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Showing 15 results for Subject: Environmental Health, Sciences, and Engineering

Roya Alimoradzadeh, Ali Assadi, Fatemeh Afshar, Ali Reza Rahmani, Mohammad Reza Samarghandi,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (12-2015)

Background: Titanium dioxide (TiO2)-mediated photocatalysis has been found to be an efficient method of water treatment and is capable of degrading a wide range of organic pollutants and microbial agents with high efficiency. The microorganism Pseudomonas aeruginosa is resistant to chemicals and UV irradiation. Bacteria which are resistant to UV-induced oxidative damage of the cell membrane are susceptible to photocatalytic technology. The main objective of this research was to examine the photocatalytic removal of P. aeruginosa upon UV irradiation in the presence of TiO2 nanoparticles.
Methods: Polluted water samples were prepared by the addition of P. aeruginosa colonies into water, followed by contact with UV, TiO2, or a combination of the two in separate stages. The effect of various parameters, including contact time, pH, and TiO2 concentration, on reaction efficiency was examined.
Results: The highest efficiency of bacterial disinfection was achieved with UV irradiation in the presence of TiO2 nanoparticles, with complete (100%) removal of P. aeruginosa observed upon irradiation for 60 min in the presence of 0.4 g/L TiO2 under conditions of neutral pH.
Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that from a technical and economic perspective, the UV/TiO2 process may be effectively applied for the disinfection of polluted water. This process could be considered a promising method of cleaning and purification, and applicable for water disinfection.

Mohammad Reza Mehrasbi, Zohre Farahmand Kia,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (12-2015)

Background: Qual2k is a stream water quality model and was used to evaluate the water quality of the Kine-Vars River and assess the response of the river to nutrient management strategies.
Methods: For that purpose, 7 sample stations were selected and surface water samples were collected in the winter and summer of 2012 and were analyzed for temperature, dissolved oxygen, biological oxygen demand, ammonia–nitrogen, nitrate–nitrogen, organic nitrogen, organic phosphorus, and inorganic phosphorus.

Results: Results showed that the Kine-Vars River is saturated with N and P and is classified as eutrophic. The simulated data showed that the total nitrogen and total phosphorus loads of the studied river need to be reduced by 76% and 93%, respectively, to reach water quality objectives.
Conclusion: Application of nutrient control strategies can reduce the nutrient loads significantly but is not sufficient to change the river classification from eutrophic to oligotrophic in a short time; thus, additional nutrient control measures are necessary.

Marzieh Makaremi, Nabiollah Mansouri, Alireza Vafaeinajad, Mohammad Hasan Behzadi, Seyed Alireza Mirzahossieni ,
Volume 4, Issue 4 (12-2018)

Background: Gypsum industry is one of industries which is known as an environment pollutant. In this study distribution and prediction of emitted PM10 from Gypsum factory is studied by modeling. The main goal of this study is to create a regression equation to demonstrate the Zarch factory PM10 dispersion by the AERMOD model.
Methods: In this study distribution and concentration of emitted particulate matter (PM10) is estimated by AERMOD model. The regression equation of emission is resulted by AERMOD estimation and excel software, finally the results of AERMOD model and regression equation was compared to each other.
Results: In this study the regression equation is c = 14.6 x (-1.045) and by this regression equation the particulate matter’s concentration could be estimated around the factory. Comparison of regression equation and AERMOD model represented that 69% of total results are similar in models.
Conclusion: The results of this study represented that by AERMOD outputs, a regression equation could be created which is able to estimate particulate matter’s concentration around the emission sources according to sources properties, meteorological parameters, site topography and etc.

Davoud Balarak, Mohadeseh Dashtizadeh, Mohadeseh Zafariyan, Masomeh Sadeghi,
Volume 4, Issue 4 (12-2018)

Background: Nowadays, the development of new materials is emergent that can be used in the adsorption process to remove dyes from the aquatic environment. Therefore, in this study, the performance of raw Kaolin as a low cost adsorbent was evaluated in removing Direct Blue 71 (DB71) dye from aqueous solutions.
Methods: For investigating the adsorption, various parameters were optimized and data were adjusted to four isotherm models: Freundlich, Dubinin–Radushkevich, Langmuir and Temkin, in order to determine the one presenting the best adjustment to the experimental data. Moreover, the kinetics study for adsorption was evaluated using diffusion, pseudo-first-order kinetic and pseudo-second-order kinetic models.
Results: The results revealed that at the DB71 concentration of 10 mg/L, adsorbent dose of 2.5 g/L, and contact time of 75 min, the DB71 removal reached 98.5%. Adsorption data fitted best into the Langmuir and D-R adsorption isotherms. The maximum monolayer adsorption capacity was 36.41 mg/g. The pseudo second order kinetics best described the kinetics of the adsorption system.
Conclusion: It was revealed that Kaolin could be applied for DB71 dye removal from solution samples with the adsorption capacity of 36.41 mg/g and thus could be used as a low-cost and effective adsorbent.

Abdul Jalil Tazerodi, Hamideh Akbari, Ferdos Mostafapour,
Volume 4, Issue 4 (12-2018)

Background: Catechol is considered as apriority pollutant, since it is harmful to organisms even at low concentrations, and has been classified as hazardous pollutants. The aim of this study was to investigate catechol adsorption by graphene oxide of aqueous solution.
Methods: This study was an experimental-laboratory research. The batch adsorption system was utilized to evaluate the Catechol removal efficiency under different amount of effective parameters including contact time, adsorbent dosages and Catechol concentration. The experimental data were analyzed by the Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin isotherm models.
Results: R2 value of Langmuir isotherm model is higher than other models and maximum monolayer coverage (qmax) was calculated to be 79.08 mg/g and the separation factor indicating a favorable sorption experiment is 0.242. Also from Freundlich isotherm model, the intensities of adsorption (n) that indicated favorable sorption is 3.324. The maximum removal efficacy (94.7%) was at concentration 100 mg/L, pH 7, adsorbent dosage 1200 mg/L and contact time 75 min.
Conclusion: According to the results, the adsorption process using graphene oxide was effective in the removal of catechol. Therefore, the use of this cost-effective agent is recommended as a proper alternative for the removal of catechol from aqueous solutions.

Amir Hossein Baghaie, Amir Daliri,
Volume 5, Issue 1 (3-2019)

Background: This research was investigated to evaluate effect of applying sunflower residues as a green manure on increasing zinc (Zn) concentration of two Iranian wheat cultivars in a Pb and cadmium (Cd) polluted soil.
Methods: Treatments included the application of sunflower residuals grown in a Zn-polluted soil  at two levels of 0 and 8 t/ha, two wheat cultivars  in a soil contaminated with Pb (0, 400 and 800 mg Pb/kg soil) and Cd (0, 5 and 10 mg Cd/kg soil). After 7 months of the experiment. Plant Pb, Zn and Cd concentrations were measured using atomic absorption spectroscopy. 
Results: The highest root and shoot Zn concentration of wheat plant was belonged to the      Back cross cultivar. Addition of 8 t/ha sunflower residues in soil without Pb and Cd pollution increased the root Zn concentration of Back Cross and Kavir  cultivars by 12 and 16%, respectively. The highest and lowest Zn translocation factor of wheat plants was belonged to Back Cross and Kavir cultivars, respectively.
Conclusion: Applying sunflower residues has a significant effect on increasing plant Zn concentration and can be useful as a suitable way to increase Zn concentration of wheat grown in Zn deficient and heavy metal polluted soils. 

Mustafa Solgimoghaddam, Younes Khosravi, Hossein Asakereh, Mehdi Doostkamian,
Volume 5, Issue 1 (3-2019)

Background: The present study aimed to validate the thermal regions in Iran with an emphasis on the identification of the climatic cycles during the recent half-century.
Methods: Data on daily temperature were extracted for 383 synoptic stations of Iran Meteorological Organization. For the zoning of the temperatures of Iran, multivariate statistical techniques (cluster analysis and discriminant analysis) were applied. In addition, the verification of the areas that were identified by cluster analysis and discriminant analysis was performed using the silhouette analysis.
Results: Discriminant analysis and silhouette analysis could properly identify the thermal regions in Iran, and this claim was confirmed with 2% error. Moreover, the spectral analysis of the thermal regions indicated that the temperature of Iran in the first and second regions had a medium-term cycle or an occasional short-term cycle, while fluctuations were observed in the third and fourth regions, as well as 2-5-year short-term cycles.
Conclusion: According to the results, the temperature of Iran was affected by several factors in some regions with variable patterns, so that diverse short-term, long-term, and medium-term cycles were dominant in the thermal regions in Iran.

Majid Maani, Mir Mozaffar Fallahchai, Fatemeh Shariati,
Volume 5, Issue 2 (6-2019)

Background: Removal of mineral pollutants from polluted soil is considered to be major environmental concern in the modern era. The present study aimed to investigate the capability of lead uptake and transfer in various organs of Crataegusaronia and Juniperuspolycarposseedlings and determine the effects of lead accumulation on some of the quantitative indices of these plant species.
Methods: Three-year-old saplings were exposed to various concentrations of lead (zero, 200, 300, and 400 ppm) (No3)2 in the sprouting period in a completely random project in triplicate. Afterwards, the lead uptake value was measured in various organs of C. aronia and J. polycarpus (roots, stems, and leaves) using an atomic absorption device.
Results: The analysis of variance indicated that the features of C. aronia and J. polycarpus saplings (e.g., stem length, basal diameter, and root length) were significantly influenced by lead contamination (P < 0.05). Moreover, the saplings of both varieties had high capacity for lead uptake in their roots, stems, and leaves.
Conclusion: According to the results, the seedlings of C. aronia and J. polycarpus could be used as stabilizing varieties for the removal of lead from polluted soil. It is also notable that J. polycarpus is a more effective lead absorbent compared to C. aronia.

Faramarz Majidi, Younes Khosravi, Kamalad-Din Abedi,
Volume 5, Issue 2 (6-2019)

Background: The present study aimed to replace the integrated sound level meter by the noise map of a work environment in order to estimate the equivalent continuous sound level (Leq) as an important quantity in the noise monitoring of continuous noise sources.
Methods: In this theoretical-experimental study, the grid method was initially used. Sound pressure level (SPL) was measured at the selected stations in three noisy industrial halls. Data analysis was performed in ArcGIS 10.2 software, and the noise map was plotted for each hall separately. Afterwards, the different zones with various SPL intervals were calculated on each noise map, and Leq was determined. For the comparisons, Leq was also calculated using logarithmic equations, based on which the integrated sound level meters were programmed.
Results: The proposed method was highly accurate with the relative error of less than 2%. Furthermore, it decreased the number of mathematical operations 7-15 times compared to the conventional logarithmic method.
Conclusion: According to the results, the available GIS-based software could be accurately replaced by the routine Leq measurement hardware to estimate the Leq spatial noise in noisy industrial environments.

Samaneh Taghilou, Mazyar Peyda, Younes Khosravi, Mohammad Reza Mehrasbi,
Volume 5, Issue 3 (9-2019)

Background: Population growth and industrial and agricultural activities have increased the consumption of water, leading to clean water scarcity. Wastewater treatment is an important concern as determining proper sites for wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) largely influences proper operation. The present study aimed to determine an optimized site for WWTP in the rural complexes of Zanjanrood catchment in Zanjan province, Iran.
Methods: The site priority map was generated using the geographical information system (GIS) and analytical hierarchy process (AHP). Locating of the plants was based on various parameters. After map preparation, the weight of each parameter was determined using the AHP approach, and the conversion of the layers was performed using the GIS. The site priority map for each sub-catchment was determined and optimized.
Results: In the criteria pairwise comparison matrix, the distance from the city had the highest value (16%), while the distance from the oil and gas transmission pipelines had the lowest value (1%). The site was located at the lowest elevation compared to the villages in each complex.
Conclusion: According to the results, the AHP followed by the optimization method could pinpoint the optimal sites for the environmental protection of treatment plant construction in rural areas.

Davoud Balarak , Hossein Ansari, Mahdethe Dashtizadeh, Maryam Bazi,
Volume 5, Issue 3 (9-2019)

Background: Phenolic compounds are an important group of pollutants in industrial wastewater, which must be treated before disposal into water resources. The present study aimed to use synthesized graphene oxide (SGO) to remove bisphenol A (BPA) from aqueous solutions.
Methods: Graphene oxide was synthesized using Hummers' method, and BPA adsorption was assessed as a function of solution pH, contact time, adsorbent dosage, and initial BPA concentration using the batch method. Isotherms and kinetic evaluation of dye adsorption was performed using the equilibrium data.
Results: Adsorption was rapid and strongly dependent on pH and adsorbent dosage, reaching the peak at the pH of 7 and adsorbent dosage of 0.8 g/l. BPA removal efficiency at the initial concentration of 10 mg/l was 98.8 ± 0.62%. Analysis of the experimental isotherm data using the Langmuir-Freundlich and Temkin models indicated that the removal process followed the Langmuir isotherm, while the adsorption kinetics followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The maximum adsorption capacity was calculated by Langmuir fitting and determined to be 58.12 ± 1.14 mg/g.
Conclusion: According to the results, SGO could be employed as an effective agent for the removal of BPA from aqueous solutions.

Mehrdad Inanloo, Gholamreza Sadeghi,
Volume 5, Issue 4 (12-2019)

Background: Chemical industries and facilities pose the risk of potential hazards in case of accidents, which lead to injuries and financial losses due to the spread of materials in the surroundings of the accident. These materials often have harmful properties (e.g., toxicity or flammability), and their release could cause secondary accidents (e.g., fire, poisoning, and explosion). The present study aimed to assess the effects of toxic sulfur dioxide (SO2) in a suffocation unit.
Methods: A possible scenario of SO2 emission was selected using the matrix presented by the researchers. Afterwards, the hazard and operability study method was used to analyze the conditions. The modeling and evaluation of the outcomes of the selected scenario for SO2 gas emission from the gas pipeline were carried out using the PHAST7.11 software.
Results: The worst scenario was observed in the employees within the approximate distance of 10 meters and height of two meters from the gas leakage (100 mm leakage diameter) and gas diffusion angled from horizontal impingement.
Conclusion: About 1.84 seconds after the leakage of toxic SO2 (distance: 10 meters, height: 1.39 m), the concentration was approximately 39,339 ppm, which was the worst scenario in August, with the possible mortality risk of 49%.

Amir Hossein Baghaie, Aminollah Aghilizefreei ,
Volume 5, Issue 4 (12-2019)

Background: The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of PGPR and AMF on the changes in sorghum phytoremediation efficiency in the soil amended with lead (Pb)-polluted cow manure.
Methods: Treatments consisted of applying two rates of Pb [0 (Pb0) and 800 (Pb800) mg/kg] polluted cow manure [0 (C0) and 30 (C30) t/ha], two levels of AMF [without    (AMF-) and with (AMF+)] and PGPR (without (PGPR-) and with (PGPR+) inoculation. Pseudomonas sp. R9 was considered as a PGPR bacteria. The plant used in this experiment was sorghum. Plant Pb concentration was measured using atomic absorption spectroscopy.
Results: The highest plant Pb concentration belonged to the cultivated plant in the soil treated with 30 t/ha Pb-polluted cow manure, while the lowest that was observed in the soil without amending cow manure in the absence of PGPR or AMF. The presence of AMF significantly increased the Pb translocation value and sorghum phytoremediation efficiency by 8% and 13.4%, respectively.
Conclusion: According to the results, the inoculated plant with PGPR and AMF had positive effects on increasing Pb phytoremediation efficiency that, which is notable in environmental studies. However, the effects of soil chemical properties on Pb phytoremediation efficiency cannot be overlooked.

Mehdi Shamsaie Mehrgan , Seyed Pezhman Hosseini Shekarabi, Bahareh Hassanzadeh, Seyed Hadi Seyed Alhosseini,
Volume 5, Issue 4 (12-2019)

Background: The present study aimed to determine the concentrations of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in water, bottom sediments, and tissues of sampled fish from Mellat artificial lake in Iran.
Methods: Two stations were selected to evaluate the heavy metal concentrations, including the IRIB qanat (S1) and middle part of the lake (S2). The measurements were performed in triplicate via flame atomic absorption spectroscopy.
Results: In water, the highest levels of Pb (5.33 mg/l) and Cd (0.650 mg/l) were observed in the sampled sediments from S2 in autumn and winter, respectively (P < 0.05). Seasonal analysis revealed that the highest and lowest Pb concentrations were in the fish muscles in summer (8.107 mg/kg) and spring (0.487 mg/kg), respectively, while the fish liver showed the maximum (3.982 mg/kg) and minimum Pb concentrations (0.690 mg/kg) in autumn and winter, respectively. The Pb concentration in the fish muscle and liver was above the standard limits for human consumption. However, the Cd level in the fish muscle in spring was below the standard limits, which gradually increased and exceeded the standard limits.
Conclusion: Precautions are required to avoid the contamination of Mellat Lake with heavy metal-based sources due to the discharge of pollutants.

Majid Maani, Mir Mozaffar Fallahchai , Fatemeh Shariati ,
Volume 5, Issue 4 (12-2019)

Background: Phytoremediation is a method in which plants are used to absorb pollutants. Heavy metals, through competition with nutrients elements, have a significant effect on their distribution in the plant.
Methods: In this study, seedlings were exposed to different concentrations (0.50, 100 and 150 ppm) of cadmium nitrate during a growing period in a completely random design with three replications. Then the value of cadmium uptake was measured by atomic absorption device in different organs of c.aronia and j. polycarpos (root, stem and leaf).
Results: The obtained results of the analysis of variance showed traits such as stem length, basal diameter, and root length were significantly affected by cadmium metal      (P < 0.01).It was also observed that cadmium accumulation in the root and aerial parts of the plant increased with increasing cadmium concentration, and cadmium accumulation in the root tissues was higher in all treatments than aerial parts. In addition, heavy metals reduced the concentration of all nutrientelements in leaves and stems of seedlings.
Conclusion: According to the results, Seedlings of c.aronia and j. polycarpos can be suggested as stabilizing varieties for remediation of Cadmium polluted soils. It is worth to note that j. polycarpos, in comparison with c.aronia, is better absorbent of Cadmium.

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