Volume 5, Issue 3 (9-2019)                   J. Hum. Environ. Health Promot 2019, 5(3): 104-109 | Back to browse issues page

XML Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Mohamadloo A, Ramezankhani A. Psychometric Design of a Questionnaire for the Prevention of Induced Demand for Medicine Prescription. J. Hum. Environ. Health Promot. 2019; 5 (3) :104-109
URL: http://zums.ac.ir/jhehp/article-1-214-en.html
1- Department of Public Health, School of Health, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran.
2- Department of Public Health, School of Public Health, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran.
Abstract:   (802 Views)
Background: Unnecessary demand for healthcare services for patients is a major concern in health economics research, and social science researchers primarily use questionnaires. The present study aimed to evaluate the reliability and validity of the questionnaire of the prevention of induced demand for medicine prescription.
Methods: This descriptive study was conducted after designing the primary questionnaire (63 items). The reliability and validity of the questionnaire were assessed by determining the face validity, content validity, construct validity, and reliability. Results: Initially, no items were eliminated in the qualitative assessment of face validity. To determine the content validity, six items were integrated due to overlapping, and 34 items remained. Principal component analysis revealed a three-factor solution to provide the best fit. Intraclass correlation and Cronbach's alpha for each component of the questionnaire confirmed its reliability.
Conclusion: In order for valid and reliable questionnaires, the views of the target group and experts must be considered and all the psychometric stages should be accomplished. Due to the differences in various studies, a single questionnaire cannot be used in every research.
Full-Text [PDF 728 kb]   (280 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research Article | Subject: Health Promotion
Received: 2019/05/29 | Accepted: 2019/08/14 | Published: 2019/09/21

1. Mohammadloo A, Ramezankhani A, Salamzadeh J, Y. M. Mohammadloo A, Ramezankhani A, Salamzadeh J, Mehrabi Y. Development and Testing a Model to Decrease Drugs Induced Demand by Married Women Referring to Health Centers of Tehran Tehran: Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Science; 2017.
2. McGuire TG. Physician agency. Handbook of health economics. 1: Elsevier; 2000. p. 461-536. [Crossref]
3. Carlsen F, Grytten J. Consumer satisfaction and supplier induced demand. Journal of Health Economics. 2000;19(5):731-53. [Crossref]
4. Shih YCT, Tai‐Seale M. Physicians' perception of demand‐induced supply in the information age: a latent class model analysis. Health Economics. 2012;21(3):252-69. [Crossref]
5. Madden D, Nolan A, Nolan B. GP reimbursement and visiting behaviour in Ireland. Health Economics. 2005;14(10):1047-60. [Crossref]
6. Clemens J, Gottlieb JD. Do physicians' financial incentives affect medical treatment and patient health? American Economic Review. 2014;104(4):1320-49. [Crossref]
7. Mohamadloo A, Zarein-Dolab S, Ramezankhani A, Salamzadeh J. The Main Factors of Induced Demand for Medicine Prescription: A Qualitative Study. Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2019;18(1).
8. Mohamadloo A, Ramezankhani A, Zarein-Dolab S, Salamzadeh J, Mohamadloo F. A Systematic Review of Main Factors leading to Irrational Prescription of Medicine. Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences. 2017;11(2). [Crossref]
9. Organization WH. Promoting rational use of medicines. WHO Regional Office for South-East Asia; 2011.
10. Ahmed J, Shaikh B. The Many Faces of Supplier Induced Demand in Health Care. Iranian Journal of Public Health. 2009;38(2):139-41.
11. ÇELİK E, ŞENCAN MN, CLARK MP. Factors affecting rational drug use (RDU), compliance and wastage. Turkish Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2013;10(1).
12. Léonard C, Stordeur S, Roberfroid D. Association between physician density and health care consumption: a systematic review of the evidence. Health policy. 2009;91(2):121-34. [Crossref]
13. Di Matteo L. Physician numbers as a driver of provincial government health spending in Canadian health policy. Health policy. 2014;115(1):18-35. [Crossref]
14. Currie J, Lin W, Zhang W. Patient knowledge and antibiotic abuse: Evidence from an audit study in China. Journal of health economics. 2011;30(5):933-49. [Crossref]
15. Kotwani A, Wattal C, Joshi P, Holloway K. Irrational use of antibiotics and role of the pharmacist: an insight from a qualitative study in New Delhi, India. Journal of clinical pharmacy and therapeutics. 2012;37(3):308-12. [Crossref]
16. Kotwani A, Wattal C, Katewa S, Joshi P, Holloway K. Antibiotic use in the community: what factors influence primary care physicians to prescribe antibiotics in Delhi, India? Family practice. 2010:cmq059. [Crossref]
17. Soleymani F, Ahmadizar F, Meysamie A, Abdollahi M. A survey on the factors influencing the pattern of medicine's use: Concerns on irrational use of drugs. Journal of research in pharmacy practice. 2013;2(2):59. [Crossref]
18. Buke C, Hosgor-Limoncu M, Ermertcan S, Ciceklioglu M, Tuncel M, Köse T, et al. Irrational use of antibiotics among university students. Journal of infection. 2005;51(2):135-9. [Crossref]
19. Chen M, Wang L, Chen W, Zhang L, Jiang H, Mao W. Does economic incentive matter for rational use of medicine? China’s experience from the essential medicines program. Pharmacoeconomics. 2014;32(3):245-55. [Crossref]
20. Rubin A, Babbie ER. Empowerment series: Research methods for social work: Cengage Learning; 2016.
21. Orcher LT. Conducting research: Social and behavioral science methods: Routledge; 2016. [Crossref]
22. DeVon HA, Block ME, Moyle‐Wright P, Ernst DM, Hayden SJ, Lazzara DJ, et al. A psychometric toolbox for testing validity and reliability. Journal of Nursing scholarship. 2007;39(2):155-64. [Crossref]
23. Broder HL, McGrath C, Cisneros GJ. Questionnaire development: face validity and item impact testing of the Child Oral Health Impact Profile. Community dentistry and oral epidemiology. 2007;35:8-19. [Crossref]
24. Tabachnick BG, Fidell LS. Using multivariate statistics: Allyn & Bacon/Pearson Education; 2007.
25. Costello AB, Osborne JW. Best practices in exploratory factor analysis: Four recommendations for getting the most from your analysis. Practical assessment, research & evaluation. 2005;10(7):1-9.
26. Polit DF, Beck CT. Study guide for essentials of nursing research: appraising evidence for nursing practice: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2013.
27. Speziale HS, Streubert HJ, Carpenter DR. Qualitative research in nursing: Advancing the humanistic imperative: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2011.
28. Weller K, Groffik A, Magerl M, Tohme N, Martus P, Krause K, et al. Development and construct validation of the angioedema quality of life questionnaire. Allergy. 2012;67(10):1289-98. [Crossref]
29. Egan SJ, Shafran R, Lee M, Fairburn CG, Cooper Z, Doll HA, et al. The reliability and validity of the clinical perfectionism questionnaire in eating disorder and community samples. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy. 2016;44(1):79-91. [Crossref]
30. Dien J. Applying principal components analysis to event-related potentials: a tutorial. Developmental neuropsychology. 2012;37(6):497-517. [Crossref]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Send email to the article author

© 2020 All Rights Reserved | Journal of Human Environment and Health Promotion

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb