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Showing 439 results for Type of Study: Applicable

Ra Ataee, A Karami, R Sorouri Zanjani, Mk Bagheri,
Volume 20, Issue 78 (3-2012)
Abstract

Background and Objectives: Staphylococcal enterotoxin D as a supper antigen is produced by infected samples of human and animal sources. The aim of this study was to standardize the detection methods for the Staphylococcus strain producing enterotoxin D. Materials and Methods: A PCR method was set up for detection of enterotoxin D gene (ent D) in Staphylococcus aureus samplesisolated from the human subjects (310 strains isolated from clinical samples). The specific PCR-product (a band about 700 bp) was purified and sent off for DNA sequencing. Blast analysis showed a 99% identity with the standard gene sequence from Genebank. The ability to produce enterotoxin D by all strains carrying ent D was analyzed by using an ELISA kit. Results: The results of this study show that the PCR method has been well set up. There were two PCR products obtained by the primer pair, one at 700 bp and another at 1400 bp. Both bands were gel purified and sent for DNA sequencing. The results, based on the alignment with the standard ent D sequences from GenBank, suggest that ent D is contained within the 700-bp product. Production of the entrotoxin D in the positive strains was confirmed by ELISA. Conclusion: Based on the available information, coagulase positive Staphylococcus aureus strains are recorded in clinical samples. However, there is no routine method available to analyze the ability of the bacterial strains for producingtoxins including enterotoxin D. This study represents a simple, fast, and standard method for verification of the bacteria enterotoxin D and the strains producing it.


Ar Esmaeilzadeh, M Ebtekar, Ar Biglari, Zm Mohammad Hassan,
Volume 20, Issue 78 (3-2012)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Glioma is the most common primary brain tumor. Despite many advances in treatment, all patients die within 6 to 18 months after diagnosis. In the cases of glioma, the immune system is suppressed in a local fashion. Therefore, unveiling the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved, with the aim of obtaining an appropriate new treatment is a priority. Designing an appropriate animal model is necessary before any clinical trials. Material & methods: In this study, we prepared fifteen 6-8 week-old female mice (Balb/C) from the Pasteur institute, Tehran,and also selected the mouse glioma cell line GL26 to induce a allogeneic subcutaneous tumor. After culturing the cell and anesthetization of the mice, we injected different cell doses into distinct groups of mice. Sterile PBS was injected into the control group. Animal behavior and clinical symptoms were regularly followed and recorded, and after tumor induction, it was surgically removed and evaluated in terms of macroscopic and microscopic characteristics. Results: The tumor was induced more quickly with higher number of GL26 cells in mice. Atrophy and weakness was observed in the affected animals. In macroscopic examination, the tumor was relatively large, thick and full of blood. Moreover, in microscopic examination, cell proliferation, mitosis, abundant vessels, and tumor necrosis were observed. Conclusion: Regarding the limitations of a glioma syngeneic animal model, establishment of an allogeneic subcutaneous model, allows an easy evaluation of the size and volume of the tumor, without a requirement for sacrificing the animal. This model has the potential to provide opportunities for research on some immunological parameters, the testing of new therapeutic agents, and new discoveries in basic research, concerning glioma, for the first time in Iran.


M Fakhraei, V Nejaty, N Dalirazh,
Volume 20, Issue 78 (3-2012)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Compounds of heavy metals such as vanadium, nickel, and cobalt can be useful in treatment of many diseases. There are several reports on the biological effects of vanadium compounds including insulin-like action and reduction of hypertension. A number of studies on vanadium have shown its promising ability to inhibit cancers in a variety of malignant cell lines. The goal of this study was to examine the anti-proliferative and apoptosis-inducing characteristics of some newly synthesized shifft-based vanadium (VOLComplex:C19H20N2O5V) on K562 leukemia cells. Materials and Methods: The MTT results show that the K562 cells viability is sensitive to the Vol complex in a concentration dependent manner. It was evident that the VOL complexe, up to a dose of 350 µg/ml, were non-cytotoxic in vitro after 48 hours of incubation time. In order to investigate if the Vol complexe have just anticancer effect, we designed further studies with non-cytotoxic doses of the complex. Based on the cell viability data, the concentrations of 150, 250, and 350 µg/ml of the VOL complexe were selected to treat the K562 cells for 12, 24, and 48 hr to induce apoptosis. Results: The results of apoptosis analysis and flow cytometric examination show that exposure of the K562 cells to non-cytotoxic dosses of the VOL complex leads to induction of apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The highest level of apoptosis (37.96%) occurred after 48 hr of treatment in response to 350 µg/ml of the Vol complex. Moreover, the cell cycle analysis shows that the VOL complex induces a G0/G1 arrest. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that the Vol complex, even at a non-cytotoxic dose, has an apoptosis inducing effect, and that it is capable of arresting the affected cells in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle. Taken together, based on their role on induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest, VOL complexes may have the potential for being included in an anti-cancer drug discovery program in the near future.


H Khani, Ma Hosseinpourefeizi, N Pouladi, N Chaparzadeh, V Montazeri, P Azarfam,
Volume 20, Issue 78 (3-2012)
Abstract

Background and Objectives: Breast cancer (BC) is the most common invasive malignancy affecting women worldwide. The tumor-suppressor P53 gene (P53) is frequently mutated in breast tumors. To use P53 as a target for therapy, it is important to accurately assess p53 mutation status in tumor samples. Materials and Methods: A total of 102 tumor samples were collected from breast cancer patients referred to Tabriz hospitals between the 2007-2009 period. DNA was extracted by Proteinase K– Isopropanol method and then performed amplification and sequencing of P53 from exons 5 and 6. Results: Mutations in the P53 gene were detected in 17.6% of the patients. Including 7 polymorphisms (6.68%) and 11 mutations (10.78%). Overall, 18.2% of the mutations were found in codons 160 (ATG>AAG) and 163 (ATC>AAG) in exon 5. Also 81.8% of the mutations observed in exon 6: codon 193(CAT>AAT), codon195 (ATC>TTC), codon 195 (ATC>AAC), codon 198(GAA>TAA), codon 220 (TAT>TGT), codon 213 (CGA>CTA), and codon 214 (CAT>CG). No alteration observed in intron5 and all of polymorphism detected in 13399A>G nucleotide of exon 6. The majority of detected mutations are missense that located on DNA-binding domain of P53. This type of mutation usually leads to the production of a mutant protein with a compromised structure and altered DNA-binding capacity. Conclusion: This is the first report of its kind from the East Azarbaijan region. Our results indicate a rather high frequency of exon 6 mutations in P53 among patients with breast cancer. Furthermore, the mutation pattern appears differs from other regions. However, further studies are needed to determine the role of P53 mutations in breast cancer development.


Z Sheikhlou, M Salouti, Z Farahmandkia, S Mahmazi, A Einlou,
Volume 20, Issue 78 (3-2012)
Abstract

Background and Objectives: Gold nanoparticles have found many applications in cancer diagnosis and therapy, drug and gene delivery and DNA and protein characterizations. Fungi are extremely good candidates in the synthesis of metal nanoparticles because of their ability to secrete large amounts of enzymes. The aim of this study was biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles by a fungus. Materials and Methods: The sampling was performed from the Ahar copper mine. The biomasses of isolated fungi were incubated with HAuCl4 solution in a shaker-incubator for 72 hr, and the strains that were able to produce gold nanoparticles were identified. The production of gold nanoparticles was studied with UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results: Among the eight types of fungi that were isolated from the Ahar copper mine, only Rhizopus oryza was able to synthesize gold nanoparticles. The synthesis of gold nanoparticles was confirmed by observing the characteristic peak at 540 nm using UV-vis spectroscopy. The XRD analysis confirmed that the produced gold nanoparticles are in the form of nanocrystaline. Transmission electron microscopy images showed that Rhizopus oryza produces gold nanoparticles with good monodispersity in spherical and trigonal shapes both intra- and extracellularly. Conclusion: Fungus Rhizopus oryza is able to produce gold nanoparticles in the size range of 10-70 nm. This biologic method has the potential to replace chemical and physical methods currently used for gold nanoparticles production.


H Kavoodi, K Kamali, F Gharibdoost,
Volume 20, Issue 78 (3-2012)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Vitamin D is an important factor for calcium hemostasis, and it is responsible for immune system regulation and lowering the risk of inflammatory disease. The aim of this descriptive study was to evaluate the vitamin D level in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and analyze its possible relation with the severity or the disease. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was performed on 135 patients who met the criteria for rheumatoid arthritis. Data on vitamin D levels from 224 people whom were referred to the Iranian Rheumatism Center laboratory but had turned negative for RA was used as control. Vitamin D levels lower than 30 ng/ml wereconsidered as deficiency, and levels lower than 10 ng/ml were characterized as severe deficiency. Disease status was measured by DAS28 and calculated using the related software. Results: The majority of the patients (82.8%) were female. The mean age of the patients, whom included an 82.8% female participants, was 46.9 years, with a mean disease duration of 9.3 years. The average DAS28 was calculated as 3.47, with an average vitamin D level at 35.9 ng/ml. Vitamin D deficiency and severe deficiency were seen in 59.3% and 8.9% of the patients, respectively. We found no significant relation between the vitamin D levels and disease status. Conclusion: Vitamin D deficiency is common in patients with rheumatoid arthritis but it is does not appear to have a significant relation to the disease status/severity.


Sm Hassanzadeh, A Fayaz, Ar Zavareh, H Khanahmad, A Ramazani,
Volume 20, Issue 78 (3-2012)
Abstract

Background and Objectives: In this study, capability of Vero cells for growth on FibraCel disks were compared on 3 kinds of microcarriers including Cytodex-1, Cutodex-3, and Sigma Solohill in 500 ml Spinner flasks in both serum contained medium (DMEM+10% Fetal Calf Serum, FCS) and serum-free medium (VP-SFM). The propagation of fixed PV (Pasteur Virus) strain of rabies in Vero cells, for production of rabies vaccine, grown under the above conditions were studied and compared. Materials and Methods: Stepwise perfusion mode in growth phase and batch mode were applied in the virus production step by the use of M199 +0.2% Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) and VP-SFM as serum containing and serum-free media, respectively. The available surface area provided by the carriers, and primary cell density in the experiments were assumed the same (about 12,000 cm2 and 12,500 cells/cm2, respectively). Results: The highest cell density was achieved on FibraCel disks in DMEM equal to 7.1 ±0.7×106 cells /ml on day 9, while the lowest cell density was obtianed on Cytodex-3 in VP-SFM equal to 2.91 ±0.2×106 cells/ml. The highest virus titer (55.18 ±4.4×106 Fluorescent Focus Unit,FFU/ml) was gained in VP-SFM containing FibraCel disks, and the lowest titer (3.66 ±0.4 ×106 FFU/ml) was resulted on Cytodex-3 in M199. Conclusion: In these experiments, FibraCel disks supported the growth of Vero cells better than the microcarriers, and the use of DMEM for propagation of Vero cells and VP-SFM for proliferation of rabies virus showed better results. The experimental vaccine prepared by collected virus from VP-SFM has an acceptable potency of 2.75 IU. Based on these results and to the relative ease for making FibraCel disks, we recommend the use of this carrier for propagation of Vero cells and production of rabies virus.


F ّforoozanfard, Mr Fazel, Ar Moraveji, Gha Moosavi, A Abolhasani,
Volume 20, Issue 78 (3-2012)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Post operative pain is one of the important factors affecting recovery from surgery and anesthesia. Gabapentin is used as an anticonvulsant drug that acts through voltage-dependent calcium channels. In some recent studies, oral gabapentin has been reported to reduce post operative pain and morphin consumption following mastectomy and hysterectomy. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of gabapentin on postoperative pain after abdominal hysterectomy. Material and Methods: In a double-blinded clinical trial design, 50 women aged 35- 50 years old, whom were candidate for hysterectomy referred to Shabih Khani Hospital in 1389, were signed up for the study. Patients received randomly either oral gabapentin 1200 or placebo 1 hr prior to the surgery. Pain was assessed on a visual analogue scale (VAS) at 2, 6, 12, and 24 hr intervals after the operation. Morphine consumption and drug-induced complications such as nausea and vomiting were recorded and compared between the two groups. Results: Factors including age, mean operative time, mean anesthesia time, and BMI were not significantly different between the test and control groups. However, the mean pain scores at 2, 6, 12, and 24 hr after operation were significantly lower in the gabapentin group in comparison to the controls (P<0.0001). The morphin consumption was also significantly lower in the gabapentin group (P<0.0001). Furthermore, the average time before the first to walk following the operation was significantly shorter in the gabapentin group (P=0.002). Conclusion: Preoperative oral gabapentin decreases the pain scores in the postoperative period and lowers the morphine consumption in patients following abdominal hysterectomy.


E Ghananati, M Kazemi, J Salehi,
Volume 20, Issue 78 (3-2012)
Abstract

Background and Objective: It seems that studying medicine is distinct from other academic disciplines in exerting more stress (environmental, emotional or physical), which is a unique characteristic of the medical field. This study aimed at a contrastive analysis of psychological disorders among medical and non-medical students at different educational levels. Materials and Methods: In this cause-comparison study, a total of 212 88-89 school-year medical students from Zanjan University of Medical Sciences were selected through census and evaluated by a SCL90 checklist and demographic questionnaire. Descriptive statistics (mean, and standard deviation) and inferential statistics (Kruskal-Wallis and U-Mann-Whitney) were used for data analysis. Results: After analyzing the data by the SPSS software, results show that there are significant differences in all total indexes (GSI). Particularly, the small-scale test SCL90 (except the physical preparation, anxiety, and hostility, α>0.05), shows significant differences between the three groups of medical students, P<0.01 (except for phobia, α<0.05). Interestingly, the mental health scores of the students at higher levels show a considerable improvement. Conclusion: According to the results of our study, it does not appear that studying medicine, regarding its stressful nature, has a negative impact on the mental health of the students, because the results suggest that students at higher levels exhibit even a better mental health status.


A Vahedian Azimi, M Sadeghi, A Movafegh, R Sorouri Zanjani, D Hasani, Ar Salehmoghaddam, Mb Kashshsfi,
Volume 20, Issue 78 (3-2012)
Abstract

Background and Objectives: Stress and stressful situations can be a prelude to fatal diseases such as cardiovascular diseases and hypertension. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between perceived stress with five major characteristics of the heart disease in patients with myocardial infarction. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional descriptive-analytical study that was conducted from May 2005 till October 2009, a total of 3,200 patients with myocardial infarction, from cardiovascular care unit of Gha'em and Imam Reza hospital, Mashhad, were randomly selected. A demographic questionnaire, an instrument for recording laboratory and electrocardiograph finding, and the Perceived Stress Scale were used for data collection. Results: The results of this study show that while 35% of all cases suffer from moderate stress, 65% percent of them suffer from high level of stress. The level of perceived stress in different categories of variables such as gender, educational level, hypertension, history of hypertension, depression, cigarette smoking, exercising, job, level of incoming, location of living, and family history of cardiovascular disease was significantly different from each other. Conclusion: Considering the high levels of stress among patients with myocardial infarction, design and implementation of interventions for identifying stressors, as well as their management seem to be crucial.


M Kiany, M Afshinjo, Mh Pormemary, K Amini,
Volume 20, Issue 78 (3-2012)
Abstract

Background and Objective: The need for critical thinking in nursing has been accentuated in response to a rapidly changing health–care environment. Nurses must think critically to provide effective care while coping with the expansion in their role associated with the complexities of current health care systems. The aim of the study was to compare the critical thinking skills and critical thinking dispositions between the nursing students and clinical nurses of some selected educational hospitals of Zanjan University of Medical Sciences (ZUMS). Materials and Methods: This descriptive study was performed on 50 nursing student and 50 clinical nurses from some selected ZUMS educational hospitals through convenient sampling. The main study tools were the California critical thinking Skills Test (CCTST) and California critical thinking Dispositon Inventory (CCTDI). The data was analyzed by SPSS 16 software using the t-test and Pearson correlation coefficient. Results: The mean scores of the critical thinking skills for the nursing students vs. clinical nurses were 9.02 and 12.68, respectively, and the t-tests showed a significant difference between the two groups (P=0.002). By contrast, there was no significant difference in the mean critical thinking Dispositons scores (P=0.47). There was also not a significant relationship between the critical thinking skills and critical thinking dispositions scores in two groups (r=0.071). Conclusions: It seems that neither the critical thinking skills nor dispositions scores are desirable. Therefore, it seems necessary to consider a revision of the teaching strategy for promoting critical thinking skills in nursing plans.


M Jamehshorani, R Eghdam Zamiri, M Moghimi,
Volume 20, Issue 78 (3-2012)
Abstract

Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world that can metastasize to other sites. The most common sites of metastasis are liver, lung, bone, and adrenal glands. Skin metastasis in gastric cancer is rare, and it usually occurs after diagnosis of primary cancer (1). The patient reported here is a 65-years old male with gastric adenocarcinoma that in the course of chemotherapy came down with some skin lesions. The biopsy report points to skin metastasis from gastric cancer. In spite of good systemic response to chemotherapy, the lesions progressed. Skin metastasis has poor prognosis, and it is a sign of disease diffusion (2).


M Piri, E Ayazi, B Bananej, M Shahin,
Volume 20, Issue 79 (5-2012)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Dopamine receptors and histamine influence anxiety-like behaviors. Furthermore, interaction between histamine and dopaminergic D1 receptors has been demonstrated in the modulation of some behavior. In the present study, we investigated the interaction between histamine and dopaminergic D1 receptors in the dorsal hippocampus in the anxiety behavior. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, the elevated plus maze test was used to test anxiety-like behaviors. Mice were anesthetized with intra-peritoneal injection of ketamine hydrochloride, plus xylazine, and two stainless-steel cannuale were placed in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. Two- and one-way analyses of variance (ANOVAs), followed by LSD test, were used for data analysis. All experiments were performed in accordance with the institutional guidelines for animal care and use. Results: Intra-CA1 injection of histamine and D1 dopamine agonist (SKF 38393) and antagonist (SCH23390) induced anxiety. Intra-CA1 injection SKF 38393 or SCH23390 2 min after of effective dose of histamine (10µg/mouse) inhibited anxiogenic effects of histamine. Conclusion: It seems that both histamine and dopaminergic D1 receptors play a part in the modulation of anxiety in the dorsal hippocampus of mice, and that they carry a complex interaction between them.


M Setorki, M Rafieian, A Heidarian, K Ghatreh, N Shahinfard, R Ansari, Z Frozandeh,
Volume 20, Issue 79 (5-2012)
Abstract

Background and Objective: The increase in the blood concentration of lipids after meals has a significant effect on induction of atherosclerosis. Vaccinium myrtilus has an antioxidant activity, and in this study, we aimed to determine the effects of this plant on atherosclerosis risk factors. Material and Methods: In an experimental study, 24 male New Zealand rabbits were randomly designated into three groups of 8 rabbits: Group 1, normal diet Group 2, a diet containing 1 % cholesterol and Group 3, a diet containing 1% cholesterol and 2% Vaccinium myrtilus powder. The blood glucose, total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), apolipoprotein B (ApoB), Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), LDL-C (low density lipoprotein), nitrite, nitrate, fibrinogen, and factor VII, which are considered as atherosclerosis risk factors, were measured before the experiment and 3 hours after feeding. The data were analyzed using One-Way Analysis of ANOVA. The P-values below 0.05 (P<0.05) were considered as significant. Results: Consumption of Vaccinium myrtilus significantly decreased the concentrations of LDL-C, TC, aminotransaminases (AST, ALT), ApoB, and fibrinogen compared to the hyper-cholesterolemic diet group (P<0.05). However, there were no significant differences was found between the group taking Vaccinium myrtilus and hyper-cholesterolemic diet group with regard to the serum glucose, TG, factor VII, nitrite, and nitrate (P>0.05). Conclusion: The results of this study show that acute consumption of Vaccinium myrtilus might have a protective effect on some atherosclerosis risk factors.


M Kazemi, H Sahraei,
Volume 20, Issue 79 (5-2012)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Previous studies have shown that morphine consumption during pregnancy may delay the embryo development and/or cause abnormal nervous system function. The present study focused on the effects of maternal morphine consumption on the brain vesicles Prosencephslon and Rhombencephal development in Wistar rat embryos. Material and Methods: A total of 12 female Wistar rats (170-200g) were used in this study. After pregnancy, each rat in the experimental group (n= 6) received 0.05 mg/ml of morphine by tap water, while the animals in the control group only received water only. On the 10th day of pregnancy, the pregnant animals were anesthetized by chloroform and the embryos were removed surgically. The embryos were then fixed in 10%formalin for one week, followed by tissue processing, sectioning, and staining with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) for each embryo. The sections were examined for primary brain Rhombencephal and Prosencephslon vesicles, and the brain layer development or thickness was examined by light microscopy and MOTIC software. Results: A severe reduction of the area for Rhombencephal and Prosencephslon was observed in the experimental group compared with the control group. Furthermore, the increase in the brain layer thickness was significantly more apparent in the experimental groups in comparison to the control group (P<0.05). Conclusion: Our results show that oral morphine consumption causes a decrease in the primary brain vesicles. This defect may be the cause of abnormal central neuron system function and development observed in the fetuses born from opioid addicted women.


Mm Soltan Dallal, S Hidarzadeh, M Azarsa, R Bakhtiari, Mk Sharifi Yazdi,
Volume 20, Issue 79 (5-2012)
Abstract

Background and Objectives: Previous studies have shown that polymyxin B sulfate and trimthoprim antibiotics are not individually effective on Yersinia enterocolitica and their closely related species. The aim of this study was to evaluate the synergistic effect of above antibiotics on Y. enterocolitica and their closely related species, from the clinical and the natural environment specimen collected in Iran, and compare them with the isolates that that were obtained from the Pasteur institute collection in France. Materials and Methods: In total, 73 species from Iran and 25 from the Pasteur institute in France were tested. The microdilution method was used for the MIC according to the standard protocol. Results: The synergistic effect was seen in all tested samples. However, the human species from the Pasteur institute were more sensitive than the Iranian human and the environmental species were less sensitive than clinical. The Y. enterocolitica isolates were less sensitive than the related species such as Y. intermedia, Y. fredriksenii, and Y. kristensenii. Conclusion: The synergistic effect polymyxin B sulfate and trimthoprim were more evident on other closely related Yersinia species Y. enterocolitica.


A Goshvarpour, S Rahati Ghoochani, A Goshvarpour, V Saadatian,
Volume 20, Issue 79 (5-2012)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Meditation is commonly perceived as an alternative medicine management tool for psychological diseases such as depression and anxiety disorders. To our knowledge, there is no published study providing an index for estimating meditation's depth from biological signals. Estimating the depth of meditation can be useful in controlling its different levels, and it can be used as a biofeedback technique to help a person achieve the desired state of meditation. In this study, an index for meditation depth is offered using the features of electroencephalogram and heart rate signals. Material and Methods: For this purpose, EEG signals in Fz, Cz, and Pz channels, and the heart rate time series of 25 healthy women were collected both before and during the meditations. The algorithm is suggested based on the rational alpha power of EEG signals and the time domain feature of the heart rate to estimate the depth of meditation. Results: The analysis of biological signals using this method suggests that 22 of the 25 participants have experienced the deepest meditation state. Interestingly, 2 of the beginners as well as one expert-mediators could not reach the deepest state by following up the master mediator. These results were in line with the evaluation of the questionnaire. Conclusions: The suggested algorithm has some practical characteristics including: the option of being calibrated for each subject not requiring high-volume calculations and it does not take much time.


E Hassani, R Abbaszadeh, Mm Aghdashi, M Shirvani,
Volume 20, Issue 79 (5-2012)
Abstract

Background and Objectives: Propofol is the most frequently used intravenous anesthetic today. One of its side effects is the pain on injection. Various methods such as adding lidocaine, cooling or warming and dilution of the propofol solution have been used for reducing the pain. However, each of these methods comes with a degree of failure. We designed this double-blinded randomized clinical trial to evaluate the effects of ephedrine of the injection pain caused by propofol. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients, between 20-60 years old and in the ASA physical status I and II, were enrolled in this experimental study and randomly divided into two equal groups. The basal vital signs for all patients were recorded, and 30 seconds prior to the induction of anesthesia, either 70µg/kg of ephedrine (study group) or an equal volume of normal saline (control group) was administered without premedication. Then, 20% of propofol was administered to each patient, and the pain intensity was measured and recorded by both the Verbal Rating Scale (VRS grading 0-3) and Face Pain Scale (FPS grading 1-6). The remaining dose of propofol and atracurium were administered. Results: Patients of two groups were similar with respect to age, sex, ASA status, and basal vital signs (P>0.05). The mean degrees of pain severity, in the study and control group were 0.48 ± 0.51 and 1.08 ± 759 by VRS (P = 0.002), and 1.48 ± 0.586 and 2.04 ± 0.841 by FPS (P=0.009), respectively. Conclusion: Based on the results of the present study, also supported by other studies, it seems that administration of ephedrine prior to propofol is a suitable method for reduction of pain from propofol injection.


F Moradi, A Imani, S Keyghobadi, H Nazari, R Ghorbani, T Keyghobadi,
Volume 20, Issue 79 (5-2012)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Newborns often experience pain during routine invasive procedures. Although the pain caused by immunization injections could be controlled, but this procedure in infants is often done without pain relief. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of 20%oral sucrose on the relief of pain from Hepatitis Bvaccine injection in full term infants. Material and Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 60 infant were selected and divided randomly into two groups. In the case group, 2 ml of 20% sucrose were given orally to the infants 2 minutes prior to the intramuscular injection of Hepatitis B vaccine. By contrast, the control group received 2 ml of sterile distilled water instead of sucrose. Infants’ pain levels were assessed with the Neonatal Infant Pain Scale (NIPS) prior to the administration of the sucrose or water, as well as immediately after and 5 minute after the injection. Results: Our findings show that there were no significant differences in the pain levels prior to the injection between the two groups regarding sex, gestational age, birth weight, mode of delivery, and postnatal age. There were also no significant differences in pain severity immediately after the injection between the two groups. However, 5 minute after the injection the average level of pain severity in the 20% sucrose group was significantly lower than the control group (P = 0.012). Conclusion: Oral administration of 20% sucrose does not have an effect on the pain level immediately after intramuscular injection, but it relieves the pain 5 minute after the injection.


A Akbari, Sh Naroii, M Eshgi, A Farahani,
Volume 20, Issue 79 (5-2012)
Abstract

Background and Objective: There is a strong relationship between trigger points with neck pain and headache. This study aimed to compare the effects of muscle energy technique using low-level laser on reducing neck and shoulder pain and disability in patients with myofascial trigger points in the upper trapezius and levator scapula muscles. Materials and Methods: This double-blinded randomized controlled trial was performed in Zahedan in 2009. Thirty patients with trigger points in the upper trapezius and levator scapula were randomly assigned to one of the three groups in equal numbers. In the laser group, a low-level Ga-As laser was applied with a pulse duration of 200 ns and 6 J/cm2 dosages. By contrast, in the muscle energy group, we used stretching following post-isometric relaxation, and in the placebo group used low-level laser without an output. A 10-session treatment program was performed for each group. Prior to and following the intervention, We assessed the cervical ranges of motion with a goniometer, and neck and shoulder pain and disability with Neck Disability Index and Shoulder Pain and Disability Index respectively. Paired t-test and one-way Anova were used for data analysis. Results: The data shows that the neck pain decreased from 8.2 ± 1.2 to 3.5 ± 0.85 in the muscle energy group, and from 8.4 ± 1.4 to 2.6 ± 1.2 in the laser group. The shoulder pain and disability decreased from 102.9 ± 10.7 to 24 ± 10.3 in the muscle energy group, and from 104.7± 11.8 to 22.6 ± 10.7 in the laser group (P<0.05). There were no significant differences seen between the two treatment groups regarding either the neck and shoulder pain or disability or ranges of motion (P>0.05). Conclusion: The results show that low-level laser and muscle energy technique are both equally effective in decreasing the neck and shoulder pain and disability in patients with myofascial trigger points in trapezius and levator scapula muscles.



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