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Showing 11 results for Cancer

Faranak Saghatchi, Fatemeh Jafari, Farzaneh Alizadeh Shirazi, Farnoosh Khatibi, Ayuub Bigdeli,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (12-2015)

Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer found in women, and screening is the best way to make an early diagnosis. The aim of this study was to determine the rate of screening mammography and related variables in the mammography center of Mousavi Hospital, located in Zanjan, Iran.
Methods: This was a prospective descriptive study. Study sample size was 526 women who were selected by a convenience sampling method. Data collection instrument was a multi-section questionnaire and this was completed by a trained radiology technologist through interviews. In cases referred to ultrasonography or histopathological evaluation, follow-up of the women was conducted to obtain their results.

Results: Results showed that the rate of screening mammography was 27.4%. Educated women and women, who had a family history of breast cancer, were more likely to have a screening mammography. Among the referrals, 71% were between the age of 30-50 years and the most common complaint in the diagnostic mammography patients was breast pain. The findings of mammography in 33% of patients were normal, 2.3% were malignant and the rest of the cases were as follows: dense breast, axillary lymph node, benign mass, fibrocystic breast and calcification. For the women who had a further evaluation; 26% were referred to ultrasonography, and 1.4% were referred for a breast biopsy. The findings of ultrasonography and pathology confirmed malignancy in 4 women.
Conclusion: According to the study’s results, there is a need to provide information and mass education about screening mammography, breast cancer risk factors and symptoms in Zanjan.

Mohammad Reza Mehrasbi, Ghasem Mohammadi, Mehran Mohammadian Fazli, Bahram Hajikarim, Gholamali Jafari,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (12-2015)

Background: Bio aerosols include airborne micro-organisms such as bacteria, fungi, viruses, etc and their products. Exposure to a bio aerosol is linked with a broad spectrum of health problems, including infectious diseases, acute toxic effects, allergies, and cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality and quantity of bio aerosols found in the air of different wards in Valiasr Hospital, Zanjan, in summer and fall 2012.
Methods: Air samples were collected from six wards including: operating room, infectious, ear, nose, and throat (ENT), surgery, adult intensive care unit (ICU), oncology and administrative with a single-step Anderson sampler. The type and number of colonies were determined in the laboratory, and then the bio aerosol density were calculated in terms of cfu/m3 and compared with the recommended limits.
Results: The most common genera of isolated bacteria and fungi were Staphylococcus and Penicillium, respectively. In the infectious ward bacterial density was higher than the recommended limit of WHO (100cfu/m3) in the visiting times (afternoon). The fungal density in the meeting time (afternoon) in the ICU, ENT, and general surgery, infectious and administrative wards, and in non-visiting times (morning) in the infectious ward was higher than the recommended limit of WHO (50 cfu/m3).
Conclusion: From the findings of this study it can be concluded that the density of fungi and bacteria in the hospital air in some times of working period are higher than recommended levels and therefore, the condition of existing air filtration and ventilation systems should be appropriated according to the international standards of hospitals buildings.

Sajad Chamandoost, Mohammad Fateh Moradi, Mir-Jamal Hosseini,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (3-2016)

Agricultural advancement and population growth have prompted increases in food supplies, and higher crop yields have been made possible through the application of fertilizers. Large quantities of livestock and poultry on farms, along with the accumulation of biomass and agricultural residues, can cause contamination of ground water resources and other water sanitation concerns in both developing and developed countries. Nitrate is mainly used as a fertilizer in agriculture, and because of its high solubility in water, it can create biological problems in the environment. High usage of nitrite in the food industry as a preservative, flavor enhancer, antioxidant, and color stabilizing agent can cause human exposure to this toxic compound. Nitrite is 10 times as toxic as nitrate in humans. Nitrate is converted to nitrite and nitrosamine compounds in the human stomach, which can lead to bladder cancer. In this review, sources of nitrate and nitrite exposure were investigated. Furthermore, the review evaluates standard levels of nitrate and nitrite in different foods, and acceptable daily doses of these compounds in various countries. Finally, we discuss valid methods of nitrate and nitrite identification and removal in foods.

Mohammad Reze Mehrasbi, Faranak Saghatchi, Zahra Khodaei, Jose Luis Gutierrez-Villanueva, Koroosh Kamali,
Volume 1, Issue 3 (6-2016)

Background: Environmental gamma ray refers to the gamma radiation from terrestrial sources and building materials. In enclosed spaces radiation can become a health hazard leading to potential increase in the rates of lung cancer. The goal of this study is to assess the exposure to natural gamma radiation of children in the schools of Zanjan province.
Method:The natural gamma radiation was assessed in 46 primary schools of Zanjan province. A total number of 75 classrooms were studied. The measurements were performed in classrooms and schoolyards using a Geiger–Muller detector (RDS-110). Alongside radiation measurements, all the data corresponding to the characteristics of each school building were collected.

Results: The results showed that the outdoor dose rate ranged from 82 to 106nSv h-1 while gamma dose rate due to inside classrooms ranged from 106 to 137nSvh-1. The findings represented that the highest indoor gamma dose rate belonged to the buildings of more than 30 years and metal frame and brick (P<0.05).

Conclusion: We concluded that the effective dose due to gamma radiation from terrestrial sources and building materials for students of primary schools in Zanjan province (0.83 mSv) was higher than worldwide average of the annual effective dose (0.48 mSv).

Behnam Mohammadi-Ghalehbin, Ali Pezeshki, Mohammad Hasan Kohansal, Ghodsie Esmaeilnezhad,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (3-2017)

Background: Despite continued and comprehensive planning of the world health organization (WHO), intestinal parasitic infections are a serious public problem in developing countries. Due to the high prevalence of cancers in Ardabil province and subsequently the high possibility of intestinal parasitic infections among the people, the aim of this study was to assess the frequency of intestinal parasites in patients with malignancy in this area.

Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 100 fecal samples were collected from patients with cancer during February to September 2015. The specimens were examined for intestinal parasites using direct smear, formol-ethyl acetate concentration, agar plate culture and Ziel-Neelsen staining technique.

Results: The overall frequency of intestinal parasitic infections in studied cancer patients was 10%. The infection rates of detected intestinal parasites were Cryptosporidium spp. oocyst 4%, Blastocystis hominis 3%, Giardia lamblia 2% and Taenia spp. 1%.

Conclusion: Despite the low frequency of intestinal parasites, there is a need to screen cancer patients for some important parasitic infections such as Cryptosporidium spp. and Strongiloides stercoralis because of irreparable effects of those parasites on thepatients and to increase awareness among clinicians regarding the occurrence of parasitic infections in these patients.

Zohre Farahmandkia, Faramarz Moattar, Farid Zayeri, Mohammad Sadegh Sekhavatjou, Nabiollah Mansouri,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (3-2017)

Background: Sampling was conducted on particles smaller than ten microns (PM10) in a high-traffic urban region once a week for two years in which fifteen heavy metals were measured.

Methods: positive matrix factorization (EPA-PMF5), was used for source apportionment and characterization of the collected PM10. Assessment of cancer risk resulting from metals including arsenic, cadmium, chromium, nickel and lead was conducted in three concentration ranges of maximum, average and minimum.

Results: Results for children and adults living in the region indicated that cancer risk indexes at different concentration ranges of carcinogenic metals were between 10-4 to 10-6 for adults and children. Since EPA recommendations suggest that planning should be conducted if cancer risk is in the range of 10-4 to 10-6, using PMF5 model, source characterization of pollutants was implemented by all measured heavy metals.

Conclusion: It was found that 41.5% of PM10 resulted from fuel and combustion, 12% from waste dump soil of lead and zinc industries, 35.7% from suspended open soil and 11% from industrial activities. It was also found that cadmium, nickel and, chromium have higher cancer risk than other metals and, suspended open soil, industrial activities and industrial fuel and combustion are the main sources of these metals respectively.

Zohre Farahmandkia , Faramarz Moattar, Farid Zayeri , Mohammad Sadegh Sekhavatjou , Nabiollah Mansouri,
Volume 2, Issue 3 (6-2017)

Background: Heavy metals are the main air pollutants in cities. Therefore, assessment of the risk of exposure to these metals through inhalation, ingestion, and dermal contact on inhabitants of contaminated areas of the world is of great importance.
Methods: A weekly sampling of air particles smaller than 10 microns was performed in a residential area of Zanjan for two years. Risk assessment in the face of heavy metals from inhalation, ingestion, and dermal contact for were measured for two children and adults. After fingerprinting high-risk metals, the air pollutants of the region were analyzed according to the PMF5 model.
Results: The results showed that children at risk assessment (1.40 × 1000) at the highest concentration of manganese. The PMF5 model results of fingerprinting 15 heavy metals showed that predominant pollutants in the region, included lead and zinc industries with 42.3%, suspended soil with 26.4%, industrial activities with 23.5%, and combustion and fuel with 7.8% of contamination. It was also found that 55.5 percent of manganese emission was associated with lead and zinc industries and 22.4 percent were related to suspended soil.
Conclusion: Risk assessment showed that children were exposed to non-cancerous diseases due to inhalation of manganese particles.

Ali Pezeshki, Ali Haniloo, Abbas Mahmoodzadeh, Parvin Farahmandian,
Volume 4, Issue 2 (6-2018)

Background: Genus Acanthamoeba belongs to free-living amoebae, which could pose risk to the central nervous system and cornea and is considered to be a significant health concern. The present study aimed to evaluate the presence of Acanthamoeba spp. in malignant patients in Zanjan, located in the northwest of Iran, using morphological methods.
Methods: Nasal specimens were collected from 100 malignant patients using swabs in the hospitals in Zanjan, Iran during July 2017-August 2018. The samples were cultured on non-nutrient agar, and the Acanthamoeba genus was identified based on the morphological characteristics.
Results: Based on the morphological features, six samples (6%) were positive for Acanthamoeba spp.
Conclusion: This was the first report on the presence of Acanthamoeba spp. in malignant they patients in Zanjan city, which provides further evidence on the existence of Acanthamoeba spp. The findings emphasize that special attention should be paid to immunocompromised patients in order to prevent the infections associated with Acanthamoeba spp.

Zahra Yousefi, Mohammadreza Rezaeigolestani, Mohammad Hashemi,
Volume 4, Issue 2 (6-2018)

Background: This review tries to explain various biological properties of olive oil.
Methods: In present review, data were obtained via a complete search through online databases including PubMed, Google Scholar, SID and ScienceDirect to find the relevant titles and paper abstracts using keywords like ‘olive oil’, ‘biological effect’ or ‘therapeutic’ or ‘food’. The obtained articles have been reviewed to evaluate different biological and therapeutic properties of olive and its edible products.
Results: Olive fruit and oil and the products obtained from olive tree (e.g., olive leaf extract) have unique medicinal properties. Studies have confirmed the positive effects of olive oil on wound healing, pain relief, cancer treatment, stroke, and cardiovascular diseases. In addition to the sensory properties of olive oil, the consumption of olive oil in the daily diet could enhance the safety and quality of food through antimicrobial and antioxidant compounds.
Conclusion: Considering the unique and significant medicinal and nutritional benefits of olive oil, it is necessary to encourage people toward the consumption of olive oil and increase their awareness about the importance and advantages of this product.

Mosummath Hosna Ara, Abu Rayhan Khan, Nazim Uddin, Palash Kumar Dhar,
Volume 4, Issue 4 (12-2018)

Background: Vegetables are the main source of nutrients for the human being but the intake of contaminated vegetables causes several diseases. Therefore, the aims of this study were to examine heavy metals concentration in leafy, fruit and root vegetables and their growing soil in Mongla, Bangladesh; and to estimate the health risks (non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic) caused by heavy metal exposure through ingestion of vegetable using hazard quotient (THQ) and target cancer risk (TCR).
Methods: United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) deterministic approaches were used to assess the potential health risks to the human.
Results: The average concentration of Fe, Cd, and Pb was 489.47, 0.48 and 8.15 mg/kg respectively, which was above the permissible limit recommended by WHO/FAO. Furthermore, THQ values for these metals and combined impacts of all metals (HI) were greater than the acceptable limit (1.0) which indicated a potential non-carcinogenic health risk. TCR values of Cd and Pb were greater than USEPA risk limit (>10 -6); which exerts moderate to high carcinogenic risk to the human.
Conclusion: The total health risk index showed that the consumption of vegetables from this study area poses a health risk and therefore regular monitoring of heavy metals is strongly recommended. 

Hossein Chehre, Hamed Rezaeejam, Zhaleh Karimi Moghaddam, Koorosh Kamali, Faranak Saghatchi,
Volume 5, Issue 1 (3-2019)

Background: Cancer is defined as the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells and the second most common cause of death across the world. More than half of new cancer cases are reported in developing countries, the prevalence of cancer is on the rise in these countries due to the lifestyle risk factors associated with cancer. It is predicted that cancer will become the main cause of death worldwide. The present study aimed to attain the epidemiologic data of cancer patients in Zanjan province, Iran.
Methods: The data required for this descriptive study were obtained by reviewing the medical records of the patients during 2016-2018. Data analysis was performed by IBM SPSS version 25.
Results: In total, 518 cancer cases were studied, (male-to-female ratio: 1.15). The mean age of the male patients was more than the females. The most common cancers were reported to be breast and brain cancer. The prevalence of cancer was higher in the residents of urban areas.
Conclusion: Unlike the most of findings in this study, some of them were not in line with the studies conducted in the other provinces in Iran. Therefore, it is recommended that further investigations be conducted in this regard.

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