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Showing 35 results for Subject: Public Health

Faranak Saghatchi, Fatemeh Jafari, Farzaneh Alizadeh Shirazi, Farnoosh Khatibi, Ayuub Bigdeli,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (12-2015)

Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer found in women, and screening is the best way to make an early diagnosis. The aim of this study was to determine the rate of screening mammography and related variables in the mammography center of Mousavi Hospital, located in Zanjan, Iran.
Methods: This was a prospective descriptive study. Study sample size was 526 women who were selected by a convenience sampling method. Data collection instrument was a multi-section questionnaire and this was completed by a trained radiology technologist through interviews. In cases referred to ultrasonography or histopathological evaluation, follow-up of the women was conducted to obtain their results.

Results: Results showed that the rate of screening mammography was 27.4%. Educated women and women, who had a family history of breast cancer, were more likely to have a screening mammography. Among the referrals, 71% were between the age of 30-50 years and the most common complaint in the diagnostic mammography patients was breast pain. The findings of mammography in 33% of patients were normal, 2.3% were malignant and the rest of the cases were as follows: dense breast, axillary lymph node, benign mass, fibrocystic breast and calcification. For the women who had a further evaluation; 26% were referred to ultrasonography, and 1.4% were referred for a breast biopsy. The findings of ultrasonography and pathology confirmed malignancy in 4 women.
Conclusion: According to the study’s results, there is a need to provide information and mass education about screening mammography, breast cancer risk factors and symptoms in Zanjan.

Sajad Chamandoost, Morteza Naderi, Hasan Afshar, Koorosh Kamali,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (12-2015)

Background: Today some bakeries for artificially production of bread in order to production process expedition and compensating defects that created by unnatural fermentation and as well as undesirable quality of flour. For cover superficial defects of bread use of harmful chemical material such as soda, that can cause health problems. The aim of this study is determination of soda and salt amount of bread bakeries in the Zanjan city.
Method: Total number of samples is 450 which include 330 bread samples, 77 Barbari bread and 43 other breads (Sangak, Tafton, and Shirmal). The collected data were analyzed by SPSS 11.5.

Results: The most amounts of soda and salt observed in Barbari breads with 55.8 and 11.7 percent, respectively. Use of soda in autumn and winter seasons, respectively with 31.9 and 41.4 percent had been maximum amount.
Conclusion: Total average of pH is higher than standard in bakeries. That from reasons can noted to undesirable quality of flour, unawareness of bakers and lack of adequate oversight.

Hossein Masoumi Jahandizi, Koorosh Kamali, Ali Mohammadi,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (3-2016)

Background: Reproduction is an important population concept throughout the world, and demographists consider it among four main life events. Given Iranchr('39')s population growth policy, this study was conducted to assess the tendency to pregnancy in women in Zanjan.
Method: From among health centers in five geographical districts in Zanjan (North, South, East, West, and Center), one was randomly selected from each district, and the study was conducted on a total of 400 people. Data were analyzed in SPSS-16 using descriptive and inferential tests including Chi-square, t-test (mean test) and variance analysis.

Results: A total of 186 women (46.5%) desired pregnancy after marriage and 212 (53%) did not. Also, 209 husbands (52.2%) agreed with childbearing after marriage, and 186 (45.5%) disagreed.
Conclusion: Childbearing can be encouraged among husbands agreeing with pregnancy of their spouse (more than half) and women attending pregnancy counseling and family planning centers.

Fardin Assadi, Hamidreza Amirmoghaddami, Mojghan Shamseddin, Keivan Nedaeei, Azam Heidari,
Volume 1, Issue 4 (9-2016)

Background; In recent years, nanoparticles have been increasingly used in industries. However, there is a serious lack of information concerning their impact on human health and the environment. This study was investigated the effect of MoO3 NPs on thyroid hormones in female rats.
Methods; In this study, 21 female Wistar rats were selected and divided into three groups of untreated control, sham and treatment group with seven rats in each group. During 28 days the sham group received normal saline and treatment group received 5 mg/kg (MoO3 NPs) in normal saline. After the final injection, blood samples were collected and serum levels of total thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) were measured and groups were compared together.

Results; The results showed that the serum levels of T4 decreased significantly in group of 5 mg (MoO3 NPs) in comparison with the control group (< 0.05). However, there was insignificant difference observed in T3 levels when compared with the control group (p>0.05). The serum levels of TSH increased significantly in group of 5 mg/kg (MoO3 NPs) when compared with the both groups of sham and control (p<0.05).
Conclusion; The results showed that MoO3 NPs exposure induces the risk of thyroid dysfunction.

Faranak Saghatchi, Gholam Ali Jafary, Jafar Taran, Zohreh Farahmandkia,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (12-2016)

Background; Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) play an important role in medical, health and environmental applications. All kinds of microorganisms were found to be able to synthesize GNPs. The optimization of laboratory conditions for achieving more economical benefits of mass production has been studied widely.
Methods;This study assesses the enhancing effect of low-level X-rays on the biosynthesis of GNPs by Actinomycetals. The isolated Actinomycetes were grown aerobically in MGYP broth media. The harvested bacteria were suspended in 50 mL aqueous HAuCl4 in 12 Erlenmeyer flask. Each group contained4 flasks. 2 groups of samples were irradiated by 30 mGy and 5 mGy X-rays respectively. The third group as control remained without irradiation. The solutions were shake- incubated for 120 h.

Results; After 5 days, the color of first group samples changed from milky to purple, while the color changing occurred after 10 days in the 2nd group samples and the control samples. The UV-vis absorption spectrometry of the irradiated aqueous medium by 30 mGy X-rays confirmed the formation of GNPs.
Conclusion; The findings showed that 30 mGy X-rays stimulated the microorganism to form GNPs in a half time in comparison to other groups.

Somayeh Mousavi, Mojtaba Salouti, Reza Shapoury,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (12-2016)

Background; Feather waste is generated in large amounts as a by-product of commercial poultry processing. The main component of feather is keratin. The main purpose of this study was to identify Bacillus spp. (the keratinolytic bacteria) that are able to degrade the feather for producing keratin.
Methods; Bacillus spp. Were isolated from the waste of poultries located in Miyaneh city. The bacteria were grown on basal medium containing 1% hen feather as the sole source of carbon ,nitrogen, sulfur and energy at 27ºC for 7 days. Then,the isolates capable of feather degrading were identified. The Bradford method was used to assay the production of keratin in the feather samples. Different pH and temperatures were studied to determine the best conditions for production of keratinase enzyme.
Results; Seven Bacillus spp. including: B. pumilis, B. subtilis, B. firmus, B. macerance, B. popilliae, B. lentimorbus and B. larvae were found to be able to degrade the feather with different abilities.
Conclusion; B. subtilis was found to be most productive isolate for keratinase enzyme production.

Behnam Mohammadi-Ghalehbin, Ali Pezeshki, Mohammad Hasan Kohansal, Ghodsie Esmaeilnezhad,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (3-2017)

Background: Despite continued and comprehensive planning of the world health organization (WHO), intestinal parasitic infections are a serious public problem in developing countries. Due to the high prevalence of cancers in Ardabil province and subsequently the high possibility of intestinal parasitic infections among the people, the aim of this study was to assess the frequency of intestinal parasites in patients with malignancy in this area.

Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 100 fecal samples were collected from patients with cancer during February to September 2015. The specimens were examined for intestinal parasites using direct smear, formol-ethyl acetate concentration, agar plate culture and Ziel-Neelsen staining technique.

Results: The overall frequency of intestinal parasitic infections in studied cancer patients was 10%. The infection rates of detected intestinal parasites were Cryptosporidium spp. oocyst 4%, Blastocystis hominis 3%, Giardia lamblia 2% and Taenia spp. 1%.

Conclusion: Despite the low frequency of intestinal parasites, there is a need to screen cancer patients for some important parasitic infections such as Cryptosporidium spp. and Strongiloides stercoralis because of irreparable effects of those parasites on thepatients and to increase awareness among clinicians regarding the occurrence of parasitic infections in these patients.

Tayebeh Rakhshani, Seyyed Mansour Kashfi, Mohammad Reza Ebrahimi, Samira Taravatmanesh, Mostafa Rasheki,
Volume 2, Issue 3 (6-2017)

Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of knowledge, attitude and practice of the households on the prevention and control Cutaneous Leishmaniasis.
Methods: This study was a cross-sectional, analytical. The population consisted of the residents in the south of Shiraz. The sample size was 300 and they were selected randomly. For analyzed using the descriptive indices as well as in-depended T-test, chi-square test and ANOVA. The SPSS software 16 was used for analysis.
Results: The mean age of the participants was 36.1±13.6. The mean and standard deviation scores of knowledge, attitude and practice were 16.85 ±3.5, 34.38 ±6.43 and 5.6 ±1.9, respectively. Pearson correlation coefficient showed that the mean awareness (r = 0.13, P-value = 0.02) was more correlated with the mean practice compared to the mean attitude (r = 0.17, P-value = 0.00). However, both variables of knowledge and attitude had a significant relationship with practice (p-value = 0.00).
Conclusion: Generally, the results of our study showed that the scores of knowledge and practice were lower than the mean score, and the attitude score was better than the two other scores.

Akbar Eslami, Mohtasham Ghafari, Valiallah Sohbatloo, Farzaneh Fanaei,
Volume 2, Issue 3 (6-2017)

Background: The best way to assure the quality of drinking water is implementing a comprehensive and integrated management system with cooperation of all the related organizations Therefore, the purpose of this study is the assessment of safety in drinking water supply system of Zanjan.
Methods: This investigation was performed by WSP-QA Tool software and WHO and IWA manual of water safety plan on water supply of Zanjan city in 2016. For this purpose, software checklist (containing 85 questions) were provided and completed according to the history of Zanjan Water and Wastewater Company and interviewing the experts of this company.
Results: Data indicated that from all phases investigated, 52.95% was adjusted with WSP. System Description with the highest score, showed highest percentage of adjustment with the water safety plan (100%) and the phase related to verification and control with the lowest score, showed lowest percentage of adjustment with the water safety plan.
Conclusion: Meanwhile, water distribution system is provided with a relatively average safety level and there is the potential of various pollutions caused by identified risks in water distribution system, therefore changing the present approach is suggested.

Ali Pezeshki, Elnaz Kadkhodamohammadi, Abbas Mahmmodzadeh, Ali Haniloo,
Volume 2, Issue 3 (6-2017)

Background: The genus of Acanthamoeba is an opportunistic protozoan parasite with a worldwide distribution where it is able to cause fatal granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE) and amoebic keratitis (AK). This organism inhabits in the wide range of natural and man-made aquatic environments. The present study was carried out to evaluate the presence of Acanthamoeba spp. in the various water resources of Zanjan province, northwest Iran, using both morphological and molecular methods.
Methods: The Water samples were randomly collected from 30 water sources in different parts of Zanjan, Iran, between April 2015 and May 2016. Then, the samples were cultured on non-nutrient agar and the Acanthamoeba genus identified by morphological characters. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed using the 18S rRNA gene as a molecular marker. 
Results: The obtained data showed that, out of the 60 water samples collected, 30 (50%) were positive for Acanthamoeba spp. According to morphological and molecular approaches.
Conclusion: The present investigation is the first report of the distribution of Acanthamoeba spp. in the various water sources of Zanjan province, gives baseline knowledge regarding water contamination with Acanthamoeba spp. in these areas and emphasizes the necessity of more attention to water sources in order to prevent infections associated with Acanthamoeba spp.

Editorial ,
Volume 2, Issue 3 (6-2017)

  No Abstract
Shahrokh Izadi,
Volume 2, Issue 4 (9-2017)

Background: To determine the most usual resources that adolescents and teenagers are using to learn about sexual issues. A cross-sectional exploratory study implemented in June 2015 in Zahedan, the capital city of Sistan-va-Baluchestan Province, located in the southeast of Iran.
Methods: Using convenient sampling method, from among student of two large universities in Zahedan, 134 students 18 to 22 years old, accepted invitation for filling a self-administered anonymized questionnaire containing, 8 semi-closed questions about sexual issues.
Results: 44.9% of women and 41.6% of men mentioned one of their friends as their tutors. While 42.0% of women mentioned their mothers as one of their tutors, only 18.8% of them believed that more than 50% of their sexual knowledge came from their mothers. 23.1% of male participants and 36.2% of female ones alleged to know personally people of their own ages who had been subjected to sexual abuse or harassment earlier in their life.
Conclusion: In Iran, educating sexual issues to adolescents is badly in need of organization and management. While the rule of a committed extra-family tutor (e.g. an officially appointed school teacher) might not be considered a solution, parents have to be prompted for filling the gap.


Mohsen Moghadami, Akbar Poormoghaddam, Seyyed Mansour Kashfi, Tayebeh Rakhshani, Mohammad Reza Ebrahimi,
Volume 2, Issue 4 (9-2017)

Background: The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiological characteristics of animal bite during 2011 -2016 years in Jahrom city.
Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed using data from the Jahrom University of Medical Sciences. For analytical statistics, Chi-square test and multiple regression test were used. SPSS software version 21 was used for statistical analysis.
Results: In total, 2010 people with an average age of 31.4 ±1.7 in the years 2011 to 2016 in the were biting. Of these, 429 were female (21.3%) and 1581 were male (78.7%). The results multiple showed that there was a positive correlation between (animal bites; Beta = 0.05, age; Beta = 0.02, location of ulcer; Beta = 0.01) with animal bites positive and direct correlation with animal bites. Animal type variables (Beta = -0.06), primary measures (Beta = -0.03), gender (Beta = -0.03), nationality (Beta = -0.03), wound size (Beta = -0.02) and location (Beta = 0.05) had a negative correlation with animal bites.
Conclusion: Most cases of biting have been related to dogs, pets and rural areas. Therefore, the vaccination of dogs and cats is essential by preventing dogs from being exposed to humans.

Editorial ,
Volume 2, Issue 4 (9-2017)

No Abstract

Editorial ,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (12-2017)

‚ÄčNo Abstract
Javad Abbasi, Zohreh Samarghandi, Hesam-Aldin Akbarein, Mohammad Hashemi, Zahra Amani, Ali Tayefeh, Mohammadreza Rezaeigolestani,
Volume 4, Issue 1 (3-2018)

Background: The socio-economical and geographical conditions of Iran cause most of the people consume dairy products or are in close contact with livestock, that these expose many individuals to Brucella spp. Since Qazvin province is considered as a moderate burden of brucellosis, the need for a comprehensive epidemiological study of the disease in this province is quite essential.
Methods: This study is a descriptive study (secondary data analyses) that performed on registered data in department of disease control in health centers of Qazvin province from 2002 to 2009. Data were analyzed by SPSS software (Version 16.0).
Results: Totally, 4037 confirmed brucellosis cases were recorded, which the annual incidence of the disease was roughly decreasing during 2002-2009. The frequency of the illness in the male population was higher than that of women. Most cases were detected in summer and spring and occupational exposure had no significant impact on occurrence of the disease (P < 0.05).
Conclusion: The results of this study are greatly in line with the national pattern and other studies. Prohibition of consumption of uncontrolled traditional dairy products along with production of these products under hygienic conditions in modern industrial plants can prevent occurrences of human brucellosis.

Mohsen Moradi, Malihe Hadadnechad, Amir Letafatkar,
Volume 4, Issue 1 (3-2018)

Background: The shoulder joint internal rotation deficit is inter alia the most important risk factors for throwing athletes. Thus, the present study aims at investigating the effect of eight weeks of rotator cuff muscles’ specific exercises on the range of motion, proprioception and the activation time of the selective shoulder muscles in male volleyball players with shoulder joint internal rotation deficit.
Methods: Thirty male athletes with shoulder joint internal rotation deficit took part in the present study and after preliminary screening and identification of the qualified athletes, the testes were assigned to two groups: experimental (n = 15) and control (n = 15).
Results: The results of the statistical tests indicated that rotator cuff muscles’ specific exercises have had a significant effect on the range of motion, proprioception and electrical activation of the anterior deltoid muscle, medial deltoid muscle, posterior deltoid muscle, infraspinatus and supraspinatus.
Conclusion: According to the positive influence of the rotator cuff muscles’ specific exercises, it is recommended that these rotator cuff muscles’ specific exercises should be added to the rehabilitation-therapy programs for male volleyball players with shoulder joint internal rotation deficit so that the limitations resulting from such a deficit in the range of motion could be eased.

Mahbobeh Firouzkouhi Moghaddam, Tayebeh Rakhshani, Fariba Kadkhodaie, Mostafa Rashki ,
Volume 4, Issue 1 (3-2018)

Background: The rate of drug dependence and abuse is a growing problem in the Iran, number of opioid – dependent people is estimated at a total of 2000.000-4000.000 individuals. The aim of this study was a Comparison of Methadone and Buprenorphine in the Treatment of Opiate Addiction referring to a treatment clinic of Baharan psychiatric hospital in Zahedan city.
Methods: In a cross sectional study, 152 patients with opioid dependence were assigned into two treatment groups i.e. Methadone and Buprenorphine. Data were collected from patients using a questionnaire COWS. ANOVA and repeated measures regressions were used to evaluate the significant differences on using drug (methadone and Buprenorphine), time, and drug-by-time interaction terms.
Results: Patients on MMT and BMT differed in terms of Age started addiction (P = 0.0001); education level (P = 0.0001); and income (P = 0.0001), and no differed in term of sex (P = 0.8). There was no significant difference between the two groups taking buprenorphine and methadone (P = 0.87).
Conclusion: In conclusion, our study indicated, Buprenorphine and methadone are both proven to be effective treatment options.

Farhad Ranjbarzadeh, Seyed Sadredin Shojaedin, Amir Letafatkar,
Volume 4, Issue 1 (3-2018)

Background: People with functional ankle instability are deficient in various factors that need to overcome all these problems via a multifaceted and combined exercises. Therefore, the main purpose of this semi- research is to study the effect of the comprehensive combined program on kinematic of lower limb in active men suffering from chronic ankle instability.
Methods: The subjects of this research will be active men at the university suffering from chronic ankle instability, of which 30 individuals will be purposeful chosen based on the values of the research inclusion criteria and will be divided into two group of control and experimental. Tools for collecting research inputs were motion analysis, and foot ankle inability index questionnaire.
Results: To compare the groups, Covariance test at 0.05 alpha level was used. Results showed that there are significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) before and after the exercise program, between the average scores of parameters elected kinematic lower limb variables, in the experimental group; while in the control group these changes were not statistically significant.
Conclusion: The general results of current research showed that comprehensive combined exercise program can be effective and secure on improving kinematic lower limb.

Mohammad Reza Mehrasbi,
Volume 4, Issue 2 (5-2018)

This article has no abstract

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