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Showing 3 results for Nitrate

Mohammad Reza Mehrasbi, Zohre Farahmand Kia,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (12-2015)
Abstract

Background: Qual2k is a stream water quality model and was used to evaluate the water quality of the Kine-Vars River and assess the response of the river to nutrient management strategies.
Methods: For that purpose, 7 sample stations were selected and surface water samples were collected in the winter and summer of 2012 and were analyzed for temperature, dissolved oxygen, biological oxygen demand, ammonia–nitrogen, nitrate–nitrogen, organic nitrogen, organic phosphorus, and inorganic phosphorus.

Results: Results showed that the Kine-Vars River is saturated with N and P and is classified as eutrophic. The simulated data showed that the total nitrogen and total phosphorus loads of the studied river need to be reduced by 76% and 93%, respectively, to reach water quality objectives.
Conclusion: Application of nutrient control strategies can reduce the nutrient loads significantly but is not sufficient to change the river classification from eutrophic to oligotrophic in a short time; thus, additional nutrient control measures are necessary.


Sajad Chamandoost, Mohammad Fateh Moradi, Mir-Jamal Hosseini,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (3-2016)
Abstract

Agricultural advancement and population growth have prompted increases in food supplies, and higher crop yields have been made possible through the application of fertilizers. Large quantities of livestock and poultry on farms, along with the accumulation of biomass and agricultural residues, can cause contamination of ground water resources and other water sanitation concerns in both developing and developed countries. Nitrate is mainly used as a fertilizer in agriculture, and because of its high solubility in water, it can create biological problems in the environment. High usage of nitrite in the food industry as a preservative, flavor enhancer, antioxidant, and color stabilizing agent can cause human exposure to this toxic compound. Nitrite is 10 times as toxic as nitrate in humans. Nitrate is converted to nitrite and nitrosamine compounds in the human stomach, which can lead to bladder cancer. In this review, sources of nitrate and nitrite exposure were investigated. Furthermore, the review evaluates standard levels of nitrate and nitrite in different foods, and acceptable daily doses of these compounds in various countries. Finally, we discuss valid methods of nitrate and nitrite identification and removal in foods.
 


Younes Khosravi, Abbas Ali Zamani, Abdol Hossein Parizanganeh, Mir Ali Asghar Mokhtari, Akbar Nadi,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (12-2017)
Abstract

Background: This research aims to measure and study spatial changes, and the reason behind the increasing nitrate content in water wells in the Central District of Khodabandeh County in the Zanjan Province.
Methods: The nitrate and nitrite content, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, temperature, total hardness and pH were measured at 40 sampling stations in the study area. The obtained features were categorized into four classes by principal component analysis. The kriging and cokriging methods along with electrical conductivity and total hardness covariates were used to study the spatial changes. By using the cross-validation method, the linear model for cokriging method with electrical conductivity covariate was selected as the best model for nitrate zoning in ArcGIS 10.2 software.
Results: The principal component analysis indicated that nitrate feature was in the same classification as that of electrical conductivity and total hardness. The comparison of surface digital elevation model, geology and land use maps with nitrate zoning indicated that nitrate pollution in the south and south-west regions was due to geological content, agricultural activities, and the discharge of human sewage into absorbing wells.
Conclusion: The findings of the present research revealed that lowlands with agricultural use had more nitrate content than other uses, and the most important reason could be attributed to the excessive use of nitrate containing chemical fertilizers.

 



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