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H Baghchesaraei, B Amini, M Bayat,
Volume 17, Issue 69 (12-2009)

Background and objectives: Rheumatic fever is a main problem of developing countries, whereas in developed countries its prevalence is low. Proper diagnosis and adequate treatment of beta streptococcal infection can effectively prevent such unwanted sequel. Materials and Methods: Following completion of a questionnaire regarding age, sex, location etc. blood sample was collected and ASO titer was measured. Results: Out of 400 samples, 54 patients had positive ASO titer. 83.3% of individuals with a positive titer had the history of pharyngitis. Positive ASO titers in rural and urban area were 19% and 11.6% respectively. Positive ASO titer in females and males were 68.5% and 31.5% respectively. Age distribution of positive titer was 42.6% in 20-29 years age group and 37% in 10-19 years age groups. Conclusion: patients with positive ASO titer in Zanjan province and surrounding villages were relatively high which might be due to low education level and poor economical status. The incidence was high in the second and the third decade of life whereas in other countries this range is between 6-15 years. High incidence of rheumatic fever in the studying population seeks a prompt measure to be taken on the prevention and control of streptococcal infection.

B Amini, M Kamali, A Zarei Mahmod Abadi, Y Mortazavi, A Ebrahim Habibi, E Bayat, N Farhadi, Hr Javadi, Ah Kyhan,
Volume 18, Issue 71 (5-2010)

Background and Objective: Antibody against Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A can be used in immunotherapy together with antibiotics to treat acute burn patients. Exotoxin A is one of the virulence factors in Pseudomonas aeruginosa that comprises of three domains, binding domain, translocation and catalytic domain. The purpose of this study was to produce recombinant domain of the catalytic part of this microorganism in order to produce antibody against it. Methods and Materials: Pseudomonas aeruginosa samples were isolated from burn patients hospitalized in Mousavi Hospital, Zanjan, Iran and Pseudomonas aeruginosa species were identified by Biochemical tests. Bacteria genomic DNA was extracted and exotoxin A gene determined by PCR. Catalytic domain of exotoxin A was amplified by PCR. Products and plasmid extracts was digested by restriction enzymes. Subsequently PCR products and plasmids transformed into E. coli BL21 (DE3). Clones containing gene of interest was determined by PCR, restriction enzyme and sequencing. Results: The sequence homology of the catalytic domain of exotoxin A was compared with that of the published gene data bank. The results showed a complete homology between our gene species and the published genome in data banks. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that about 90% of the isolated bacteria contained exotoxin A and there was a sequence homology between our species and published gene data banks.

Mr َalipour, S Khamnei, L Jalali, Ah Baiat, M Alipour,
Volume 18, Issue 73 (6-2010)

Background and Objective: Breathing through the nose and mouth is one of the controversial issues during exercise. The present study was scheduled to investigate a quantitative approach to habitual versus the obligatory switching point from nasal to oronasal breathing during exercise as well as coincidence of soft palate movement as the main aims of this study, that has not been studied previously. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, twenty-five young adult volunteers (12 males and 13 females) participated in the study. An incremental exercise protocol was incorporated in three protocols for determination of switching point from nasal to oronasal breathing during habitual, obligatory conditions, and determination of change in soft palate position. In two latter conditions, subjects were advised to breathe via nasal route as long as they could. Switching point from nasal to oronasal breathing was determined by a CO2 sensor. Results: Duration of habitual nasal breathing was shorter than tolerated nasal breathing. Obligatory opening of mouth and change in soft palate position were coincident. Ventilation increment at habitual shift from nasal to oronasal respiration was lower than obligatory one. Switching time to oronasal breathing correlated either with ventilation increment or exercise workload. Rate of ventilation was higher in females but switching time was significantly longer in males in three mentioned conditions. In the last two protocols, ventilation incrimination was significantly lower in females. Conclusion: In conclusion, duration of tolerated nasal breathing was longer than habitual one and changes in the position of soft palate occurs simultaneously.

A Karami, S Palizi , H Ahangar , A Jalil Vand , S Mazloom Zadeh, N Mohebbi , Z Baiat ,
Volume 24, Issue 103 (4-2016)

Background and Objective: Ischemic heart disease implies reduction of oxygen and blood supply in the myocardium. The most common cause of ischemia is atherosclerotic coronary artery disease. While numerous risk factors lead to coronary diseases, the mechanism of infectious agents in CAD remains unidentified.

Materials and Methods: In this study, 360 patients with and without coronary disease underwent evaluation in terms of cytomegalovirus (CMV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV) seroprevalences. Serology was performed by means of ELISA assays. 

Results: Of 360 patients, positive serology was reported for CMV and HSV in 91.7 % and 93.3% with CAD as well as  66.1 % and 57.5 % without  CAD (P<0.001). The risk of coronary disease by cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex in people who had positive serology were 1.5% and 6.81% times, respectively. The risk in regard to the control of other significant variables was statistically significant (P<0.001). The risk of coronary disease pointed out an increase by 3% per age which was statistically significant. In men at risk of coronary artery disease, positive HSV serology was 4.8 times more than women and in patients  with a history of myocardial infraction, this risk was reported 6.47 % times more than the patients without  this history (P<0.001). 

Conclusion: Owing to possible association of viruses and bacteria in the process of atherosclerosis, furthur research is recommended to find out  the relationship of  other infectious agents with CAD   and the presence of microorganisms in the coronary atherosclerotic specimens.

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