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Volume 1, Issue 1 (12-1992)
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Volume 1, Issue 3 (6-1993)
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Volume 5, Issue 19 (6-1997)
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Volume 5, Issue 19 (6-1997)
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Volume 5, Issue 21 (12-1997)
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Volume 9, Issue 34 (3-2001)
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B Falak-Ul-Aflaki, F Sharifi, Z Torabi, F Moezi,
Volume 15, Issue 58 (3-2007)
Abstract

Background & Objectives: Nocturnal enuresis, the involuntary passing of urine during sleep after the age at which bladder control would normally be anticipated, is a widespread and potentially disabling disorder of children. Treatment of enuresis includes non-pharmacologic and pharmacologic procedures. Imipramine, anticholinergics, and desmopressin are appropriate drugs for treatment. Desmopressin is a synthetic analogue of vasopressin, which decreases urine output. Since efficacy and side effects of desmopressin-therapy differ in various studies, this research was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of desmopressin in enuretic children in Zanjan. Materials & Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 126 chidren aged 5-14 suffering from primary nocturnal enuresis, referring to pediatric nephrology clinit were entered into the study during 2002-2006. Following the written consent a questionnaire concerning the personal data and physical examination was completed for each patient. Clinical tests including U/A, U/C, Cr and serum electrolytes were carried out and after rejecting the secondary causes of enuresis 10-20 g intransal desmopressin was prescribed according to the age and weight of the children. The effect and complications of the drug were followed up monthly for six months. Results: Of 126 children, 56 (44.4 %) obtained full recovery, and 48 (38.1%) partial recovery from nocturnal enuresis. The total recovery was 82.5 %. 22 patients (17.4 %) did not respond to the drug. No significant difference was observed between age, gender, existence of stress, and effect of the drug on child enuresis. Children with familial history of nocturnal enuresis responded better to the drug. No complications were observed in patients. Conclusion: Desmopressin is an effective drug against nocturnal enuresis of children. The drug is more effective in children with familial history of primary nocturnal enuresis.


M Torabi, N Ramezan Ghorbani,
Volume 15, Issue 58 (3-2007)
Abstract

Background & Objective: Emergence of information technology (IT) has influenced human life deeply. Presumably the strongest and deepest influence has been on education field so that any one could get access to required data any time, at any place. Development of IT is so remarkable that its influence on health education could not be neglected. Thus, a great number of countries have implemented basic website set-up for health information purposes. This study paves the way for future research on both e-health and e-education in the society and their effects on the overall health knowledge of the high school students. Materials & Methods: The present study was performed on the basis of information obtained from questionnaires on personal, mental, nutritional, maternal and marital issues and family planning, common infections, AIDS and environmental health information of 649 students in 3 high schools. Information was collected in two steps (pre and post tests). T-test and Leven’s tests were used in the statistical analysis of the data. Results: The results of t-test showed that training the students through health information website increased their health knowledge in the above-mentioned fields with a minimum of 14.5% for environmental health and a maximum of 48.9% for nutritional health which showed a significant difference in all fields (P=0.000). Conclusions: Efficacy of the model in the improvement of knowledge was statistically significant in all health fields. Implementation of IT is a predictable and flexible procedure. Moreover, it enhances accessibility and provides active question-response methods.


Sz Torabi, B Falak-Ul-Aflaki, F Moezzi,
Volume 15, Issue 61 (12-2007)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Extensive use of antibiotics in medicine has led to resistance of microorganisms in urinary tract infection (UTI) in both children and adults. Therefore, conducting studies on antibiotic susceptibility is needed for selection of antibiotics based on regional studies.

 Materials and Methods: During the year 2006 urine samples from all symptomatic patients admitted to neonatal, pediatrics, obstetric and neurologic wards were collected through midstream clean-catch, catheterization, or urine bags. An antibiogram test was performed for all 118 urine samples which were culture positive. Results: The most common organisms found in neonatal urine culture were klebsiella pneumonia (44/5%) followed by Escherichia coli (33/5%). Escherichia coli was the most common organism in pediatrics (41%), obstetric (46%), and neurologic wards (73%). Resistance to ampicillin (82/6%) and cefixim (73/6%) was significant in all samples. Ciprofloxacine was the most effective drug against E.coli and klebsiella pneumonia in all wards (resistance rate: 24/1%) followed by nitrofurantion (resistance rate: 41/4%), ceftriaxone (resistance rate: 44/8%) and amikacin (resistance rate: 51/9%). Vancomycine was the most effective drug against staphylococcus epidermidis (resistance rate: 37/1%) followed by cephtasidim (resistance rate: 40/1%) and ciprofloxacine (resistance rate: 48/5%). Conclusion: Unfortunately due to irrational use of antibiotics, high resistance to ampicillin, cefixim, gentamycin, cotrimoxazol, and some other drugs was observed. Continuous studies regarding the drug resistance are recommended for better assessment in the future.


A Ahmadiafshar, S Sepehri, Sn Moosavinasan, Sz Torabi,
Volume 16, Issue 64 (9-2008)
Abstract

Recognition and Frequency Determination of Common Allergens in Allergic Patients of Zanjan City by Skin Prick Test Ahmadiafshar A1, Sepehri S2, Moosavinasab SN3, Torabi SZ1 1 Dept of Pediatric, Ayat-ul-Alah Moosavi Hospital, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, Iran 2 Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, Iran 3 Dept of Social Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, Iran Corresponding Author's Address: Dept of Pediatric, Ayat-ul-Alah Moosavi Hospital, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, Iran E-mail: akefeh45@zums.ac.ir Received: 13 Jan, 2008 Accepted: 24 Nov, 2008 Background and Objective: Recognition of various environmental allergens is of great importance. Since contact with them may cause or accelerate sympotoms in allergic patients. Our purpose of this study was to determine sensitivity to common allergens by skin prick test. Materials and Methods: Patients with allergic rhinitis, asthma and atopic dermatitis referred to Allergy Clinic of Valie Asr Hospital of Zanjan City, 2003-2005, were submitted to skin prick test with a series of indoor, outdoor and food allergens. Results: Two hundred patients (111 females and 89 males) 4-60 years of age were recruited. Eighty three percent of subjects showed at least one positive skin prick test. The skin prick tests were positive for grass (Rye grass 41%), weed (pigweed 27%, Herb 21%), Tree (olive 22%, Ash 20%, Butirytis 19.5% ), Mites (D.P 16%, D.F 16%), Cockroach 14.5%, feather11%, Mold (Aspergillus 11.5%, Alternaria 7.5%), Food (Wheat 9%, Pepper7.5%, Egg 6.5%). Conclusion: According to the freguency of positive skin tests to pollens in our patients, it seems that avoiding contanct with these agents in related seasons, treatment ineluction, drug dose acceleration and desensitization procedures would be of great help in allergic patients.


Sz Torabi, A Abbaszadeh, A Ahmadiafshar,
Volume 19, Issue 76 (5-2011)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Gastroenteritis is a major cause of mortality and morbidity among infants and children around the world. Zinc with increasing the absorbent capacity of enteric villous cells and decreasing the enteric gram negative bacteria and blocking chloride excretion leads to cell healing and helps diarrhea to resolve faster. The present study evaluates the effect of oral zinc sulfate syrup on infants of the city of Zanjan- Iran. Materials and Methods: In this randomized double blind trial, 400 hospitalized infants (age range of 6 to 24 months) with acute gastroenteritis were divided into two equal groups. The case group received 22 mg of daily oral zinc sulfate whereas control group took the placebo. Data was gathered with questionnaires and recorded precisely over 10 days and then analyzed with independent statistical t-test and Mann-Whitney U-test. Results: Findings indicated that the frequency of diarrhea in the case group was less than the control group and weight gain after 10 days in the case group was more than the control group (P<0.0001). Meanwhile, there was no significant difference in hospitalization period and duration of diarrhea. Conclusion: The results of this study pointed out that there is a meaningful relation between times of diarrhea and weight gain in infants with acute gastroenteritis receiving oral zinc sulfate. Thus, prescription of zinc sulfate for infants with acute diarrhea for a period of 10 to 14 days is suggested.


Bm Torabi, A Shiravi, Gh Vaezi,
Volume 20, Issue 82 (7-2012)
Abstract

Background and Objective: One of the most important complications of utilization of anti-epilepsy drugs in pregnancy is an increase of fetal abnormality. There is not enough information about the role of phenytoin on teratogenic effects on pregnancy and on fetal organogenesis. Hence, this study was designed to determine the macroscopic abnormalities created by continuous use of phenytoin during organogenesis of fetus. Materials and Methods: Forty pregnant mice (NMRI type) were divided into three experimental groups (I, II, III) and one control group. Three experimental groups I, II, III received 60mg/kg, 75 mg/kg, and 90 mg/kg per day with 0.2 ml volume from the day 6.5 (GD6/5) to day 14.5 (GD‌14/5) of pregnancy intraperitoneally (i.p.). The control group received the same volume of normal saline instead. The mice on the day 18.5 of pregnancy were sacrificed, and their tail lengths, weights, and abnormalities were studied. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey tests. Results: In the experimental groups, the mean weight and tail length was reduced significantly compared to the control group (P<0.05). In all three experimental group (I, II, III) abnormalities such as absorption of same fetal, hemorrhage in different organs and follicular thyroid was increased significantly compared to the control group (P<0.05). Conclusion: Our results show that utilization of the drug phenytoin in mouse during organogenesis not only induces absorption of some fetuses, weight loss, and tail length reduction, but it can also induce abnormalities such as hemorrhage and follicular thyroid.


A Ahmadiafshar, S Ahmadi, S Mazloomzadeh, Z Torabi,
Volume 22, Issue 93 (6-2014)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Allergies can present with involvement of different organs. In this study symptoms and signs of patients with defined allergy to pollens were investigated. Materials and Methods: Patients who had positive skin tests to at least one allergen were enrolled to study. They were visited and evaluated for symptoms and accompanying disorders. The season of symptom appearance or exacerbations were also assessed. Then associations of symptoms and complications with skin test results were analyzed by SPSS soft ware. Results: Four hundred and six patients from 502 cases were accepted to take part in our study. Pollens were common allergens (82%) among them weeds (61.3%) was the most common. After nasal symptoms that is most common, otitis media, urticaria and conjunctivitis in patients who were sensitive to weed, tree and grass respectively, were more common problems. There was significant association between weed allergy and rhinitis and conjunctivitis especially in late spring and summer. Tree allergy was seen in 60.1% of patients and there was positive association between tree allergy and ocular symptoms especially in spring and early summer. Two hundreds and forty three (59.9%) patients had positive skin tests to grass. It was the most common in children and youth and it was significantly associated with ocular symptoms in spring and summer. Conclusion: Considering the high prevalence of sensitization to outdoor allergens in our area instructions for pollen avoidance and appropriate medication in pollen seasons, could be beneficial for disease control.


Z Torabi, O Rabbani, A Ahmadiafshar,
Volume 23, Issue 100 (7-2015)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Childhood obesity is considered a major health problem in both developed and developing countries. Regarding the impact of obesity on children, family and society, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of obesity and its correlation with life style and possible risk factors among preschool children in Zanjan.

Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 890 children aged 2-5 years old who were randomly recruited from child care centers of Zanjan city. Weight, height and the body mass index (BMI) of all participants were measured and a questionnaire consisting of birth history, feeding pattern, family history of obesity and diabetes, sleep and activity times were filled by interviewing with parents. Data were analyzed by SPSS software.

Results: The prevalence rate of obesity was10.9% and overweight prevalence was12.9%. There was no significant difference between two sexes (p=0.379). But there was a significant relationship between obesity and preterm delivery, birth weight, formula or cow milk feeding. Family history of obesity, physical activity, time spent watching TV and computer games per day, consumption of snacks and use of fast food during the week were all taken into account.

Conclusion: The findings indicate that obesity is high in preschool children in Zanjan city. Considering its significant correlation with physical activity, nutrition and birth weight, it seems that training programs and changes in the lifestyle and nutrition could have beneficial effects on the prevention and reduction of childhood obesity.


A Ahmadiafshar, S Ahmadi, S Mazloomzadeh, Z Torabi,
Volume 26, Issue 115 (5-2018)
Abstract

Background and Objective: The allergens in the closed environments and at home because of the constant contact can cause severe and permanent allergies. In this study, the frequency and the clinical findings were evaluated in patients who were allergic to domestic allergens.
Materials and Methods: In this study, all the patients with a positive skin test to at least one allergy were extracted, and during the face-to-face examination or phone call, the clinical findings and common problems with respiratory, skin or other disorders were evaluated. Then, the relationship between the above findings and the skin test was analyzed by the SPSS software.
Results: From 502 patients with a positive skin test, 406 individuals were included in the study. 195 people (48%) inside the house had a positive skin test to domestic allergens. In these patients 97 (23.9%) were allergic to mite, 82 (20.2%) to molds, 78 (19.2%) to beetles, 51 (12.6%) to domestic birds’ feather and 31 (7.6%) were allergic to cat allergens. In comparison, the dyspnea was significantly higher in the mold-sensitive patients (P = 0.01). The eyes involvement was significantly less in patients sensitive to mite and mold (P = 0.01 and P =0.02 respectively).
Conclusion: In this study, the skin test response to indoor allergens was relatively high. Therefore, attention to these allergens and training to avoid the occurrence of these factors and controlling them at home is recommended.
 
 
Dr Zohreh Torabi, Dr Afshin Mansouri, Dr Alireza Armani, Dr Hamid Khederlou,
Volume 26, Issue 118 (September & October 2018)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Sleep behaviors have a significant impact on a child's quality of life; thus, sleep disorders are a major concern for parents. These disorders show the highest prevalence amongst pre-school children which can lead to mood disorders and the disruption of cognitive and emotional abilities. These side effects can subsequently cause failure in school, family problems and psychiatric disorders.
Material and Methods: Primarily, a list of kindergartens located in Zanjan city were selected with the help of the State Welfare Organization of Iran. The cluster sampling method was used and 345 samples were randomly entered to the study. Parents were asked to respond to the researcher’s questions based on BEARS questionnaire. Finally, the data were analyzed using SPSS software.
Results: 304 out of 345 children participating in the study (88%) had sleep disorders. Fear of sleeping alone was the most reported sleep disorders (59.4%). Our study showed that the use of mass media reduced sleep-related problems (P=0.027). There was a significant relationship between maternal education and sleep disorders, and the lowest prevalence of sleep disorders was observed amongst children whose mothers held a bachelor's degree (P=0.008).
Conclusion: The high prevalence of sleep disorders in this study suggests that such psychological problems require special attention on the part of pediatricians, pediatric psychiatrists and general health professionals with an orientation towards teamwork.

Dr Mehdi Torabi, Dr Mitra Samareh Fekri, Dr Sara Azizi Shoul, Mr Ahmad Naghibzadeh Thahami, Dr Shiva Moeinaddini,
Volume 26, Issue 118 (September & October 2018)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a chronic obstructive and irreversible disease which has a high mortality and morbidity rate. Systemic inflammation and the thrombotic process can influence the prognosis of these patients. The objectives of this study were to evaluate prognostic effects of CBC indices (WBC, PMN, MPV, RDW), forced expiratory volume-one second (FEV1) and mean Pulmonary Artery Pressure (mPAP) in the prognosis of COPD patients with acute exacerbation of the disease.
Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on exacerbated COPD patients who were admitted to the emergency department, Afzalipour Hospital, Kerman, Iran during 2016-2017. For all the patients, CBC was assessed as they arrived then Pulmonary Function Test and echocardiography were conducted.  In order to create the final model, we employed multivariate regression analysis.
Results: A total of 1078 patients were enrolled during one year, of which 58.3% were male. In multivariate analysis, White blood cells (WBC), Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN), Mean platelet volume (MPV), Red Cell Distribution Width (RDW), FEV1 and mPAP were the six variables which are independently associated with hospital mortality and ICU admission. Sensitivity, specificity and area under the curve for these six variables model were 78.5, 92 and 86% respectively.
Conclusion: Since the inflammatory and thrombotic events are influential in the prognosis of COPD patients, it may be possible to predict patients outcome with CBC related indices (WBC, PMN, MPV and RDW), although other important risk factors such as pulmonary hypertension and FEV1 decrease should be considered as well.


Dr Akefeh Ahmadiafshar, Dr Saeideh Mazloomzadeh, Dr Zohre Torabi, Dr Kimia Haghighat,
Volume 26, Issue 119 (November & December 2018)
Abstract

Background & Objective:  Food allergy is an important and increasing problem in children. The aim of this study was to investigate the type and prevalence of food reactions in child care centers of Zanjan city (northwest, Iran).
 Materials & Methods:  This cross-sectional study was performed in 40 kindergartens from Zanjan city. A questionnaire containing information about the occurrence of food reaction, offending food, type of reaction, feeding and birth history, and atopy in the children and their families, was prepared and completed by the parents. Then, the data were gathered and analyzed by SPSS software.  
Results:  In this study 801 children between the ages of 6 months to 5 years were recruited. Two hundred and one reactions (25.1%) were reported. Skin reactions including; urticaria (47.3%) and dermatitis (8%) were registered as the most common problems. Cow's milk (32.3%) was the most offending food. There was significant correlation between age, duration of breast feeding, personal and family history of atopy, and food reactions; however, we did not find any correlation between birth body weight, gender, time of complementary feeding and food reaction. 
Conclusion:  This study showed a high prevalence of food reaction in our region. Therefore, along with confirmatory diagnostic tests, family education for prevention and treatment of children is recommended.

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