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Showing 94 results for Subject: Public Health

Sedigheh Abbasi, Shakiba Bakhtom, Mansour Ziaei, Shirazeh Arghami,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (12-2015)

Background; Prevention of accidents—a crucial requirement in oil industries—involves hazard recognition, risk assessment, and corrective actions. The purpose of this study was to compare the ETBA and HAZOP techniques for risk assessment in a gasoline refinery unit.
Methods; In this case study, data were collected using process flow diagram, walking–talking through method, piping and instrumentation diagram, and direct observations. Worksheets for both techniques were filled on the basis of the risk assessment matrix MIL-STD-882E.
Results; The HAZOP method identified 44 deviations attributable to 118 causes. In addition, 11.37% of the identified hazards were associated with unacceptable risk, and 36.36%, with unfavorable risk. The ETBA method detected 10 groups of energy (24 subgroups); 33 hazards were detected, 10.62% of which were associated with unacceptable risk.
Conclusion; HAZOP proved to be the more powerful technique for the prediction and identification of hazards. However, ETBA detected certain hazards that were not identifiable using HAZOP. Therefore, a combination of these two methods is desirable for the assessment of hazard risk in process industries.

Faramarz Majidi, Jamshid Mohammadi, Younes Khosravi, Fatah Abasi,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (12-2015)

Background: Carpet weaving is an occupation that requires sufficient and appropriate lighting. The lighting in carpet weaving workshops affects the productivity and the physical and mental health of workers. Therefore, the evaluation of the illumination and the identification of work stations requiring lighting modifications will be helpful in promotion of the health and safety of workers in carpet weaving workshops.

Methods:This study was carried out for the evaluation of illumination on the basis of Geospatial Information System (GIS) technology in two carpet weaving workshops of Bokan city. As per the norms of Illumination Engineering Society, the sensors of the photometer Testo 545 were placed at lowest and highest of 35 and 163 cm in workshop I, and at 40 and 245 cm in workshop II, which correspond to the lowest and highest work surfaces in the respective workshops. Total, natural, and artificial illuminance was measured in the center of each measurement station using the photometer, and data was analyzed using the Arc GIS software. The maximum and minimum illuminances as well as isolux curves were obtained for each workshop.

Results: The illuminance in workshops I and II were found to be lower and higher, respectively, than 200 lux, which is considered the standard for carpet weaving workshops. Thus, improving the artificial lighting system or redesigning it is essential for ensuring that the standard conditions of illuminance (200–300 lux) are provided.
Discussion: This study showed that the application of GIS technology renders the assessment of illumination in carpet weaving workshops possible. This assessment method could also prove useful for determining the exact stations in the carpet weaving workshops that need modifications, thereby leading to cost reduction.

Faranak Saghatchi, Fatemeh Jafari, Farzaneh Alizadeh Shirazi, Farnoosh Khatibi, Ayuub Bigdeli,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (12-2015)

Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer found in women, and screening is the best way to make an early diagnosis. The aim of this study was to determine the rate of screening mammography and related variables in the mammography center of Mousavi Hospital, located in Zanjan, Iran.
Methods: This was a prospective descriptive study. Study sample size was 526 women who were selected by a convenience sampling method. Data collection instrument was a multi-section questionnaire and this was completed by a trained radiology technologist through interviews. In cases referred to ultrasonography or histopathological evaluation, follow-up of the women was conducted to obtain their results.

Results: Results showed that the rate of screening mammography was 27.4%. Educated women and women, who had a family history of breast cancer, were more likely to have a screening mammography. Among the referrals, 71% were between the age of 30-50 years and the most common complaint in the diagnostic mammography patients was breast pain. The findings of mammography in 33% of patients were normal, 2.3% were malignant and the rest of the cases were as follows: dense breast, axillary lymph node, benign mass, fibrocystic breast and calcification. For the women who had a further evaluation; 26% were referred to ultrasonography, and 1.4% were referred for a breast biopsy. The findings of ultrasonography and pathology confirmed malignancy in 4 women.
Conclusion: According to the study’s results, there is a need to provide information and mass education about screening mammography, breast cancer risk factors and symptoms in Zanjan.

Mohammad Reza Mehrasbi, Ghasem Mohammadi, Mehran Mohammadian Fazli, Bahram Hajikarim, Gholamali Jafari,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (12-2015)

Background: Bio aerosols include airborne micro-organisms such as bacteria, fungi, viruses, etc and their products. Exposure to a bio aerosol is linked with a broad spectrum of health problems, including infectious diseases, acute toxic effects, allergies, and cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality and quantity of bio aerosols found in the air of different wards in Valiasr Hospital, Zanjan, in summer and fall 2012.
Methods: Air samples were collected from six wards including: operating room, infectious, ear, nose, and throat (ENT), surgery, adult intensive care unit (ICU), oncology and administrative with a single-step Anderson sampler. The type and number of colonies were determined in the laboratory, and then the bio aerosol density were calculated in terms of cfu/m3 and compared with the recommended limits.
Results: The most common genera of isolated bacteria and fungi were Staphylococcus and Penicillium, respectively. In the infectious ward bacterial density was higher than the recommended limit of WHO (100cfu/m3) in the visiting times (afternoon). The fungal density in the meeting time (afternoon) in the ICU, ENT, and general surgery, infectious and administrative wards, and in non-visiting times (morning) in the infectious ward was higher than the recommended limit of WHO (50 cfu/m3).
Conclusion: From the findings of this study it can be concluded that the density of fungi and bacteria in the hospital air in some times of working period are higher than recommended levels and therefore, the condition of existing air filtration and ventilation systems should be appropriated according to the international standards of hospitals buildings.

Sajad Chamandoost, Morteza Naderi, Hasan Afshar, Koorosh Kamali,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (12-2015)

Background: Today some bakeries for artificially production of bread in order to production process expedition and compensating defects that created by unnatural fermentation and as well as undesirable quality of flour. For cover superficial defects of bread use of harmful chemical material such as soda, that can cause health problems. The aim of this study is determination of soda and salt amount of bread bakeries in the Zanjan city.
Method: Total number of samples is 450 which include 330 bread samples, 77 Barbari bread and 43 other breads (Sangak, Tafton, and Shirmal). The collected data were analyzed by SPSS 11.5.

Results: The most amounts of soda and salt observed in Barbari breads with 55.8 and 11.7 percent, respectively. Use of soda in autumn and winter seasons, respectively with 31.9 and 41.4 percent had been maximum amount.
Conclusion: Total average of pH is higher than standard in bakeries. That from reasons can noted to undesirable quality of flour, unawareness of bakers and lack of adequate oversight.

Sajad Chamandoost, Mohammad Fateh Moradi, Mir-Jamal Hosseini,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (3-2016)

Agricultural advancement and population growth have prompted increases in food supplies, and higher crop yields have been made possible through the application of fertilizers. Large quantities of livestock and poultry on farms, along with the accumulation of biomass and agricultural residues, can cause contamination of ground water resources and other water sanitation concerns in both developing and developed countries. Nitrate is mainly used as a fertilizer in agriculture, and because of its high solubility in water, it can create biological problems in the environment. High usage of nitrite in the food industry as a preservative, flavor enhancer, antioxidant, and color stabilizing agent can cause human exposure to this toxic compound. Nitrite is 10 times as toxic as nitrate in humans. Nitrate is converted to nitrite and nitrosamine compounds in the human stomach, which can lead to bladder cancer. In this review, sources of nitrate and nitrite exposure were investigated. Furthermore, the review evaluates standard levels of nitrate and nitrite in different foods, and acceptable daily doses of these compounds in various countries. Finally, we discuss valid methods of nitrate and nitrite identification and removal in foods.

Majid Aminzare, Mohammad Hashemi, Hassan Hassanzad Azar, Jalal Hejazi,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (3-2016)

Meat and meat products are highly prone to microbial deterioration since they are rich in essential nutrients and perishable in nature and if they are not properly preserved, public health problems may occur. Recently, in order to increase the microbial quality of meat and meat products, novel ingredient systems that are associated with natural and organic foods, are applied. Many studies have demonstrated the antimicrobial activity of plant-origin natural antimicrobials in meat and meat products. Nevertheless, advanced technologies can improve the microbial stability and the sensory quality of meat products containing natural extracts and essential oils through different techniques. This paper first reviews the microbial deterioration of meat and meat products and their traditional storage techniques and then discusses the manner and extent of the use of herbal extracts and essential oils in these products.

Shirazeh Arghami, Reza Kalantari, Elham Ahmadi Kionani, Ahmad Zanjirani Farahani, Mehrdad Kamrani,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (3-2016)

Background: Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) may involve all parts of the body, and have been a worldwide problem. Employed women are two to five times more likely to report such problems, and assembly lines suspected to induce more WMSDs because of high rate of repetitive motions.
Methods: The aim of this study to determine the prevalence of WMSDs in women workers of an automobile manufacturing assembly line. In this cross-sectional survey, 50 women workers in an automobile manufacturing assembly line were studied. Data was collected based on Nordic questionnaire. The statistical analysis was performed by the SPSS 11 software.
Results: The MSDs prevalence rate was 98%. The most reported complaint was related to the back (68%) and there was a significant relationship between prevalence and pain severity with age and working years. Moreover, the duration of feeling pain per day, and pain severity had a significant relationship with the capability of the person to continue working.
Conclusion: Workstations ergonomically improvement and employing men instead of women would be effective to reduce the problems.

Negin Soleimani, Mehran Mohammadian Fazli, Ali Ramazani, Mohammad Reza Mehrasbi,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (3-2016)

Background: Various industries produce and discharge wastes containing different heavy metals into the environment. Apart from using living biomass, dead and dried biomasses have been introduced as a new field of biotreatment technology.
Method: The cadmium (Cd) (II) removal characteristics of live (growing), dead (autoclaved), and oven-dried biomasses of Aspergillus versicolor were examined as a function of initial pH, contact time, and initial Cd concentration.
Result: Maximum bioaccumulation of Cd for live biomass [11.63 (mg g¹)] occurred at an optimal pH of 4 and incubation time of 4 days. Themaximum biosorption of 27.56 (mg g¹) for dead biomass occurred at 1.5 h and at a pH of 4. The maximum biosorption [18.08 (mg g¹)] with dried biomass was reached at an equilibrium time of 3 h at a pH of 6.
Conclusion: The present study confirmed that heat treatment promoted the removal capacity of fungi. Cd removal was increased by decreasing the pH in live and dead-mode experiments. Inversely, Cd removal was increased with increasing pH for the dried biomass of A. versicolor. Varying responses to environmental conditions (pH and contact time) clearly proved the different removal mechanisms used by three biomasses of A. versicolor. Higher Cd concentration increased the removal ability of three types of biomasses. The results indicated that all biomasses of A. versicolor used in this study, particularly dead biomass, are a suitable biosorbent for the removal of Cd (II) ions from aqueous solution.


Seyedeh Parvin Moussavi, Mehran Mohammadian Fazli,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (3-2016)

Background: Dyes can cause many problems in environment. Therefore, removal of these contaminants before discharging wastewater to environment can reduce the environmental hazards. Adsorption is one of the usual processes for decolorizing from wastewater. Nanotubes are new adsorbents that can adsorb different compounds. This work aimed to investigate Acid violet 17 dye removal by adsorption using multi-walled carbon nanotubes as adsorbent from aqueous solution.
Methods: This experimental study was conducted in the batch mode and to investigate effects of parameters such as contact time, initial concentration of dye, pH and Multi-walled carbon Nanotubes dose on decolorization process.
Results: Results showed that the maximum dye decolorization was achieved in 3 hours. With increasing adsorbent dose, the removal efficiency was increased up to 95.9%. It was found that the maximum adsorption capacity of multi-walled carbon nanotubes occurred in acidic pH conditions. With decreasing the initial concentration of dye, removal efficiency increase up to 83.4%. Adsorption equations were described by Freundlich isotherm and Pseudo-Second order kinetic.
Conclusion: The optimal conditions for decolorization efficiency ware equilibrium time of 3 hours, pH of 4, and nanotube dose of 0.4 g /L. The high R2 value of greater than 0.90 obtained showed that the experimental data agreed well with Freundlich isotherm and Pseudo-second order kinetic models.

Hossein Masoumi Jahandizi, Koroosh Kamali, Ali Mohammadi,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (3-2016)

Background: Reproduction is an important population concept throughout the world, and demographists consider it among four main life events. Given Iran's population growth policy, this study was conducted to assess the tendency to pregnancy in women in Zanjan.
Method: From among health centers in five geographical districts in Zanjan (North, South, East, West, and Center), one was randomly selected from each district, and the study was conducted on a total of 400 people. Data were analyzed in SPSS-16 using descriptive and inferential tests including Chi-square, t-test (mean test) and variance analysis.

Results: A total of 186 women (46.5%) desired pregnancy after marriage and 212 (53%) did not. Also, 209 husbands (52.2%) agreed with childbearing after marriage, and 186 (45.5%) disagreed.
Conclusion: Childbearing can be encouraged among husbands agreeing with pregnancy of their spouse (more than half) and women attending pregnancy counseling and family planning centers.

Tooran Yarahmadi, Mazyar Peyda, Mehran Mohammadian Fazli, Rizan Rezaeian, Negin Soleimani,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (3-2016)

Background: Turbidity removal using inorganic coagulants such as iron and aluminum salts in water treatment processes causes environmental and human health concern. Historically, the use of natural coagulant to purify turbid water has been practiced for a long time. Recent research indicates that Descurainia Sophia seed can be effectively used as a natural coagulant to remove water turbidity.
Method: In this work, turbidity removal efficiency of Descurainia Sophia seed extract was compared with Ferric chloride. Experiments were performed in laboratory scale. The coagulation experiments were done with kaolin as a model soil to produce turbidity in distilled water. The turbidity removal efficiency of Descurainia Sophia seed extract and Ferric chloride were conducted with jar test apparatus. In all experiments, initial turbidity was kept constant 100(NTU). Optimum combination of independent variables was used to compare two different types of coagulants.
Result: The obtained results showed that Ferric chloride could remove 89.75% of the initial turbidity, while in case of Descurainia Sophia this value was 43.13%. The total organic carbon (TOC) analysis of the treated water using seed extract showed an increased concentration of TOC equal to 0.99 mg/L.
Conclusions:This research has shown that Descurainia Sophia seed extract has an acceptable potential in the coagulation/flocculation process to treat turbid water.

Shirazeh Arghami, Mojtaba Moshayedi, Idin Rahim Ziad,
Volume 1, Issue 3 (6-2016)

Background: Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are among the most prevalent pains which could be ignited via material handling. Backpack wearers are among those who may carry heavy loads. Since MSDs mainly originate in school-aged children, students (as the largest group of backpack wearers) are considered more important. The purpose of this study is to design a backpack based on minimization of shearing force.
Methods: At first the relevant patents were investigated at national and international levels. Then the appropriate ones selected for optimizing. The main selection criterion was based on reduction of pressure on body. As an extra function we used a generator to produce electricity. The criterion for electricity generator selection was: 1) small dimension, 2) low weight, and 3) safe voltage.
Results: A suspending system used to eliminate shearing forces. Since a wearing backpack student is under the shearing force caused by walking, a spring system was used as a reducing device for shearing force. Physical spring calculation revealed that springs with stiffness coefficient equal to 588 was appropriate.
Conclusion: In comparison with existing designs, suggested backpack design can reduce forces on upper limb during handling the backpack

Faramarz Majidi, Nahid Rezai,
Volume 1, Issue 3 (6-2016)

Background: Noise mapping in industry can be useful to assess the risks of harmful noise, or to monitor noise in machine rooms. Using GIS -based software for plot of noise maps in an indoor noisy work environment can be helpful for occupational hygienists to monitor noise pollution.
Methods: This study was carried out in noisy packaging unit of a food industry in Ghazvin industrial zone, to evaluate noise levels by GIS technique. For this reason the floor of packaging unit was divided into squares 2×2 meters and the center of each square was marked as a measurement station based on NIOSH method. The sound pressure level in each station was measured and then the measurement values were imported into Arc GIS software to plot of noise map.

Results: Unlike current method, the noise maps generated by GIS technique are consistent with the nature of sound propagation.
Conclusion: This study showed that for an indoor work environment, the application of GIS technology renders the assessment of noise levels in the form of noise maps, is more real and more accurate than the routine method that is now using by the occupational hygienists.

Tooran Yarahmadi, Hassan Hassanzadaza, Sajad Chamandoost, Majid Aminzarer,
Volume 1, Issue 3 (6-2016)

Background: Foods have been many changes from production to tables and continuous control is necessary to maintain food safety and supply foods with good quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of some foods with high consumption in Zanjan city during the 5 years from 2009 to 2013.
Methods: In a case-control descriptive study with an annually control program during 5 years from 2009 to 2014, some food samples including pasteurized milk, vegetables oils, flour, kabab, salt, confectionary products and a special sweet named nan-chay were collected and analyzed in food control laboratory of Zanjan university of medical sciences.

Results: According to national standard of Iran, 68.4%, 46%, 24.3%, 10.4%, 9.3%, 5% of Nan-chay, salt, vegetable oils, kabab, confectionary products, pasteurized milk and samples were out of national standard limits and unacceptable, respectively. All flour samples had good standard quality. Mean±sd values of pH in Nan-chay samples were 7.5 and 1.19, respectively. Mean±sd values of the degree of purity in salt samples were 98.21 and 1.75, respectively.
Conclusion: Results showed that among the 7 types of collected foods in Zanjan city, the most nonstandard cases were of Nan-chay samples and the best quality belongs to flour samples.

Fatemeh Zarei, Amir Nassiri, Maryam Khazaee-Pool, Hadi Tehrani, Fatemeh Rakhshani, Mohammad Masoud Vakili,
Volume 1, Issue 3 (6-2016)

Background;It is important to know media and educational intervention and also produce them according to standards. Thus, media and health educational interventions should evaluate to improve education quality.
Methods;The study sample were whole produced media and interventions in all medical universities, deportments, offices, and centers affiliated to ministry of health in 2008 and in the first half of 2009. Sampling took a census. The evaluating tool was a checklist which made in four domains including pre-media, media and intervention specifications, production, and implementation, evaluation.

Results; 7.1% percent of media and interventions achieved 50 percent score in pre-media. The other results were respectively in media specification 63.7% percent, implementation and production 15.7% percent, and also evaluation 2.9% percent.Intervention just evaluated in pre-media.
Conclusion; The results of the evaluation in health education media indicate that the IEC cycle (Information, Education, Communication) in health care system is an incomplete process. Meanwhile regardless of prerequisite the scoped phase will implicate and lead to educational budget dissipation.

Nahideh Mohammadi, Koorosh Kamali, Yousefali Abedini, Mohsen Ahadnejad, Mehdi Azari,
Volume 1, Issue 3 (6-2016)

Background: Brucellosis (Malta fever) is a major contagious zoonotic disease, with economic and public health importance.
Methods: To assess the effect of meteorological (temperature, rainfall, humidity, and wind) and climate parameters on incidence of brucellosis, brucellosis distribution and meteorological zoning maps of Zanjan Province were prepared using Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) and Kriging technique in Arc GIS medium. Zoning maps of mean temperature, rainfall, humidity, and wind were compared to brucellosis distribution maps.

Results:Correlation test showed no relationship between the mean number of patients with brucellosis and any of the four meteorological parameters.
Conclusion: It seems that in Zanjan province there is no correlation between brucellosis and meteorological parameters.

Mohammad Reze Mehrasbi, Faranak Saghatchi, Zahra Khodaei, Jose Luis Gutierrez-Villanueva, Koroosh Kamali,
Volume 1, Issue 3 (6-2016)

Background: Environmental gamma ray refers to the gamma radiation from terrestrial sources and building materials. In enclosed spaces radiation can become a health hazard leading to potential increase in the rates of lung cancer. The goal of this study is to assess the exposure to natural gamma radiation of children in the schools of Zanjan province.
Method:The natural gamma radiation was assessed in 46 primary schools of Zanjan province. A total number of 75 classrooms were studied. The measurements were performed in classrooms and schoolyards using a Geiger–Muller detector (RDS-110). Alongside radiation measurements, all the data corresponding to the characteristics of each school building were collected.

Results: The results showed that the outdoor dose rate ranged from 82 to 106nSv h-1 while gamma dose rate due to inside classrooms ranged from 106 to 137nSvh-1. The findings represented that the highest indoor gamma dose rate belonged to the buildings of more than 30 years and metal frame and brick (P<0.05).

Conclusion: We concluded that the effective dose due to gamma radiation from terrestrial sources and building materials for students of primary schools in Zanjan province (0.83 mSv) was higher than worldwide average of the annual effective dose (0.48 mSv).

Mazyar Peyda, Mohammad Reza Mehrasbi, Masoud Naderi, Koorosh Kamali, Vahid Fallah Abadi,
Volume 1, Issue 4 (9-2016)

Background; Contamination of water and soil through non-point sources such as road runoff causes environmental concern. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of Zanjan – Chavarzagh road on the total organic carbon (TOC) content of sediments in tributaries and the river that lead to Taham Lake.
Methods; In tributaries and the river 69 soil and sediment samples were taken and the Total organic carbon (TOC) was measured according to Walkely-Black method. Also, Taham Dam Basin area and its hydrologic properties were calculated by Global Information System (GIS) software.
Results; Results showed that, TOC concentration has a significant negative relationship with the distance from the lake. TOC in soil samples taken from hillside of the road had significantly lower mean and median concentration ( median= 3262 , mean = 4083 ± 3461  mg/kg) than the valley side ( median = 5324 , mean = 6178 ± 3980  mg/kg). The check dams across the tributaries and the river have not been effective in the reduction of TOC in sediments.
Conclusion; Roads in the Taham Dam Basin, increases TOC content of soil and sediments in Taham dam basin. TOC moves toward Taham dam lake.

Javad Mohammadi, Mehdi Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza Mehrasbi, Mazyar Peyda,
Volume 1, Issue 4 (9-2016)

Background; Enzymes are well known as sensitive catalysts in the laboratory and industrial scale. To improve their properties and for using their significant potential in various reactions as a useful catalyst the stability of enzymes can often require improvement. Enzymes Immobilization on solid supports such as epoxy- functionalized ferric silica nanocomposite can be effective way to improve their characteristics.
Methods; In this study silica coated magnetite nanoparticles were Functionalized with GPTSM as a linker, then immobilization reaction performed by using  various amounts of lipase B from Candida Antarctica (CALB), for the next step immobilization effects on thermal stability and optimum pH were investigated in comparison with free CALB.

Results; Results illustrated enzyme was successfully immobilized on nano particles and immobilized derivative retains 100% of its activity by 55°C while free CALB loss its activity at the same condition.
Conclusion; Immobilization of CALB on Fe3O4@SiO2 particles resulted in significant improvements in its characteristics such as thermal stability and methanol tolerance compared to the free CALB.

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