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Volume 13, Issue 51 (6-2005)

Background & Objectives: Pharyngitis and rheumatic fever due to beta hemolytic group A streptococci are among the chief health problems. Since the carriers play a major role in spread of infection within the family and school , and regarding the drug resistance , this study was carried out in order to determine the relative prevalence of pharyngeal colonization of group A streptococci among elementary school children and to investigate its drug resistance in Zahedan in 2002. Materials & Methods: Pharyngeal samples of 555 healthy female and male students (non – symptomatic) were collected by sterile swab through stratified cluster sampling in winter. The specimens were then cultured in blood agar media and the isolated bacteria were tested for drug susceptibility. The results were analysed through 2 test. Results: Prevalence of pharyngeal beta hemolytic streptococcoi was determined to be 10.1% (56 people ). Colonization rates were 10.17% and 15.1% in girls and boys respectively. Although infection rate varied in different school grades (grade one: 16.3%, grade two: 7.2% , grade three: 10% , grade four 6.3% and grade five 10.8%), 2 test did not show any significant difference. All isolated strains were susceptible to penicillin, erythromycin and cefexime. Conclusion: The results suggest that more care be taken for children health issues and preventive and control measures be planned regarding the disease and complications of beta hemolytic group A streptococci.

Na Mozafari, S Talaei, Hr Amirmoghadami, S Talaei,
Volume 14, Issue 55 (6-2006)

Background & Objectives: Chronic Otitis Media (COM) remains one of the most common childhood chronic infectious diseases worldwide. This study was carried out to determine the organisms inducing COM and their drug resistance patterns in Zanjan. Materials & Methods: This cluster cross-sectional study was conducted on 100 patients suffering from COM in the age range of 18-45. COM specimens were obtained in operating room and then cultured on 4 different media. Following the diagnostic tests and identifying the bacteria, their susceptibility to antibiotics was assessed. Results: The most common isolated bacteria were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (24.7%), Staph ylococcus aureus (17.6%) and Proteus spp (15.2%). The results of bioassay tests for isolated bacteria were as follows: Pseudomonas aeruginosa had the highest resistance to cefixime and co-trimoxazol (100%). The highest resistance of Staphylococcus Aureus was to co-trimoxazol (70%) and cefixime (50%). Conclusion: Regarding the multi-bacterial etiology of COM and high prevalence of antibiotic resistance, identification of causative bacteria and bioassay test prior to any therapeutic procedure seams necessary.

H Baghchesaraei, B Amini, M Bayat,
Volume 17, Issue 69 (12-2009)

Background and objectives: Rheumatic fever is a main problem of developing countries, whereas in developed countries its prevalence is low. Proper diagnosis and adequate treatment of beta streptococcal infection can effectively prevent such unwanted sequel. Materials and Methods: Following completion of a questionnaire regarding age, sex, location etc. blood sample was collected and ASO titer was measured. Results: Out of 400 samples, 54 patients had positive ASO titer. 83.3% of individuals with a positive titer had the history of pharyngitis. Positive ASO titers in rural and urban area were 19% and 11.6% respectively. Positive ASO titer in females and males were 68.5% and 31.5% respectively. Age distribution of positive titer was 42.6% in 20-29 years age group and 37% in 10-19 years age groups. Conclusion: patients with positive ASO titer in Zanjan province and surrounding villages were relatively high which might be due to low education level and poor economical status. The incidence was high in the second and the third decade of life whereas in other countries this range is between 6-15 years. High incidence of rheumatic fever in the studying population seeks a prompt measure to be taken on the prevention and control of streptococcal infection.

Mm Soltan Dallal, S Hidarzadeh, M Azarsa, R Bakhtiari, Mk Sharifi Yazdi,
Volume 20, Issue 79 (5-2012)

Background and Objectives: Previous studies have shown that polymyxin B sulfate and trimthoprim antibiotics are not individually effective on Yersinia enterocolitica and their closely related species. The aim of this study was to evaluate the synergistic effect of above antibiotics on Y. enterocolitica and their closely related species, from the clinical and the natural environment specimen collected in Iran, and compare them with the isolates that that were obtained from the Pasteur institute collection in France. Materials and Methods: In total, 73 species from Iran and 25 from the Pasteur institute in France were tested. The microdilution method was used for the MIC according to the standard protocol. Results: The synergistic effect was seen in all tested samples. However, the human species from the Pasteur institute were more sensitive than the Iranian human and the environmental species were less sensitive than clinical. The Y. enterocolitica isolates were less sensitive than the related species such as Y. intermedia, Y. fredriksenii, and Y. kristensenii. Conclusion: The synergistic effect polymyxin B sulfate and trimthoprim were more evident on other closely related Yersinia species Y. enterocolitica.

F Dakterzada, A Mohabati Mobarez, M Habibi Roudkenar, M Forouzandeh,
Volume 20, Issue 80 (7-2012)

Background and Objective: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that causes severe and lethal infections in immunocompromised individuals. This bacterium possesses a single polar flagellum. Flagellum and its subunit Flagellin play important roles in the pathogenesis of P. aeruginosa. Flagellin induces immune responses by interaction of its N-terminal domain with TLR-5. Our main aims of this study were cloning and expression of N-terminal domains of flagellin and evaluation of antibodies raised against it on motility inhibition of P. aeruginosa. Material and Methods: The DNA sequence coding for the first 161 amino acids of flagellin was PCR amplified and cloned into a pET-28a expression vector. Recombinant protein was over expressed in BL-21(DE3), and purified by Ni-NTA resin. The immune reactivity of recombinant truncated flagellin was evaluated by Western blotting. The recombinant protein was injected into a rabbit and antibodies raised against it were evaluated for the cell motility inhibition of P. aeruginosa 8821M. Results: The N-terminal domain of Flagellin was successfully overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL-21(DE3) host strain. Anti-native and anti-N-terminal flagellin antibodies reacted with the recombinant protein. Motility inhibition assay demonstrated that polyclonal antiserum against N-teminal flagellin is able to inhibit the motility of P. aeruginosa 8821M. Conclusion: The N-terminal domain of flagellin may be used for development of a new recombinant vaccine against P. aeruginosa infections.

Mm ُsoltan Dallal, Z Kalafi, A Rastegare Lari, Sn Hosseini, A Rahimi Foroushani, Z Deilami Khiabani, F Nikkhahi, S Heidarzadeh,
Volume 20, Issue 81 (9-2012)

Background and Objective: Human amniotic membrane, which is the innermost layer of placenta, contains beta defensins and elafin, which both have antibacterial properties. These antibacterial activities depend on the conditions and environmental factors. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of environmental factors on human amniotic membrane antibacterial properties against Klebsiella pneumonia (ATCC7881), Entrococcus faecalis (ATCC29212), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC27853), Salmonella enteric (BAA-708), and E. coli (ATCC25922) strains in vitro. Materials and Methods: The amniotic membrane samples were obtained from caesarean women in Imam Khomeini hospital. Participating women were all seronegative for HIV, HBV, HCV, and syphilis. The samples were cut into 1.5×1.5 cm pieces. The 0.5 McFarland bacterial suspensions were prepared and spread on Muller-Hinton agar medium, and a piece of membrane was placed in the centre of each plate. Samples were examined at different time intervals (24, 48, and 72 hr), temperatures (25, 33, 37°C) and pH (6.5, 7, and 7.5) as variables. Results: The results show that time and pH as variable parameters did not affect the antibacterial properties of the amniotic membrane. However, the change in temperature (25 and 33°C vs. 37°C) had a significant impact on P. aeruginosa. Conclusion: Antibacterial properties of the amniotic membrane seem resistant against environmental factors, except for especial cases, and this sustainability could expand its usage in clinical procedures and different conditions.

F Moghadami, S Dolatabadi, H Nazem,
Volume 20, Issue 82 (7-2012)

Background and Objective: Staphylococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria are infectious agents of the pulmonary system. S. pyogenes usually appears as a secondary infection along with a primary staphylococcus infection. Hence, antimicrobial effects of Lavandula angustifolia on S. pyogenes and S. aureus were simultaneously examined. Materials and Methods: In this study, compounds existing in essences of leaves and flowers of L. angustifolia (true Lavander) were analyzed by gas chromatography using mass spectrometry (GC/Ms) and the antibacterial effects of the extracts were investigated by tube dilution method in a broth medium. Minimal Inhibition Concentration (MIC) and Minimal Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) were determined using different concentrations of the extracts. Then disk diffusion was performed with MIC concentrations. Results: The most important compounds existing in the essence of L. angustifolia flowers and leaves included linalool (35.2%-36.8%), cineole (17.1%-20.1%), and borneol (7.2%-7.8%), respectively. MIC and MBC of aqua and alcohol extracts of the leaves and flowers on S. aureus were 15 mg and 20 mg, respectively. As for S. pyogenes, the MIC was 20 mg. However, the MBCs of alcohol and of the aqueous extracts were different (20 mg vs. 25 mg). Conclusion: Our results reveal that alcohol extract of L. angustifolia leaves has antibacterial effect on S. aureus and on S. pyogenes and could be considered as an antibacterial product in the treatment of infections caused by these two microorganisms.

A Karami, S Mazloumzadeh, M Joz Panahi, M Farshidfar,
Volume 20, Issue 83 (8-2012)

Background and Objective: Streptococcal pharyngitis is one of the most common bacterial infections that its improper treatment could lead to complications such as heart and kidney problems. Although streptococcal pharyngitis makes up a low percentage of pharyngitis etiology, penicillin derivatives are prescribed for many of the patients with pharyngitis. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of streptococcal infection in pharyngitis patients treated with penicillin derivatives as well as their drug resistance patterns. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional trial was performed on 437 patients aged between 1-90 years with pharyngitis admitted to the emergency ward and treated with penicillin derivatives. A throat swab for culture and smear preparation for group A beta hemolytic streptococus was done for each patient, followed by evaluation of antibiotic resistance to group A hemolytic streptococci. Results: From a total of 437 patients diagnosed with streptoccocal pharyngitis, only 31 patients (7.09%) turned up positive for group A beta hemolytic streptococci. Drug resistancy to Erythromycin 38.2%, Gentamicin 58.8% and Penicillin 2.9% were reported. Conclusion: Considering the fact that 7.09% of the patients required antibiotic therapy, the irrational consumption of antibiotics likely leads to an increased likelihood of drug resistance or allergy. This issue deserves special attention in the continuing educational programs for physicians.

Mm Soltan Dallal, A Rastegar Lari, R Bakhtiari, B Nikmanesh, Mk Sharifi Yazdi,
Volume 22, Issue 92 (5-2014)

Background and Objective: Attention has largely been focused on appearance of multiple drug resistance enterococci in the last 20 years. One of the methods to overcome this problem is to combine different antibiotics in order to increase antimicrobial activity and reduce toxicity. The combination of fluor quinolones with other antibiotics has been widely investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the synergistic effect of ciprofloxacin in several antibiotics Beta-lactam (piperacillin, ceftazidime and imipenem) on isolated enterococci. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study, 67 Streptococci strains were isolated from clinical samples from March to September 2012. The serial broth dilution method in test tubes was used for the MIC, and the check board Format was used for the synergistic effect of ciprofloxacin with Beta-lactam antibiotics. The synergistic effect was determined with four- fold reduction of initial MIC. Results: Totally, 67 strains of Streptococci were used, in which 50 strains (74.6%) were enterococci, 6(9%) were group B streptococcus, 5(7.5%) were non-group A streptococci, 2 (3%) were pneumococci, and 2 were strains of alpha streptococci (3%), respectively. All results were determined by the MIC and MBC of each antibiotic individually and also in combination with ciprofloxacin. Conclusion: The effect of ciprofloxacin on other antibiotics was indifferent, and the synergistic effect was not observed.

Sm Abtahi Froushani, H Esmaeili Gouvarchin Ghaleh, R Rezapor, B Mansori Motlagh, A Rostaei,
Volume 22, Issue 95 (8-2014)

Background and Objective: The roots of Glycyrrhiza glabra (Liquorice) have long been used in traditional medicine to treat a variety of ailments from simple coughs to hepatitis and even more complexities such as cancers. This study was conducted to grasp the immunomodulatory properties of the roots of Glycyrrhiza glabra in NMRI-mice challenged with sheep red blood cells (SRBCs). Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of 20 male mice that randomly divided into two equal groups and immunized with SRBC. Mice in the treatment group orally received 0.75 g/Kg hydroalcoholic extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra every day from the beginning of the study for 2 weeks. Results: The results indicated a significant increase in the level of anti-SRBC antibody and simultaneously a significant decrease in the level of cellular immunity in the treatment group compared to the control group. 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