Volume 1, Issue 2 (3-2016)                   J. Hum. Environ. Health Promot. 2016, 1(2): 80-86 | Back to browse issues page

XML Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Chamandoost S, Fateh Moradi M, Hosseini M. A Review of Nitrate and Nitrite Toxicity in Foods. J. Hum. Environ. Health Promot.. 2016; 1 (2) :80-86
URL: http://zums.ac.ir/jhehp/article-1-21-en.html
1- Department of Health and Food Safety, School of Public Health, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, Iran.
2- Veterinary Organization of Zanjan, Iran.
3- Department of Toxicology and Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, Iran.
Abstract:   (2071 Views)

Agricultural advancement and population growth have prompted increases in food supplies, and higher crop yields have been made possible through the application of fertilizers. Large quantities of livestock and poultry on farms, along with the accumulation of biomass and agricultural residues, can cause contamination of ground water resources and other water sanitation concerns in both developing and developed countries. Nitrate is mainly used as a fertilizer in agriculture, and because of its high solubility in water, it can create biological problems in the environment. High usage of nitrite in the food industry as a preservative, flavor enhancer, antioxidant, and color stabilizing agent can cause human exposure to this toxic compound. Nitrite is 10 times as toxic as nitrate in humans. Nitrate is converted to nitrite and nitrosamine compounds in the human stomach, which can lead to bladder cancer. In this review, sources of nitrate and nitrite exposure were investigated. Furthermore, the review evaluates standard levels of nitrate and nitrite in different foods, and acceptable daily doses of these compounds in various countries. Finally, we discuss valid methods of nitrate and nitrite identification and removal in foods.

Full-Text [PDF 640 kb]   (2113 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Review Article | Subject: Public Health
Received: 2015/09/16 | Accepted: 2015/11/17 | Published: 2016/01/28

1. Sindelar JJ, Milkowski AL. Human Safety Controversies Surrounding Nitrate and Nitrite in the Diet. Nitric Oxide. 2012; 26(4): 259-66. [Crossref]
2. Dennis MJ, Wilson LA. Nitrates and Nitrites. Encycl Food Sci Nutr. 2003. [Crossref]
3. Milkowski A, Garg HK, Coughlin JR, Bryan NS. Nutritional Epidemiology in the Context of Nitric Oxide Biology: A Risk–benefit Evaluation for Dietary Nitrite and Nitrate. Nitric Oxide. 2010; 22(2): 110-9. [Crossref]
4. Bryan NS, Fernandez BO, Bauer SM, Garcia-Saura MF, Milsom AB, Rassaf T, et al. Nitrite is a Signaling Molecule and Regulator of Gene Expression in Mammalian Tissues. Nat Chem Biol. 2005; 1(5): 290-7. [Crossref]
5. Lundberg JO, Weitzberg E, Gladwin MT. The Nitrate–Nitrite–Nitric Oxide Pathway in Physiology and Therapeutics. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2008; 7(2): 156-67. [Crossref]
6. Hord NG, Tang Y, Bryan NS. Food Sources of Nitrates and Nitrites: The Physiologic Context for Potential Health benefits. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009; 90(1): 1-10. [Crossref]
7. Kennedy D. Leafy Vegetable and Nitrate. In Nitrate and Nitrite in Food and Water. Horwood Publishers. London. 2003: 195.
8. Parker SP. Encyclopedia of Chemistry: McGraw-Hill. New York: Basel; 1983: 4.
9. Laue W, Thiemann M, Scheibler E, Wiegand KW. Nitrates and Nitrites. Ullmanns Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH& Co: KgaA; 2000.
10. Lundberg JO, Weitzberg E, Cole JA, Benjamin N. Nitrate, Bacteria and Human Health. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2004; 2(7): 593-602. [Crossref]
11. Grasshoff K, Ehrhardt M, Kremling K. Methods of Seawater analysis. 2 Edn. New York: Verlag Chemie; 1999.
12. Daniel B, Mesner N. Driking Water Facts-Nitrate. Univ Water Qual Extension. 2010.
13. Bednar C, Kies C. Nitrate and Vitamin C from Fruits and Vegetables: Impact of Intake Variations on Nitrate and Nitrite Excretions of Humans. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 1994; 45(1): 71-80. [Crossref]
14. Turkdogan MK, Testereci H, Akman N, Kahranan T, Kara K, Tuncer I, et al. Diet Nitrite and Nitrate Levels in an Endemic Upper Gastrointestinal (Esophageal and Gastric) Cancer Region of Turkey. Turkish J Gastroenterol. 2003; 14: 50-3.
15. Alexander J, Benford D, Cockburn A, Cravedi JP, Dogliotti E, Domenico AD, et al. Nitrate in Vegetables Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain. EFSA J. 2008; 689: 1-79.
16. Coss A, Cantor KP, Reif JS, Lynch CF, Ward MH. Pancreatic Cancer and Drinking Water and Dietary Sources of Nitrate and Nitrite. Am J Epidemiol. 2004; 159(7): 693-701. [Crossref]
17. Rostkowska K, Zwierz K, Rozanski A, Moniuszko-Jakoniuk J, Roszczenko A. Formation and Metabolism of N-Nitrosamines. Pol J Environ Stud. 1998; 7: 321-5.
18. Iscovich J, Howe GR. Cancer Incidence Patterns (1972-91) among Migrants from the Soviet :::::::union::::::: to Israel. Cancer Causes Control. 1998; 9(1): 29-36. [Crossref]
19. Anderson KE, Potter JD, Mack TM. Pancreatic Cancer. Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention. New York: Oxford Univ. 1996; 2: 721-71.
20. Santamaria P. Nitrate in Vegetables: Toxicity, Content, Intake and EC Regulation. J Sci Food Agric. 2006; 86(1): 10-7. [Crossref]
21. Kellman LM, Hillaire-Marcel C. Evaluation of Nitrogen Isotopes as Indicators of Nitrate Contamination Sources in an Agricultural Watershed. Agric Ecosyst Environ. 2003; 95(1): 87-102. [Crossref]
22. Kiso Y, Jung YJ, Kuzawa K, Seko Y, Saito Y, Yamada T, et al. Visual Determination of Nitrite and Nitrate in Waters by Color Band Formation Method. Chemosphere. 2006; 64(11): 1949-54. [Crossref]
23. Walker R. Nitrates, nitrites and N‐nitrosocompounds: A Review of the Occurrence in Food and Diet and the Toxicological Implications. J Food Addit Contam. 1990; 7(6): 717-68. [Crossref]
24. Hambridge T. WHO Food Additives Series: 50 Nitrate and nitrite. 2001; 1: 1-83.
25. Shhrasby H, Naseri A. Nutritional Value and Practical Health and Chemical Control of Some Meat Products. Press SID. 2007.
26. URL: http//: www. EPA.gov/ water/ owrccatalog.nsf.
27. Narayana B, Suni K. A Spectrophotometric Method for the Determination of Nitrite and Nitrate. EJAC. 2009; 4(2): 204-14.
28. Ettre LS. Nomenclature for Chromatography (IUPAC Recommendations 1993). Pure Appl Chem. 1993; 65(4): 819-72. [Crossref]
29. Williams WJ. Handbook of Anion Determination. London: Butter Warth; 1979.
30. Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran. Standard 6963: Spectroscopy Methodto Measurenitrate and Nitriteinfruit and Vegetables. 2013.
31. Chamandoost S, Mehrasbi MR, Kamali K, Taran J, Solgi R, Nazari F, et al. Simultaneous Determination of Nitrite and Nitrate in Milke Samples by IonCgromatography Method and Estimation of Dietary Intake. Int J Food Prop. 2016; 19(9): 1983- 93. [Crossref]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Send email to the article author

© 2019 All Rights Reserved | Journal of Human, Environment and Health Promotion

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb