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Mohammad Reza Mehrasbi, Ghasem Mohammadi, Mehran Mohammadian Fazli, Bahram Hajikarim, Gholamali Jafari,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (12-2015)

Background: Bio aerosols include airborne micro-organisms such as bacteria, fungi, viruses, etc and their products. Exposure to a bio aerosol is linked with a broad spectrum of health problems, including infectious diseases, acute toxic effects, allergies, and cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality and quantity of bio aerosols found in the air of different wards in Valiasr Hospital, Zanjan, in summer and fall 2012.
Methods: Air samples were collected from six wards including: operating room, infectious, ear, nose, and throat (ENT), surgery, adult intensive care unit (ICU), oncology and administrative with a single-step Anderson sampler. The type and number of colonies were determined in the laboratory, and then the bio aerosol density were calculated in terms of cfu/m3 and compared with the recommended limits.
Results: The most common genera of isolated bacteria and fungi were Staphylococcus and Penicillium, respectively. In the infectious ward bacterial density was higher than the recommended limit of WHO (100cfu/m3) in the visiting times (afternoon). The fungal density in the meeting time (afternoon) in the ICU, ENT, and general surgery, infectious and administrative wards, and in non-visiting times (morning) in the infectious ward was higher than the recommended limit of WHO (50 cfu/m3).
Conclusion: From the findings of this study it can be concluded that the density of fungi and bacteria in the hospital air in some times of working period are higher than recommended levels and therefore, the condition of existing air filtration and ventilation systems should be appropriated according to the international standards of hospitals buildings.

Faranak Saghatchi, Fatemeh Jafari, Farzaneh Alizadeh Shirazi, Farnoosh Khatibi, Ayuub Bigdeli,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (12-2015)

Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer found in women, and screening is the best way to make an early diagnosis. The aim of this study was to determine the rate of screening mammography and related variables in the mammography center of Mousavi Hospital, located in Zanjan, Iran.
Methods: This was a prospective descriptive study. Study sample size was 526 women who were selected by a convenience sampling method. Data collection instrument was a multi-section questionnaire and this was completed by a trained radiology technologist through interviews. In cases referred to ultrasonography or histopathological evaluation, follow-up of the women was conducted to obtain their results.

Results: Results showed that the rate of screening mammography was 27.4%. Educated women and women, who had a family history of breast cancer, were more likely to have a screening mammography. Among the referrals, 71% were between the age of 30-50 years and the most common complaint in the diagnostic mammography patients was breast pain. The findings of mammography in 33% of patients were normal, 2.3% were malignant and the rest of the cases were as follows: dense breast, axillary lymph node, benign mass, fibrocystic breast and calcification. For the women who had a further evaluation; 26% were referred to ultrasonography, and 1.4% were referred for a breast biopsy. The findings of ultrasonography and pathology confirmed malignancy in 4 women.
Conclusion: According to the study’s results, there is a need to provide information and mass education about screening mammography, breast cancer risk factors and symptoms in Zanjan.

Mostafa Pouyakian , Rozita Farhadi , Mohammad Javad Jafari , Fatemeh Zarei ,
Volume 2, Issue 3 (6-2017)

Background: Nowadays, the reduction of incidents, their effects and their consequences have become one of the priorities of organizations. Despite all the efforts made in various sectors to reduce events, every year, there are many events that threaten industrial societies. In order to mitigate the effects of these incidents, prediction and planning are critical to dealing with them. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the risk of explosion of 1-butane reservoir in a polymer complex based on an analysis of the outcome using the PHAST software.
Methods: This study was conducted in one of the Kermanshah petrochemical complexes in 2016. Necessary geographic information and other basic information were collected. 16 probable scenarios were selected and consequences modeling was done by PHAST software.
Results: The modeling results showed that full rupture scenarios and leakage scenarios from the 150 mm hole are the most dangerous scenarios.
Conclusion: The results of modeling showed that the larger the leakage size, the associated consequences would be more dangerous and consequently more losses. Due to the capabilities of studied company and the readiness level of the company, it has the ability to respond to the first scenario to some extent.


Aghdas Moghaddam, Hassan Hassanzadazar, Mohammad Masoud Vakili, Fatemeh Jafari, Majid Aminzare,
Volume 6, Issue 2 (6-2020)

Background: The studies on children and adolescents provide the basic information for educational interventions such as the assessment of the knowledge of community health promotion. The present study aimed to evaluate the knowledge, attitude, and practices of secondary high school students regarding food safety and hygiene in Khorramdarreh, Zanjan, Iran.
Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 640 secondary high school students during December 2014-December 2015. The participants were selected via cluster sampling, and data were collected using a researcher-made questionnaire after assessing its validity and reliability. Data analysis was performed in SPSS version 16.
Results: The mean scores of the knowledge, attitude, and practices of the students were 36.6±6.96 (moderate), 57.95±6.88 (favorable), and 40.59±5.80 (favorable), respectively. The lowest knowledge level of the students was observed in milk and egg hygiene (27%), meat hygiene (35%), effect of temperature on microorganisms (35%), and brucellosis-related aspects (7.33%).
Conclusion: Although the students had a positive attitude toward food safety, they had inadequate knowledge of the effects on their practices. Therefore, it seems that training is essential in the food safety and hygiene fields for students and their parents.


Leila Khosronia, Fatemeh Jafari, Khadijeh Hajimiri,
Volume 6, Issue 3 (8-2020)

Background: Despite the health benefits of physical activity, many people still adopt sedentary lifestyles. This study aimed to investigate the effect of education based on trans-theoretical model (TTM) on physical activity of women of reproductive age in Zanjan.
Methods: This was a quasi-experimental study. Using convenience sampling method, the sample size of 120 women was selected and randomly allocated to study groups. The data was collected using a short version of Physical Activity Change Algorithm Questionnaire and IPAQ (International Physical Activity Questionnair) before and 3 months after intervention. In addition to training sessions, the intervention 2 group was trained to use pedometer.
Results: Before the intervention most of the  women were in contemplation and preparation stages and 3 months after the intervention, women in intervention groups moved to action and maintenance stages (P < 0.001). There was significant difference in mean time of weekly walking and physical activity in three groups 3 months after the intervention (P < 0.001). These changes were more prominent in women who used pedometer.
Conclusion: The findings showed that education based on the trans-theoretical model was effective in promoting the physical activity. Using the pedometer along with education had effect on improvement of the physical activity.

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