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Showing 151 results for Type of Study: Research Article

Sedigheh Abbasi, Shakiba Bakhtom, Mansour Ziaei, Shirazeh Arghami,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (12-2015)
Abstract

Background; Prevention of accidents—a crucial requirement in oil industries—involves hazard recognition, risk assessment, and corrective actions. The purpose of this study was to compare the ETBA and HAZOP techniques for risk assessment in a gasoline refinery unit.
Methods; In this case study, data were collected using process flow diagram, walking–talking through method, piping and instrumentation diagram, and direct observations. Worksheets for both techniques were filled on the basis of the risk assessment matrix MIL-STD-882E.
Results; The HAZOP method identified 44 deviations attributable to 118 causes. In addition, 11.37% of the identified hazards were associated with unacceptable risk, and 36.36%, with unfavorable risk. The ETBA method detected 10 groups of energy (24 subgroups); 33 hazards were detected, 10.62% of which were associated with unacceptable risk.
Conclusion; HAZOP proved to be the more powerful technique for the prediction and identification of hazards. However, ETBA detected certain hazards that were not identifiable using HAZOP. Therefore, a combination of these two methods is desirable for the assessment of hazard risk in process industries.


Hossein Masoomi Jahandizi, Seyed Sahar Sheikh Ahmadi,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (12-2015)
Abstract

Background: Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder is a common disorder that causes serious problems in elementary school and it is also implicated in crime statistics, aggression and other behavioral problems in society. This study estimated the prevalence of hyperactivity in elementary school children in Saghez City, Iran, at the age of 6 – 11 years.
Methods: In this study, 760 students were selected from elementary school boys and girls equally, from Saghez. A type of cross-sectional multi-stage random sampling method was used, and from the elementary school student’s academic year, 12 to 2011 were selected. First, variables such as; age, gender, grade level, school status, Children age, employment, parents’ level of education, family size, child’s birth order, and parental psychiatric history were collected. Second, the teacher and parent questionnaire, "ADHD rating scale-IV," which consisted of two parts, was used. For the data collection, a copy of the letter was given to the teacher to complete and the questionnaires delivered. After completion, collected data was analyzed using the SPSS, 11.5 software.
Results: The results showed that the prevalence of ADHD in the children was 34.4%, and by gender: girls 34.2% and boys 34.6%. Higher numbers of hyperactivity disorders were found in families whose parents had lower levels of education. Hyperactivity was observed to be higher in the third and fourth children who were born into larger families, but there was no significant correlation found between the prevalence of hyperactivity and the number of family members (p = 0.16).

Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that the development of training programs for disease prevention and managing hyperactivity disorder, in families with low socio-economic should be a priority.


Roya Alimoradzadeh, Ali Assadi, Fatemeh Afshar, Ali Reza Rahmani, Mohammad Reza Samarghandi,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (12-2015)
Abstract

Background: Titanium dioxide (TiO2)-mediated photocatalysis has been found to be an efficient method of water treatment and is capable of degrading a wide range of organic pollutants and microbial agents with high efficiency. The microorganism Pseudomonas aeruginosa is resistant to chemicals and UV irradiation. Bacteria which are resistant to UV-induced oxidative damage of the cell membrane are susceptible to photocatalytic technology. The main objective of this research was to examine the photocatalytic removal of P. aeruginosa upon UV irradiation in the presence of TiO2 nanoparticles.
Methods: Polluted water samples were prepared by the addition of P. aeruginosa colonies into water, followed by contact with UV, TiO2, or a combination of the two in separate stages. The effect of various parameters, including contact time, pH, and TiO2 concentration, on reaction efficiency was examined.
Results: The highest efficiency of bacterial disinfection was achieved with UV irradiation in the presence of TiO2 nanoparticles, with complete (100%) removal of P. aeruginosa observed upon irradiation for 60 min in the presence of 0.4 g/L TiO2 under conditions of neutral pH.
Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that from a technical and economic perspective, the UV/TiO2 process may be effectively applied for the disinfection of polluted water. This process could be considered a promising method of cleaning and purification, and applicable for water disinfection.


Faramarz Majidi, Jamshid Mohammadi, Younes Khosravi, Fatah Abasi,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (12-2015)
Abstract

Background: Carpet weaving is an occupation that requires sufficient and appropriate lighting. The lighting in carpet weaving workshops affects the productivity and the physical and mental health of workers. Therefore, the evaluation of the illumination and the identification of work stations requiring lighting modifications will be helpful in promotion of the health and safety of workers in carpet weaving workshops.

Methods:This study was carried out for the evaluation of illumination on the basis of Geospatial Information System (GIS) technology in two carpet weaving workshops of Bokan city. As per the norms of Illumination Engineering Society, the sensors of the photometer Testo 545 were placed at lowest and highest of 35 and 163 cm in workshop I, and at 40 and 245 cm in workshop II, which correspond to the lowest and highest work surfaces in the respective workshops. Total, natural, and artificial illuminance was measured in the center of each measurement station using the photometer, and data was analyzed using the Arc GIS software. The maximum and minimum illuminances as well as isolux curves were obtained for each workshop.

Results: The illuminance in workshops I and II were found to be lower and higher, respectively, than 200 lux, which is considered the standard for carpet weaving workshops. Thus, improving the artificial lighting system or redesigning it is essential for ensuring that the standard conditions of illuminance (200–300 lux) are provided.
Discussion: This study showed that the application of GIS technology renders the assessment of illumination in carpet weaving workshops possible. This assessment method could also prove useful for determining the exact stations in the carpet weaving workshops that need modifications, thereby leading to cost reduction.
 


Faranak Saghatchi, Fatemeh Jafari, Farzaneh Alizadeh Shirazi, Farnoosh Khatibi, Ayuub Bigdeli,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (12-2015)
Abstract

Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer found in women, and screening is the best way to make an early diagnosis. The aim of this study was to determine the rate of screening mammography and related variables in the mammography center of Mousavi Hospital, located in Zanjan, Iran.
Methods: This was a prospective descriptive study. Study sample size was 526 women who were selected by a convenience sampling method. Data collection instrument was a multi-section questionnaire and this was completed by a trained radiology technologist through interviews. In cases referred to ultrasonography or histopathological evaluation, follow-up of the women was conducted to obtain their results.

Results: Results showed that the rate of screening mammography was 27.4%. Educated women and women, who had a family history of breast cancer, were more likely to have a screening mammography. Among the referrals, 71% were between the age of 30-50 years and the most common complaint in the diagnostic mammography patients was breast pain. The findings of mammography in 33% of patients were normal, 2.3% were malignant and the rest of the cases were as follows: dense breast, axillary lymph node, benign mass, fibrocystic breast and calcification. For the women who had a further evaluation; 26% were referred to ultrasonography, and 1.4% were referred for a breast biopsy. The findings of ultrasonography and pathology confirmed malignancy in 4 women.
Conclusion: According to the study’s results, there is a need to provide information and mass education about screening mammography, breast cancer risk factors and symptoms in Zanjan.


Mohammad Reza Mehrasbi, Ghasem Mohammadi, Mehran Mohammadian Fazli, Bahram Hajikarim, Gholamali Jafari,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (12-2015)
Abstract

Background: Bio aerosols include airborne micro-organisms such as bacteria, fungi, viruses, etc and their products. Exposure to a bio aerosol is linked with a broad spectrum of health problems, including infectious diseases, acute toxic effects, allergies, and cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality and quantity of bio aerosols found in the air of different wards in Valiasr Hospital, Zanjan, in summer and fall 2012.
Methods: Air samples were collected from six wards including: operating room, infectious, ear, nose, and throat (ENT), surgery, adult intensive care unit (ICU), oncology and administrative with a single-step Anderson sampler. The type and number of colonies were determined in the laboratory, and then the bio aerosol density were calculated in terms of cfu/m3 and compared with the recommended limits.
Results: The most common genera of isolated bacteria and fungi were Staphylococcus and Penicillium, respectively. In the infectious ward bacterial density was higher than the recommended limit of WHO (100cfu/m3) in the visiting times (afternoon). The fungal density in the meeting time (afternoon) in the ICU, ENT, and general surgery, infectious and administrative wards, and in non-visiting times (morning) in the infectious ward was higher than the recommended limit of WHO (50 cfu/m3).
Conclusion: From the findings of this study it can be concluded that the density of fungi and bacteria in the hospital air in some times of working period are higher than recommended levels and therefore, the condition of existing air filtration and ventilation systems should be appropriated according to the international standards of hospitals buildings.


Mohammad Reza Mehrasbi, Zohre Farahmand Kia,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (12-2015)
Abstract

Background: Qual2k is a stream water quality model and was used to evaluate the water quality of the Kine-Vars River and assess the response of the river to nutrient management strategies.
Methods: For that purpose, 7 sample stations were selected and surface water samples were collected in the winter and summer of 2012 and were analyzed for temperature, dissolved oxygen, biological oxygen demand, ammonia–nitrogen, nitrate–nitrogen, organic nitrogen, organic phosphorus, and inorganic phosphorus.

Results: Results showed that the Kine-Vars River is saturated with N and P and is classified as eutrophic. The simulated data showed that the total nitrogen and total phosphorus loads of the studied river need to be reduced by 76% and 93%, respectively, to reach water quality objectives.
Conclusion: Application of nutrient control strategies can reduce the nutrient loads significantly but is not sufficient to change the river classification from eutrophic to oligotrophic in a short time; thus, additional nutrient control measures are necessary.


Sajad Chamandoost, Morteza Naderi, Hasan Afshar, Koorosh Kamali,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (12-2015)
Abstract

Background: Today some bakeries for artificially production of bread in order to production process expedition and compensating defects that created by unnatural fermentation and as well as undesirable quality of flour. For cover superficial defects of bread use of harmful chemical material such as soda, that can cause health problems. The aim of this study is determination of soda and salt amount of bread bakeries in the Zanjan city.
Method: Total number of samples is 450 which include 330 bread samples, 77 Barbari bread and 43 other breads (Sangak, Tafton, and Shirmal). The collected data were analyzed by SPSS 11.5.

Results: The most amounts of soda and salt observed in Barbari breads with 55.8 and 11.7 percent, respectively. Use of soda in autumn and winter seasons, respectively with 31.9 and 41.4 percent had been maximum amount.
Conclusion: Total average of pH is higher than standard in bakeries. That from reasons can noted to undesirable quality of flour, unawareness of bakers and lack of adequate oversight.


Shirazeh Arghami, Reza Kalantari, Elham Ahmadi Kionani, Ahmad Zanjirani Farahani, Mehrdad Kamrani,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (3-2016)
Abstract

Background: Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) may involve all parts of the body, and have been a worldwide problem. Employed women are two to five times more likely to report such problems, and assembly lines suspected to induce more WMSDs because of high rate of repetitive motions.
Methods: The aim of this study to determine the prevalence of WMSDs in women workers of an automobile manufacturing assembly line. In this cross-sectional survey, 50 women workers in an automobile manufacturing assembly line were studied. Data was collected based on Nordic questionnaire. The statistical analysis was performed by the SPSS 11 software.
Results: The MSDs prevalence rate was 98%. The most reported complaint was related to the back (68%) and there was a significant relationship between prevalence and pain severity with age and working years. Moreover, the duration of feeling pain per day, and pain severity had a significant relationship with the capability of the person to continue working.
Conclusion: Workstations ergonomically improvement and employing men instead of women would be effective to reduce the problems.


Negin Soleimani, Mehran Mohammadian Fazli, Ali Ramazani, Mohammad Reza Mehrasbi,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (3-2016)
Abstract

Background: Various industries produce and discharge wastes containing different heavy metals into the environment. Apart from using living biomass, dead and dried biomasses have been introduced as a new field of biotreatment technology.
Method: The cadmium (Cd) (II) removal characteristics of live (growing), dead (autoclaved), and oven-dried biomasses of Aspergillus versicolor were examined as a function of initial pH, contact time, and initial Cd concentration.
Result: Maximum bioaccumulation of Cd for live biomass [11.63 (mg g¹)] occurred at an optimal pH of 4 and incubation time of 4 days. Themaximum biosorption of 27.56 (mg g¹) for dead biomass occurred at 1.5 h and at a pH of 4. The maximum biosorption [18.08 (mg g¹)] with dried biomass was reached at an equilibrium time of 3 h at a pH of 6.
Conclusion: The present study confirmed that heat treatment promoted the removal capacity of fungi. Cd removal was increased by decreasing the pH in live and dead-mode experiments. Inversely, Cd removal was increased with increasing pH for the dried biomass of A. versicolor. Varying responses to environmental conditions (pH and contact time) clearly proved the different removal mechanisms used by three biomasses of A. versicolor. Higher Cd concentration increased the removal ability of three types of biomasses. The results indicated that all biomasses of A. versicolor used in this study, particularly dead biomass, are a suitable biosorbent for the removal of Cd (II) ions from aqueous solution.

 


Seyedeh Parvin Moussavi, Mehran Mohammadian Fazli,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (3-2016)
Abstract

Background: Dyes can cause many problems in environment. Therefore, removal of these contaminants before discharging wastewater to environment can reduce the environmental hazards. Adsorption is one of the usual processes for decolorizing from wastewater. Nanotubes are new adsorbents that can adsorb different compounds. This work aimed to investigate Acid violet 17 dye removal by adsorption using multi-walled carbon nanotubes as adsorbent from aqueous solution.
Methods: This experimental study was conducted in the batch mode and to investigate effects of parameters such as contact time, initial concentration of dye, pH and Multi-walled carbon Nanotubes dose on decolorization process.
Results: Results showed that the maximum dye decolorization was achieved in 3 hours. With increasing adsorbent dose, the removal efficiency was increased up to 95.9%. It was found that the maximum adsorption capacity of multi-walled carbon nanotubes occurred in acidic pH conditions. With decreasing the initial concentration of dye, removal efficiency increase up to 83.4%. Adsorption equations were described by Freundlich isotherm and Pseudo-Second order kinetic.
Conclusion: The optimal conditions for decolorization efficiency ware equilibrium time of 3 hours, pH of 4, and nanotube dose of 0.4 g /L. The high R2 value of greater than 0.90 obtained showed that the experimental data agreed well with Freundlich isotherm and Pseudo-second order kinetic models.


Hossein Masoumi Jahandizi, Koorosh Kamali, Ali Mohammadi,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (3-2016)
Abstract

Background: Reproduction is an important population concept throughout the world, and demographists consider it among four main life events. Given Iranchr('39')s population growth policy, this study was conducted to assess the tendency to pregnancy in women in Zanjan.
Method: From among health centers in five geographical districts in Zanjan (North, South, East, West, and Center), one was randomly selected from each district, and the study was conducted on a total of 400 people. Data were analyzed in SPSS-16 using descriptive and inferential tests including Chi-square, t-test (mean test) and variance analysis.

Results: A total of 186 women (46.5%) desired pregnancy after marriage and 212 (53%) did not. Also, 209 husbands (52.2%) agreed with childbearing after marriage, and 186 (45.5%) disagreed.
Conclusion: Childbearing can be encouraged among husbands agreeing with pregnancy of their spouse (more than half) and women attending pregnancy counseling and family planning centers.


Mohammad Reza Mehrasbi, Rohangiz Moradjoo, Mehran Mohseni, Koorosh Kamali, Zohre Farahmankia, Jafar Taran,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (3-2016)
Abstract

Background: Dithiocarbamates, the main group of fungicides, are used to control about 400 pathogens in more than 70 crops. These pesticides are widely applied to crops including potato, cereal, apple, pear and leafy vegetables throughout the world since 1960. From the late 1980s, using these fungicides has caused much debate among regulators about their long-term effects on consumers and occupational users.
Method:  In this study the residues of Dithiocarbamates in cucumber and tomato using the colorimetric method (Keppel method) was measured. Respectively 80 and 45 samples of greenhouse cucumber and tomato were collected from Zanjan vegetables center in autumns and winter 2013. The samples were analyzed in 4 treatments of: unwashed, washing with water, washing whit detergent and peeling.
Result: The results showed that the average concentration of Dithiocarbamates residues in unwashed greenhouse cucumber and tomatoes were 384.5 µg/kg and 65 µg/kg respectively. 35% and 5% of unwashed and water washed cucumber and tomato   samples (respectively) had higher Dithiocarbamates residue than MRL recommended by Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran (0.5mg/kg).
Conclusion: The treatments of washing and peeling had significant effect on the reduction of Dithiocarbamates residues in the all samples.


Tooran Yarahmadi, Mazyar Peyda, Mehran Mohammadian Fazli, Rizan Rezaeian, Negin Soleimani,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (3-2016)
Abstract

Background: Turbidity removal using inorganic coagulants such as iron and aluminum salts in water treatment processes causes environmental and human health concern. Historically, the use of natural coagulant to purify turbid water has been practiced for a long time. Recent research indicates that Descurainia Sophia seed can be effectively used as a natural coagulant to remove water turbidity.
Method: In this work, turbidity removal efficiency of Descurainia Sophia seed extract was compared with Ferric chloride. Experiments were performed in laboratory scale. The coagulation experiments were done with kaolin as a model soil to produce turbidity in distilled water. The turbidity removal efficiency of Descurainia Sophia seed extract and Ferric chloride were conducted with jar test apparatus. In all experiments, initial turbidity was kept constant 100(NTU). Optimum combination of independent variables was used to compare two different types of coagulants.
Result: The obtained results showed that Ferric chloride could remove 89.75% of the initial turbidity, while in case of Descurainia Sophia this value was 43.13%. The total organic carbon (TOC) analysis of the treated water using seed extract showed an increased concentration of TOC equal to 0.99 mg/L.
Conclusions:This research has shown that Descurainia Sophia seed extract has an acceptable potential in the coagulation/flocculation process to treat turbid water.


Rezan Rezaeian, Mazyar Peyda, Mehran Mohammadian Fazli, Tooran Yarahmadi,
Volume 1, Issue 3 (6-2016)
Abstract

Background: Water treatment sometimes needs a coagulation and flocculation process to remove suspended and colloidal materials. Inorganic coagulants used create concerns about pollution of the environment and harmful effects on the human’s health. The studies carried out previously indicated the capability of an active coagulant agent extracted from Descurainia Sophia seed to remove turbidity of water.
Methods: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of NaCl (0.05-1 gL-1), NaOH (0.01-0.1 gL-1), extraction duration (1-25 min) and the ultrasound frequency (0-45-75 kHz), used in the extraction of Descurainia Sophia seed, on the generation of color in purified water and to provide a model to predict the effects of the studied variables on color generation. Extraction was performed using water as solvent, supplemented with NaCl and NaOH and irradiated by ultrasound. Design of experiments and analysis of results were conducted by the D-optimal method based on the response surface methodology (RSM).

Results: The results demonstrated that only the effect of concentration of NaOH is significant in color generation (with p&It;0.05).
Conclusion: The effect of NaOH on color generation in purified water is predictable by the use of a statistically valid linear model at a confidence level of 95%.


Shirazeh Arghami, Mojtaba Moshayedi, Idin Rahim Ziad,
Volume 1, Issue 3 (6-2016)
Abstract

Background: Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are among the most prevalent pains which could be ignited via material handling. Backpack wearers are among those who may carry heavy loads. Since MSDs mainly originate in school-aged children, students (as the largest group of backpack wearers) are considered more important. The purpose of this study is to design a backpack based on minimization of shearing force.
Methods: At first the relevant patents were investigated at national and international levels. Then the appropriate ones selected for optimizing. The main selection criterion was based on reduction of pressure on body. As an extra function we used a generator to produce electricity. The criterion for electricity generator selection was: 1) small dimension, 2) low weight, and 3) safe voltage.
Results: A suspending system used to eliminate shearing forces. Since a wearing backpack student is under the shearing force caused by walking, a spring system was used as a reducing device for shearing force. Physical spring calculation revealed that springs with stiffness coefficient equal to 588 was appropriate.
Conclusion: In comparison with existing designs, suggested backpack design can reduce forces on upper limb during handling the backpack
.


Ali Assadi, Armita Soudavari, Mehran Mohammadian,
Volume 1, Issue 3 (6-2016)
Abstract

Background: Conventional chemical coagulation is considered as the old method to color and COD removal in textile effluent. Electrocoagulation (EC) process is a robust method to achieve maximum removal.
Methods: This work was designed to compare the result of operational parameters including optimum pH and coagulant concentration for chemical coagulation with ferric chloride and alum. Also, the effect of voltage, electrolysis time, initial pH, and conductivity for EC with iron electrodes on removal of reactive red 196 (RR 196).

Results: The results show that ferric chloride and alum at optimum concentration were capable of taking away color and COD equal to 79.63 %, 84.83%, 53%, and 55% respectively. In contrast, EC process removed the color and COD equal to 99.98% and 90.4%, respectively.
Conclusion: The highest treatment efficiency was obtained by increasing the voltage, electrolysis time, pH and conductivity. Increase in initial dye concentration reduces removal efficiency. Ultimately, it could be concluded that EC technology is an efficient procedure for handling of colored industrial wastewaters.


Faramarz Majidi, Nahid Rezai,
Volume 1, Issue 3 (6-2016)
Abstract

Background: Noise mapping in industry can be useful to assess the risks of harmful noise, or to monitor noise in machine rooms. Using GIS -based software for plot of noise maps in an indoor noisy work environment can be helpful for occupational hygienists to monitor noise pollution.
Methods: This study was carried out in noisy packaging unit of a food industry in Ghazvin industrial zone, to evaluate noise levels by GIS technique. For this reason the floor of packaging unit was divided into squares 2×2 meters and the center of each square was marked as a measurement station based on NIOSH method. The sound pressure level in each station was measured and then the measurement values were imported into Arc GIS software to plot of noise map.

Results: Unlike current method, the noise maps generated by GIS technique are consistent with the nature of sound propagation.
Conclusion: This study showed that for an indoor work environment, the application of GIS technology renders the assessment of noise levels in the form of noise maps, is more real and more accurate than the routine method that is now using by the occupational hygienists.


Tooran Yarahmadi, Hassan Hassanzadaza, Sajad Chamandoost, Majid Aminzarer,
Volume 1, Issue 3 (6-2016)
Abstract

Background: Foods have been many changes from production to tables and continuous control is necessary to maintain food safety and supply foods with good quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of some foods with high consumption in Zanjan city during the 5 years from 2009 to 2013.
Methods: In a case-control descriptive study with an annually control program during 5 years from 2009 to 2014, some food samples including pasteurized milk, vegetables oils, flour, kabab, salt, confectionary products and a special sweet named nan-chay were collected and analyzed in food control laboratory of Zanjan university of medical sciences.

Results: According to national standard of Iran, 68.4%, 46%, 24.3%, 10.4%, 9.3%, 5% of Nan-chay, salt, vegetable oils, kabab, confectionary products, pasteurized milk and samples were out of national standard limits and unacceptable, respectively. All flour samples had good standard quality. Mean±sd values of pH in Nan-chay samples were 7.5 and 1.19, respectively. Mean±sd values of the degree of purity in salt samples were 98.21 and 1.75, respectively.
Conclusion: Results showed that among the 7 types of collected foods in Zanjan city, the most nonstandard cases were of Nan-chay samples and the best quality belongs to flour samples.


Fatemeh Zarei, Amir Nassiri, Maryam Khazaee-Pool, Hadi Tehrani, Fatemeh Rakhshani, Mohammad Masoud Vakili,
Volume 1, Issue 3 (6-2016)
Abstract

Background;It is important to know media and educational intervention and also produce them according to standards. Thus, media and health educational interventions should evaluate to improve education quality.
Methods;The study sample were whole produced media and interventions in all medical universities, deportments, offices, and centers affiliated to ministry of health in 2008 and in the first half of 2009. Sampling took a census. The evaluating tool was a checklist which made in four domains including pre-media, media and intervention specifications, production, and implementation, evaluation.

Results; 7.1% percent of media and interventions achieved 50 percent score in pre-media. The other results were respectively in media specification 63.7% percent, implementation and production 15.7% percent, and also evaluation 2.9% percent.Intervention just evaluated in pre-media.
Conclusion; The results of the evaluation in health education media indicate that the IEC cycle (Information, Education, Communication) in health care system is an incomplete process. Meanwhile regardless of prerequisite the scoped phase will implicate and lead to educational budget dissipation.



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