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Ali Haniloo, Sommayeh Taheri, Negin Torabi,
Volume 1, Issue 4 (9-2016)

Background; Complex surface of vegetables facilitate attachment and transmission of several pathogens. No previous study has been conducted in survey of parasitic contamination of vegetables in Zanjan. This study aimed to detect the parasitic contamination in common raw vegetables in Zanjan markets.
Methods;A total of 352 raw vegetable samples, including leek, parsley, basil, mint, radish, cress and dill were collected from grocery stores using cluster sampling in different regions of the city during 2014. The edible parts of vegetables were separated and immersed in normal saline solution. Floating vegetables were removed and the solution was allowed to sediment at room temperature for 24 hours. The pellet was examined following sedimentation and floatation methods.

Results; Various Organisms were detected in 54% (190) of the 352 samples, but only 2.8% of samples had pathogenic parasites including; Trichostrongylus eggs (3), Hookworm eggs (2), Eimeria oocysts (2), Sarcocystis oocyst (1), Strongyloides larvae (1), and Fasciola eggs (1). The contamination rate of vegetables was highest (90.4%) in the fall (p˂0.05).
Conclusion; Vegetable contamination with parasitic organisms in this area was  low, maybe due to irrigation of vegetables with sources other than sewage water, but it is still necessary to improve sanitary conditions of vegetables.

Ali Pezeshki, Elnaz Kadkhodamohammadi, Abbas Mahmmodzadeh, Ali Haniloo,
Volume 2, Issue 3 (6-2017)

Background: The genus of Acanthamoeba is an opportunistic protozoan parasite with a worldwide distribution where it is able to cause fatal granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE) and amoebic keratitis (AK). This organism inhabits in the wide range of natural and man-made aquatic environments. The present study was carried out to evaluate the presence of Acanthamoeba spp. in the various water resources of Zanjan province, northwest Iran, using both morphological and molecular methods.
Methods: The Water samples were randomly collected from 30 water sources in different parts of Zanjan, Iran, between April 2015 and May 2016. Then, the samples were cultured on non-nutrient agar and the Acanthamoeba genus identified by morphological characters. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed using the 18S rRNA gene as a molecular marker. 
Results: The obtained data showed that, out of the 60 water samples collected, 30 (50%) were positive for Acanthamoeba spp. According to morphological and molecular approaches.
Conclusion: The present investigation is the first report of the distribution of Acanthamoeba spp. in the various water sources of Zanjan province, gives baseline knowledge regarding water contamination with Acanthamoeba spp. in these areas and emphasizes the necessity of more attention to water sources in order to prevent infections associated with Acanthamoeba spp.

Ali Pezeshki, Ali Haniloo, Abbas Mahmoodzadeh, Parvin Farahmandian,
Volume 4, Issue 2 (5-2018)

Background: Genus Acanthamoeba belongs to free-living amoebae, which could pose risk to the central nervous system and cornea and is considered to be a significant health concern. The present study aimed to evaluate the presence of Acanthamoeba spp. in malignant patients in Zanjan, located in the northwest of Iran, using morphological methods.
Methods: Nasal specimens were collected from 100 malignant patients using swabs in the hospitals in Zanjan, Iran during July 2017-August 2018. The samples were cultured on non-nutrient agar, and the Acanthamoeba genus was identified based on the morphological characteristics.
Results: Based on the morphological features, six samples (6%) were positive for Acanthamoeba spp.
Conclusion: This was the first report on the presence of Acanthamoeba spp. in malignant they patients in Zanjan city, which provides further evidence on the existence of Acanthamoeba spp. The findings emphasize that special attention should be paid to immunocompromised patients in order to prevent the infections associated with Acanthamoeba spp.

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