Background and Objective: Faculty evaluation by students is the most common method of educational quality assessment. Through such evaluation, faculty strengths and weaknesses can be revealed. In the current study, the domains on the evaluation forms used in faculty of Medicine, Paramedical and Nursing faculties are studied through students' eyes.

  Materials and methods: In this descriptive study, 1683 faculty evaluation forms (73 people) were considered. They included 15 items for students of medicine, 21 items for paramedical and nursing students. The Liker scale was used to find out students' attitude towards education, rules and discipline at the university. The maximum score was 100. Data was analyzed by SPSS software.

  Results: Results showed that on average paramedical faculty performed better than other faculties (M=85.5O SD= ± 3.61). Regarding rules observance, Paramedical faculty had a mean of 91.01 (SD= ± 3.89) 0n the attitude domain Medical faculty had a mean of 90.48(SD= ± 5.45) and Nursing faculty had the highest mean of rules observance domain (M=88.34 SD= ± 4.25). Education domain showed lowest level in all faculties. The produced mean results were significant (P=0.001).

 

 

  Conclusion: It seems that holding workshops, improving teaching methods, granting sabbatical leave, and encouraging research work com promote educational level in different faculties and improve faculty activity.


Ataollah Maleki,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (9-2009)
Abstract

  Background and objective: Students entering Zanjan Medical Sciences University lack the necessary proficiency in English to advance their knowledge in medicine. At university they have to pass many compulsory English courses as partial fulfillment of their degree. However, the final outcome is poor and bleak. The problem may be due to poor teaching methods and texts. Grammar-Ttranslation Method of teaching English has been a rule here rather than an exception. Therefore, the former has been compared with the modern Communicative Language Teaching Method to observe the outcome.

  Material and Methods: Two groups of the environmental health students were non-randomly chosen, and were randomly assigned to two classes. Each of the classes was taught with one of the methods under consideration. The course lasted about one academic term. Before the beginning of the course, a preliminary TOEFL test was administered to tap both groups level of proficiency. The same test was repeated at the end of the term. Later, results of both tests were analyzed and compared using tables and t-tests.

  Results: Analysis of data confirmed our hypothesis that there is a relationship between language teaching method and learning the language (p=0.431). The findings of the research also confirmed the fact that test distribution was normal and balanced.

  Conclusion: In general the findings of the study confirmed the proposed hypothesis. The mean difference between the scores before and after the intervention was meaningful (p=0.046). The difference between means of scores in the old method was 1.07 whereas the difference between means of scores in the new method was 1.575, which was significant. Hence, using the new method is highly recommended.


Faranak Sharifi,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (9-2009)
Abstract

  Background and objective: Residency curriculum development in clinical courses has been initiated in the Ministry of Health in recent years and the curriculum for internal medicine residency has been completed. Regarding the role of critical appraisal in the improvement of these programs, this article will discuss advantages and disadvantages of the curriculum plan for internal medicine.

  Material and Methods : In this study after reviewing all segments of the curriculum, we considered Harden's criteria for curriculum developments as gold standard and compared the steps for developing the present curriculum to them.

  Results: student-centricity and problem-based learning have been well-considered by the developers in this curriculum and this is an advantage for this program. Integration of general internal medicine to subspecialties courses also has been considered well in this program. Students have not been involved sufficiently in the developing steps of the curriculum. Furthermore an efficient management system was not considered for the integrated learning process. On the other hand a huge core and less elective courses in the curriculum make it difficult to be operational.

  Conclusion: The program might be operational if more attention is paid to management system reinforcement, involving students to get their feedback and considering them in the program evaluation.


A Mohammadi, Mm Vakili,
Volume 2, Issue 3 (2-2010)
Abstract

  Background and Objective : Satisfaction is costumer response to an organization success. Costumer satisfaction is used as an important and strategic tool in organization in order to achieve competitive advantage. Thus, higher education institutes increasingly pay attention to satisfying students' expectations as primary costumers. Hence, this study was implemented in order to measure students' satisfaction of educational services quality in Zanjan University of medical sciences.

  Materials and Methods: This study was implemented in Zanjan University of medical sciences in 2009. For implementing the study, the sample 320 of students was selected randomly by stratified sampling. In order to measure services quality (SQ), the questionnaire SERVQUAL was used. In addition to SQ questions, this questionnaire contained 6 questions about overall satisfaction of educational services. Data were analyzed by SSPS 11.5 program and descriptive and analytical statistics such as mean, one-way ANOVA, correlation and multiple regressions were used.

  Results: Mean scores of students' satisfaction of educational SQ was (2.76 ± 1 .06). In context of overall satisfaction of educational services, the largest mean score (3.17) and the least mean score (2.24) were related to faculties of pharmacology and medicine respectively. One-way ANOVA test showed that the observed difference in mean score of overall satisfaction of educational services quality was statistically significant on the basis of faculty (P< 0.001, f = 14.02). Pearson correlation coefficient showed that there was statistically significant positive relation between overall satisfaction and quality of educational services (r = .51), empathy (r = .49) and assurance (r = .46), (p < .01). Multiple regression analysis showed that there was statistically significant positive relation between students overall satisfactions and responsiveness and assurance dimensions (p < .05).

  Conclusion: findings of this study showed thatresponsiveness and assurance aspects are more important than other educational SQ aspectsforsatisfying students of educational services quality. Thus, managers, policy makers and lecturers can use results of this research in reallocation of resources and designing strategies of educational services quality improvement.


Sa Ghoreishi,
Volume 2, Issue 3 (2-2010)
Abstract

  Background and objective: The attitudes of medical students' toward psychiatry have been studied extensively in other countries. A positive attitude to psychiatry may make future doctors more responsive to the psychological needs and morbidity of patients in all branches of medicine. Large numbers of emotionally disturbed patients present themselves to non-psychiatric physicians, and much of somatic medicine is psychologically influenced. The purpose of this study was to assess medical students' attitudes toward psychiatry as well as to examine whether attitudes toward psychiatry improved during psychiatric attachment.

  Materials and Methods: 144 Medical students' of Zanjan Medical University in physiopathology, clerkship and Internship participated in the study with filling the "Attitude to Psychiatry Questionnaire". Also, clerkship medical students were divided into two groups. One group was those who had not stayed in the psychiatric ward and the other groups were those who had stayed in the psychiatric ward. Then, the attitudes of two groups were compared.

  Results: All of the students had favorable attitude to psychiatry with the mean score of 80/74 on "Attitude to Psychiatry Questionnaire"(neutral score 72).Improvement in attitudes was related to the increased motivation to pursue psychiatry as a career (p: 0/01 n: 144). Also, in comparing with two clerkship groups, it was found that attachment to psychiatric ward in proved attitude toward psychiatry among medical students (P: 0/015, n: 57).

  Conclusions: The study confirms earlier reports of a significant positive impact of undergraduate psychiatric attachment on medical students' attitudes toward psychiatry. Thus, teaching psychiatry at an undergraduate level may have important implications, because future doctors respond to patient's psychological difficulties.

 


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Volume 3, Issue 5 (2-2011)
Abstract

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Background and Objective: This study evaluated English for the Students of Medicine (II) (ESM) (Tahririan and Mehrabi, 2007) as one of the textbooks used for teaching English to the Iranian students of medicine. This research was performed on the basis of a number of medical students' needs analysis studying at an Iranian Medical Sciences University and one English language teacher viewpoints. It intended to identify the specific needs of medical students in a learning context and investigate whether the textbook addressed those needs.

Materials and Method: Students' profile and needs analysis forms were used to identify the language needs of 50 students as well as a teacher textbook evaluation questionnaire to elicit the teacher's attitudes towards some aspects of the textbook. The data was subjected to descriptive statistics and inferential statistics analysis.

Results: The results of the students' needs analysis indicated that English for the Students of Medicine (II) did not completely meet the students' specific needs regarding language level, some of the language skills, sub-skills, preferred learning styles, preferred type of interaction, preferred type of language, and communicative activities.

Conclusion: Based on the results of the study, we recommend authorities to replace English for students of Medicine with a more attractive textbook to meet the needs of the students of medicine and allied fields.


Mohsen Alipour, Ramazan Fallah,
Volume 4, Issue 6 (10-2011)
Abstract

Background and Objectives: Evaluation is one of the important aspects of educational activities that can be performed in different forms and by which the weaknesses and strengths of educational programs can be found identified. Here, the role of continuous evaluation in academic achievement of BS students of Zanjan University of Medical Sciences (ZUMS) was studied. Material and methods: This is a descriptive-analytical study that was performed in cross-sectionally during a four-semester period with four classes. Students in each class were randomly divided into two groups. One group was tested continuously during the semester but no tests were given to the group .At the end of the course, the scores of the two groups of students in each class as well as all the students regardless of the type class were compared under the same conditions. Results: Results demonstrated that in all four classes, mean scores in the students who were asked tested during the semester was significantly higher than the students who were not tested. This result was also true for all students, regardless of their field of study. From total of fifty four students who were questioned, only four students had a lower score toward other fifty four students. Conclusion: The findings of this study reveal that formative evaluation as classroom questioning has powerful impacts on academic achievement. Thus, achieving the educational objectives needs accurate planning and careful implementation.
Majid Darabi, Jamshid Naranjkar, Mohsen Farmahinifarahani, Ehya Qarshasbi, Iran Yousefi,
Volume 5, Issue 8 (8-2012)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Quality of education is the main characteristic of higher education and its improvement depends on the mechanisms of evaluation. Evaluation is also a systematic process for collection, analysis and interpretation of information to study achievement of educational goals. Regarding the necessity of improvement of educational quality especially in medical sciences, the authorities of medical college of shahed university felt obliged to use accreditation model for evaluation and improvement of educational quality in Medical Faculty shahed university. Materials and Methods: Method of this study is applied and descriptive which aims at studying ten factors including mission and goals, management and organizational structure, academic staff, students, education process and learning, courses, educational programs, graduates, premises and facilities of education, research and treatment (laboratory and diagnosis), investigation and non-academic staff, and management. Statistical data were collected from the chairman, deputies, heads of departments, academic staff, students, graduates and employees. To collect the data, we used seven questionnaires whose reliability and validity were considered and confirmed. To judge acceptability of any of the evaluated parameters we used five point Likert scale. Results: of ten factors, one was acceptable, seven relatively acceptable and two were unacceptable. Conclusion: If implemented the results of this study may improve educational quality of medical faculties.
Ghafar Ali Mahmoudi, Alireza Azargoon, Vahid Almasi,
Volume 6, Issue 10 (7-2013)
Abstract

Background and Objective: University teachers are models of learning and ethics for their students. The aim of this study was the evaluation of the opinion of the interns and externs of Lorestan University of Medical Sciences about the professional behavior of the teachers of internal medicine, general surgery, pediatrics and gynecology. Materials and Methods: This descriptive cross - sectional study was done on interns and externs of Lorestan University of Medical Sciences in 2009. The data was collected by a single questionnaire. The data was analyzed and presented as percentages at the end. Results: 107 students completed the questionnaires. Of them, 48.1%, 69.46%, 63.75% and 44.87% of externs and interns described the professional behavior of the teachers of internal medicine, general surgery, pediatrics and gynecology, respectively, as good and very good. The teachers of internal medicine, general surgery and pediatrics had the highest points in items 1, 10, and 3. Conclusion: The students stated that the professional behavior of their teachers, specially the teachers of general surgery and pediatrics was acceptable. There were striking opinion differences among the different groups. These differences may be due to individual differences in various groups.
Maryam Aalaa, Azim Mirzazadeh, Mitra Gharib, Hamid Reza Baradaran, Patricia Khashayar,
Volume 6, Issue 10 (7-2013)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Learning style is one of the factors that affect learning and academic achievement of learners so that understanding it helps individuals adopt a more appropriate way of learning. Teachers' learning styles also affect selected teaching activities and learning environment. This study assesses the learning styles of students and faculty members in pre-clinical stage of medical education at Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in the 2011-12. 221 medical students and 106 faculty staff in preclinical stage at Tehran University of Medical Sciences participated in a census study. Kolb's Learning Style Inventory was used to conduct the research. Results: Much of the students’ learning style was converging (34.4%) and accommodating (30.8%) while the majority of the faculty learning style was respectively converging (41.5%) and absorbent (26.4%). There was a significant difference (p=0.000) between learning styles of the students and the faculty staff. Conclusion: Similarity between learning style of medical students and the faculty increases learning motivation and achievement. We recommend that the faculty, regardless of their learning preferences, use laboratory and problem solving method in their teaching. In addition, the communication skills of medical students should also be strengthened.
Saeideh Daryazadeh, Ahmad Jafari, Jalil Kuhpayehzadeh, Jila Shajari, Mehdi Hashemzadeh,
Volume 6, Issue 10 (7-2013)
Abstract

Background and Objective: The main aim in medical education is teaching students to carry out certain duties in future. The Restorative Dentistry is a very important dental practice in our country. The aim of this study was to determine General Dentistry restorative curriculum's adaptation to restorative dentistry service needs in community. Materials and Methods: In this quantitative cross-sectional study consisting of two phases, data was gathered by two valid and reliable checklists. In first phase, the restorative dental ‎services of ‎‏1027‏ patients in a dental clinic sampled over a period of three months were analyzed by statistical software SPSS‏17. ‏‎and the results were reported. In the second phase, we provided a list of syllabuses and restorative lessons with summarized results of the first phase to Tehran and Shahed University restorative faculty members and asked them to express their views about General Dentistry ‎restorative curriculum's adaptation to the analyzed needs in last phase and results were reported. Results: In first phase, 2362 cases of the restorative service were considered. The results showed ‎that all the syllabuses of restorative curriculum met the restorative needs of the patients. But the amount of time allocated to teaching “theoretical cardiology” and “practical restorative dentistry3” did not meet the students' needs. Conclusion: Restorative lessons syllabus was suitable but time was not sufficient. So the amount of time of teaching should be added to fix the deficiency, so that the quality of education can be promoted. For this purpose using new methods of education via educational package, films and modules may be useful.
Ali Mohammadi, Jamshid Mohammadi,
Volume 6, Issue 11 (10-2013)
Abstract

Background and objective: A learning environment is all of the physical surroundings, psychological or emotional conditions, and social or cultural influences affecting the growth and development of a learner in an educational institution. Learning environment is an important determinant of high quality learning. Elements of the educational environment are related to academic achievement and course satisfaction. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the educational environment at Zanjan University of Medical Sciences based on students' point of view. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out at Zanjan University of Medical Sciences. A total of 374 students were selected randomly and the Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure (DREEM) was used for data collection. Data analysis was performed using SPSS 11.5 and descriptive and analytical statistics such as the mean, the independent samples t test and one-way ANOVA. A total of 340 students (90.9%) completed the DREEM. Results: The overall DREEM score was 100.26 out of a maximum 200. It represents an average educational environment. The highest DREEM score mean was 23.03 out of maximum 44 (52.35%) in students’ perceptions of the teachers (representing moving in the right direction) and the lowest DREEM score mean was 22.23 out of maximum 48 (46.5%) in students’ perceptions of the learning (representing negative attitude to learning). The difference of mean scores in faculties were statistically significant in all of the DREEM domains except teacher domain (p <0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between male and female students for the DREEM subscale scores. Conclusion: The finding of this study showed that students’ perceptions of the educational environment are average and there is a room for improvement in all domains of educational environment. But, improvements are needed more in learning and social self-perception domains.
Giti Karimkhanlouei,
Volume 6, Issue 12 (12-2013)
Abstract

  Background and Objectives : This research is an endeavor to study the effect of attitudes and motivation on learning English language amongst medical students of different fields.

  Materials and Methods : The participants included 100 students from Zanjan university of Medical Sciences attending an English course for two hours per week. A combination of Garneder’s questionnaire of attitudes and motivation with that of Flaitz’s was used to collect the necessary data. The collected data were analyzed by means of SPSS software.

  Results : The results showed that positive attitudes and high motivation have a strong impact on the students’ interest in learning.

  Conclusion : Teachers ought to focus on the dynamic process of language learning and act as initiators to motivate language learners. The data have also pedagogical implications for teachers of English language courses.


Alinaghi Kazemi, Abbasali Nourian, Noureddin Mosavinasab, Mona Eskandari, Maryam Ghaffari,
Volume 6, Issue 12 (12-2013)
Abstract

  Background and objective: There are many accredited free open access journals in medical subjects. We do not know how much researchers in this country are aware of them. The aim of this study is to learn about the knowledge of faculty members of Zanjan University of Medical Science about such journals.

  Materials and methods: This is a descriptive cross- sectional study. The questionnaires were made after a pilot study to check the validity of the questions. Of 189 faculty members 95 filled out the questionnaires. Data were analyzed using the Chi-Square testes. The frequencies and the means were also calculated.

  Results: 34.7% of the participants were familiar with free open access journals, but most of them were unaware of the following points: validity of articles, suitability of reviewers, copyright declaration, and financial resources. However, most faculty members believed that free electronic information sources provide the opportunity for high citation . There are high impact factor journals which are widely available and publish articles earlier than others. Most of the participants believed that two important benefits of e-journals are easy accessibility and being free of charge.

  Conclusion: Most participants of our study were not fully familiar with free open access journals. It is recommended that faculty members be made more aware of such journals.

 


Mahbobeh Khorsandi, Kobra Aliabadi, Mohsen Shamsi,
Volume 6, Issue 12 (12-2013)
Abstract

  Background and Objective : Evaluation in medical educational is very important. The aim of this study was to compare the view of students and faculty members about teachers' online evaluation at Arak University of Medical Sciences.

  Materials and Methods : This is a cross- sectional study which was carried out with 758 students and 122 professors at Arak University of Medical Sciences in 2011. Data was collected with a reliable and valid questionnaire (consisting of safety, evaluation of environment, accuracy and economic items) with 5-choice Likert scale. T-test was used for data analysis.

  Results : Results showed that the mean score of teachers and students with regard to online teaching method was 62.35 ± 7.30 and 57.89 ± 12.31 respectively and that the difference was significant (p<0/001) .

  Conclusion : Considering the positive attitudes of teachers and students toward online evaluation method, using this method is recommended.

 


Samira Mehralizadeh, Hamed Rezaei,
Volume 7, Issue 13 (4-2014)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Examinations before internship, as the last national test of general medicine, show the academic status of the students, particularly in clinical stage. The assessment of long-term results of this test can be made more rational and help remove flaws and lead to success in future. Materials and Methods: The study group was all students of medical sciences in Semnan in the years 1380 to 1389. Data were analyzed using descriptive analysis. Results: Of the total of 316 people, those taking part in Esfand 1387 exam did better than those taking part in 1380 test. The scores in the first 5 years were better than those of the second 5 years. Conclusion: The review of comprehensive examination scores in consecutive years is recommended.
Mohsen Saffari, Hormoz Sanaeinasab, Hojat Rashidi Jahan, Gholamhossein Purtaghi, Amir Pakpour,
Volume 7, Issue 13 (4-2014)
Abstract

Background and Objective: There are different personality variables such as happiness and self-efficacy that can influence on academic achievement of students. The aim of the study was to investigate relationships among these variables, academic achievement, and some demographics. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study performed on 180 students from Baqiyatallah university of Medical Sciences. The sample was selected using systematic random sampling method.A demographic questionnaire along with Oxford Happiness Inventory (OHI) and General Self-efficacy Scale (GSE) were used to collect data from students. Academic achievement was determined by the mean of grade point averages from two last semesters. Analyses were performed using student t-test, one way ANOVA, and Pearson correlation tests. All statistical analyses were executed by SPSS for windows version 20. Results: The mean standard score of happiness was 4.36 (SD=0.58) and the mean total score of self-efficacy was 61.60 (SD=9.09). The mean of grade point averages of two last semesters was 15.41 (SD=1.81). Factors such as marital status, age, academic grades and disciplines as well as academic achievement were related to happiness significantly. Similarly, marital status, age, academic grade and academic achievement were also related to self-efficacy. In addition, positive correlations were found between the main variables of the study, i.e. happiness, self-efficacy and academic achievement. Conclusion: Happiness and self-efficacy were related to various demographic and academic factors. Identifying and modifying these factors can lead to improvement of mental function and health among medical sciences students. Therefore, doing more studies to better understand such factors toward enhancement of education is suggested.
Abbas Allami, Fatheme Saffari,
Volume 7, Issue 13 (4-2014)
Abstract

Background and Objective: The aim of OSCE is to evaluate students' clinical skills in clinical courses. Using written scenarios are common in designing OSCE stations in our country. The objective of this study was to determine the correlation of OSCE and Pre-Internship for this type of station designing. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was done on OSCE scores of 48 fifth-year medical students.Correlation of all station scores of the OSCE exam with the Pre-Internship exam scores were calculated. To determine the internal consistency within stations, we determined each station's correlation with the total score of a student's test for OSCE. Results: In this study, there was no significant relationship within Pre-Internship exam scores and the OSCE scores. Negative correlations were found between the model and the procedures station scores with Pre-Internship scores. Correlation coefficient of Pre-internship scores with 3 practical stations mean scores were a -0.07 (p=0.65) and its correlation with 6 stations based on written scenario scores calculated was 0.32 (p=0.02). Internal medicine with a correlation coefficient of 0.81 was the highest and eye examination station with 0.17 had the lowest correlation coefficient of internal consistency. Correlation of the two stations of neurology and surgery scores with both Pre-Internship and OSCE was significant and approximately similar. Conclusion: We suggest avoiding the station design based on written scenarios (without presence model or standard patient). Otherwise, OSCE should be measured the same as clinical competencies are assessed with Pre-Internship exam.
Samira Bassir Shabestari, Iman Shirinbak, Reza Shervin Badv,
Volume 7, Issue 13 (4-2014)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Systemic manifestation of many diseases may happen in the mouth. Some of these disease are so serious that their incorrect diagnosis can cause death. Delayed referral may be due to lack of knowledge regarding cancerous and precancerous oral lesions. It is necessary for general physicians to have some knowledge regarding common oral lesions. So, we decided to evaluate medical interns knowledge in this field. Materials and Methods: Our research sample was medical interns of Zanjan University of Medical Sciences. Each sample received a questionnaire that was designed with the aid of references .At the end, knowledge scores were classified as weak, intermediate and good. Data were analyzed with spss 18.00, ANOVA and T-test. Results: 51.6% of interns didn’t have any knowledge regarding Oral Medicine. 80.3% of them was agreed with teaching them Oral Medicine. Their accuracy in diagnosing malignant lesions, pigmented lesions and normal oral variations was 54.2% , 67.2% and 3.7% respectively. Their diagnostic ability and their therapeutic approach regarding malignant lesions, pigmented lesions and normal oral variations was intermediate, high and weak respectively. Conclusion: Regarding malignancies, knowledge of medical interns should be increased. Re-evaluation of medical curriculum is recommended according to common oral diseases.
Gholamali Dehghani, Mosa Piri,
Volume 7, Issue 14 (6-2014)
Abstract

Abstract

  

Background & Objective: ‍‍ Considering the role of universities in specialist training, evaluation of education status and awareness of the weak and strong points in educational process, design and implementation of appropriate programs is necessary. The aim of this study was to compare academic achievement of present medical students with previous graduated ones from the viewpoint of faculty members of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences.

Materials and Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in 2013. The information was collected by a valid and reliable questionnaire that was completed by 140 eligible faculty members employed in medical faculty. The questionnaire was designed to compare educational status of present medical students with that of the previous graduated students. Data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics, independent t-test, and One-way ANOVA and Spearman Correlation coefficient.

Results: More than 50% of the faculty members stated that the medical students’ interest in attending in didactic classes, student responsibility, clinical skills, and medical professionalism is something between worse to much worse than before but students’ tendency to participate in specialty exams and to embark on research activities is something between better to much better. Moreover, most participants believed that there was no difference between current students and graduates in other variables. The participants believed that about 42% of medical graduates have enough clinical skills for independent practice. Spearman's correlation coefficient showed a positive significant correlation between years of services of faculty members and their views in medical students’ clinical skills necessary for independent practice (r=0.529, p=0.000) .

Conclusion : Although aspiration for participation in postgraduate entrance exams and research activities has increased, in general the educational status of medical students has not improved during the last years. According to the viewpoints of faculty members, medical students’ clinical skills necessary for independent practice was not satisfying.

  

Keywords: educational status, medical student, faculty members



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