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Showing 12 results for Subject: Food Safety and Hygiene

Mosummath Hosna Ara, Abu Rayhan Khan, Nazim Uddin, Palash Kumar Dhar,
Volume 4, Issue 4 (12-2018)

Background: Vegetables are the main source of nutrients for the human being but the intake of contaminated vegetables causes several diseases. Therefore, the aims of this study were to examine heavy metals concentration in leafy, fruit and root vegetables and their growing soil in Mongla, Bangladesh; and to estimate the health risks (non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic) caused by heavy metal exposure through ingestion of vegetable using hazard quotient (THQ) and target cancer risk (TCR).
Methods: United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) deterministic approaches were used to assess the potential health risks to the human.
Results: The average concentration of Fe, Cd, and Pb was 489.47, 0.48 and 8.15 mg/kg respectively, which was above the permissible limit recommended by WHO/FAO. Furthermore, THQ values for these metals and combined impacts of all metals (HI) were greater than the acceptable limit (1.0) which indicated a potential non-carcinogenic health risk. TCR values of Cd and Pb were greater than USEPA risk limit (>10 -6); which exerts moderate to high carcinogenic risk to the human.
Conclusion: The total health risk index showed that the consumption of vegetables from this study area poses a health risk and therefore regular monitoring of heavy metals is strongly recommended. 

Mahnoosh Parsaeimehr, Maryam Khazaei, Ashkan Jebellijavan , Hamid Staji,
Volume 5, Issue 1 (3-2019)

Background: Identification of the dominant lactic acid bacteria involved in the production of traditional cheese in Semnan could be the initiative to protect national genetic resources and produce industrial cheese with desirable texture and organoleptic characteristics similar to traditional cheeses. The present study aimed to determine the biochemical, physiological, and phenotypic properties of the dominant strains of the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from the traditional cheese in Semnan, Iran using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis.
Methods: In total, 14 cheese samples were randomly collected from the northern countryside of Semnan, Iran. The isolated gram-positive and catalase-negative colonies were analyzed in terms of morphology, culture, physiology, biochemical properties, and carbohydrate fermentation pattern. Following that, the LAB isolates were identified based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, and a phylogenetic tree was drawn for the bacterial strains.
Results: In this study, 105 isolates were determined, 58 of which (55.24%) belonged to the genus Lactobacilli, and 47 isolates (44.76%) belonged to the genus Enterococci. According to the biochemical tests and 16S rDNA sequencing, the identified dominant Lactobacillus species included L. plantarum (53.6%), L. paracasei (32.7%), and L. casei (13.7%). In addition, most of the Enterococcus species were E. faecium (74.47%) and E. durans (25.53%).
Conclusion: According to the results, exploring the microbiological diversity of traditional cheese could contribute to the selection of proper bacterial strains for the manufacturing of products with consistent quality and original taste on an industrial scale.

Fatemeh Raji, Saeid Khanzadi, Mohammad Hashemi, Mohammad Azizzadeh,
Volume 5, Issue 1 (3-2019)

Background: Active antimicrobial packaging is a novel method for increasing the safety and shelf life of food products. The present study aimed to investigate the inhibitory effects of chitosan coating nano-emulsion incorporated with Zataria multiflora and Bunium persicum essential oils at the concentrations of 0.5% and 1%, respectively on E. coli O157:H7 in vacuum-packed fish samples during 12 days of refrigeration.
Methods: The samples were divided into various groups, including control (no coating), 2% chitosan, 2% chitosan nano-emulsion, and chitosan coating nano-emulsion containing Zataria multiflora and Bunium persicum essential oils at the concentrations of 0.5% and 1%, respectively. The samples were vacuum-packed and stored at refrigeration temperature, and bacterial counting was performed on days zero, one, two, four, six, eight, and 12.
Results: The mean bacterial count had a significant difference between the study groups during 12 days of storage (P < 0.001). The most significant inhibitory effect on the growth of E. coli O157:H7 was observed with nano-emulsion of chitosan containing 1% of Bunium persicum.
Conclusion: According to the results, using the nano-emulsion of chitosan coating with essential oils could effectively decrease the growth of E. coli O157:H7 in food products, especially food especially fish.

Fakhri Haghi, Shahrzad Daneshamooz, Angineh Parsadanians, Habib Zeighami,
Volume 5, Issue 1 (3-2019)

Background: Staphylococcus aureus is one of the major causes of food poisoning. Since milk is a nutritious source of proteins and vitamins, it could provide the optimal conditions for the growth of several bacterial pathogens, such as S. aureus. The present study aimed to assess the frequency of Staphylococcus aureus classical enterotoxin genes in raw milk samples in Zanjan, Iran.
Methods: In total, 82 bovine, unpasteurized milk samples were collected from the dairy farms in various rural areas in Zanjan, Iran. The isolation and identification of S. aureus were performed using the Baird-Parker agar, routine biochemical tests, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the S. aureus-specific femA gene. In addition, staphylococcal enterotoxin genes (e.g., sea, seb, sec, sed, and see) were assessed using PCR.
Results: Following the appearance of yellow colonies with yellow zones on Mannitol salt agar, 21 S. aureus isolates (25.6%) were detected. In total, 80.9% of the isolates were positive for the presence of SE genes, and the most frequent SE gene was sea (88.2%), followed by see (58.8%), and seb (52.9%). Furthermore, 76.5% of the isolates had two or more SE genes simultaneously.
Conclusion: According to the results, the presence of enterotoxigenic S. aureus in the studied raw milk samples confirmed the possible risk posed on the public health. Therefore, it is recommended that the quality of dairy product quality programs be optimized in order to intensify the sanitary inspection of these products.

Milad Tavassoli, Abdollah Jamshidi, Fahimeh Movafagh, Asma Afshari,
Volume 5, Issue 2 (6-2019)

Background: Yersinia enterocolitica (Y. enterocolitica) has a wide range of clinical, animal, food, and water sources. Most studies have indicated that food is the most common source of this organism. The present study aimed to evaluate the virulent genes of Y. enterocolitica isolated from dairy products in Iran.
Methods: The virulence of Y. enterocolitica biotypes was investigated, which was isolated from 38 cheese and 33 raw milk samples in the northeast of Iran. In total, six virulence-related genes were evaluated, including ail, inv, yadA, myfA, ystA, and ystB in 1A, 1B, and 5 Y. enterocolitica biotypes.
Results: In the isolates of the 1A biotype, ystB was the most frequent gene (86.95% and 38.46% in cheese and raw milk, respectively). In the 1B biotype, the most frequently isolated gene was yadA (92.30% and 66.66% in cheese and raw milk, respectively). In all the isolates, the least frequently isolated gene was ail, followed by myfA.
Conclusion: According to the results, the presence of virulence genes in the Y. enterocolitica strains isolated from dairy products suggested that these strains could pose significant risk to public health if dispersed in susceptible human population.

Mahzad Hosseini, Abdollah Jamshidi, Mojtaba Raeisi, Mohammad Azizzadeh,
Volume 5, Issue 2 (6-2019)

Background: The Study aimed to investigate the chemical composition, antimicrobial effects, and antioxidant properties of clove and lemon verbena essential oils (EOs).
Methods: The chemical composition of the EOs was identified using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). In addition, the antibacterial effects of EOs against seven important foodborne bacteria were assessed using the disk-diffusion, agar well-diffusion, and broth microdilution assays. Evaluation of the antioxidant properties of the EOs was carried out using DPPH, β-carotene-linoleic acid bleaching, and reducing power assay.
Results: All the tested bacteria demonstrated susceptibility to EOs, with the highest susceptibility observed in Bacillus cereus to the clove EO in the agar disk-diffusion test. Moreover, Shigella dysenteriae was identified as the most sensitive bacterium to the lemon verbena EO. Salmonella typhimurium was the most resistant bacterium to both EOs. In the agar well-diffusion test, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and S. typhimurium had the lowest sensitivity to the clove and lemon verbena EOs, respectively. Although both EOs exhibited significant antioxidant capacity, the lemon verbena EO showed higher antioxidant activity in all the tests, with the exception of β-carotene-linoleic acid bleaching test.
Conclusion: Clove and lemon verbena EOs could be regarded as potential sources of natural antioxidant and antimicrobial agents in food processing.

Mahdi Sadeghi, Mojtaba Raeisi, Mina Ghahrechi, Narges Rezaie, Bagher Pahlevanzadehe,
Volume 5, Issue 2 (6-2019)

Background: With the growing use of bottled water, the continuous research and monitoring of the quality of these products are crucial. The present study aimed to assess the chemical quality of the bottled water distributed in Gorgan, Iran.
Methods: This cross-sectional, descriptive-analytical study was conducted on the samples of bottled water distributed in Gorgan city. Sampling was performed during four months (one sample of each brand obtained every month; total: 36). The chemical quality of the samples was measured using standard methods.
Results: The mean concentrations of nitrate, fluoride, and iron and mean pH of the samples were 12.92 ± 11.05, 0.33 ± 0.12, and 0.64 ± 2.9 mg/l and 6.89 ± 0.39, respectively. Only the physicochemical parameters of pH and iron were significantly higher than the standard values, and the mean levels of the chemical factors were significantly lower than the standard values (P < 0.05).
Conclusion: Consumers expect bottled water to have higher quality as they perceive the product to be a healthier choice than the water supplied by urban distribution networks. High levels of some chemical parameters could adversely affect the health of consumers, especially vulnerable populations, which should be taken into consideration by custodians and authorities.

Saeid Khanzadi, Asghar Azizian, Mohammad Hashemi, Mohammad Azizzadeh,
Volume 5, Issue 2 (6-2019)

Background: The present study aimed to determine the chemical composition and in-vitro antibacterial activity of Ziziphora clinopodioides essential oil (ZCEO).
Methods: The chemical composition of ZCEO was determined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were calculated using the microwell dilution assay to assess the antibacterial effects of ZCEO emulsion and nano-emulsion on E. coli O157:H7.
Results: A yield of 1% (w/w) was identified for ZCEO isolation and pulegone (58.78%), menthone (1.15%), and isomenthone (9.91%) as the key components of ZCEO phytochemicals. The MIC values of the ZCEO emulsion and nano-emulsion were 0.8 and 0.025 mg/ml, respectively, and the MBC values were estimated at 1.6 and 0.05, respectively.
Conclusion: It is recommended that the nano-emulsion of ZCEO be applied as a potential source of natural preservatives in food industries.

Hassan Hassanzadazar, Samira Yousefizadeh, Azadeh Ghafari, Mehdi Fathollahi, Majid Aminzare,
Volume 5, Issue 2 (6-2019)

Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of rosemary essential oil (REO) nanoemulsion against some important food borne pathogens.
Methods: Antibacterial effects of REO and REO nanoemulsion were determined using Agar disc diffusion, Broth microdilution and Steam phase diffusion methods against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Shewanella SP, Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enteritidis.
Results: Antibacterial effect of REO and REO nanoemulsion was increased with concentration enhancing of REO. There was no significant antibacterial activity in the effectiveness of nanoemulsion on the studied bacteria in comparison with REO in both disk diffusion and steam phase diffusion methods. MIC and MBC analysis of REO and prepared REO nanoemulsion showed that REO and its nanoemulsion have inhibited all studied bacteria. REO showed better inhibitory effects. REO and nanoemulsion of rosemary essential oil have the greatest effect on Shewanella SP., L. monocytogenes, S. aureus, S.enteritidis, E. coli and P. aeruginosa, respectively.
Conclusion: In total, it can be said that REO and its nanoemulsion are desirable to inhibit the growth of food borne pathogens and can be a good choice as antimicrobial agents in food industry to enhance safety and extend foods’ shelf life.

Yasser Shahbazi, Mahya Mozaffarzogh ,
Volume 5, Issue 3 (9-2019)

Background: The present study aimed to determine the antimicrobial effects of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus reuteri against Campylobacter jejuni in fresh and roasted chicken breast fillets.
Methods: Fresh and roasted chicken breast fillets were soaked in probiotic suspensions (11 log CFU/ml) and immersed in C. jejuni suspension (5 and 3 log CFU/ml). Afterwards, the fillets were placed in clean stomacher bags and refrigerated for 10 days until further analysis.
Results: The count of 5 log CFU/g in the fresh fillets treated with L. acidophilus, L. reuteri, L. reuteri, and L. acidophilus reached 3.45, 3.89, and 4.25 log CFU/g after 10 days of refrigerated storage, respectively. In the roasted fillets, the corresponding counts were estimated at 2.99, 3.54, and 3.92 log CFU/g, respectively. In addition, the inoculated 3 log CFU/g of C. jejuni reached 1.09-1.11 log CFU/g after the refrigerated storage of the fresh and roasted chicken breast fillets.
Conclusion: According to the results, the addition of L. acidophilus and L. reuteri to the fresh and roasted chicken breast fillets had inhibitory effects against the growth of C. jejuni.

Seyyed Saman Mozafari , Alireza Seidavi, Shahaboddin Gharahveysi , Joao Simões,
Volume 5, Issue 3 (9-2019)

Background: Savory herbs and their active essential oils have been extensively investigated as feed additives and an alternative to the use of antimicrobial agents. The present study aimed to assess their effects on broiler chicken performance.
Methods: Dried savory powder (SP) (1.0% or 2.0%) or savory extract (SE) (50 or 100 ppm) was added to the basal starter (until day 22) and grower diets/drinking water, respectively. In total, 308 male Ross broilers aged 225 days were assigned to four treatment groups and the non-supplemented control group.
Results: On day 42, the feed conversion ratio (FCR), improved in the treatment groups (FCR =1.63 on 1.0% SP) compared to the control group (FCR =1.81±0.04; P < 0.005), while no such change was observed in the feed intake or daily weight gain. The FCR was similar between the SP and SE at different levels.
Conclusion: According to the results, 1% or 2% savory powder and 50 or 100 ppm of the savory extract as food and drinking water additives could improve the FCR in the 42-day broiler production cycle and could be a proper alternative to commercial essential oils.

Marziyeh Rezaei, Morteza Khomeiri, Maryam Ebrahimi, Sonia Kiani, Mojtaba Raeisi,
Volume 5, Issue 4 (12-2019)

Background: Milk is an essential human nutrient, and the monitoring of its sanitation is vital during transportation and storage. The present study aimed to assess bacteriological contamination with Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes in the raw milk samples of the dairy farms in Golestan province, Iran.
Methods: In total, 100 samples were collected from dairy farms in hot and cold seasons. The frequency of E. coli and L. monocytogenes was determined using biochemical tests and polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
Results: The biochemical tests indicated that 28% and 27% of the samples were contaminated with E. coli and L. monocytogenes based on the culture-dependent methods, respectively. In addition, 35 and 40 samples were contaminated with E. coli and L. monocytogenes based on PCR, respectively. PCR had higher sensitivity compared to the biochemical tests (P ˂ 0.05). E. coli and L. monocytogenes contamination was significantly higher in traditional dairy farms than industrial dairy farms (P ˂ 0.05). However, seasonal sampling and geographical region had no significant effects on the contamination load.
Conclusion: According to the results, E. coli and L. monocytogenes were highly frequent in the raw milks samples. However, the microbial loads had no significant differences in hot seasons and traditional dairy farms.

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