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Showing 64 results for محمدی

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Volume 1, Issue 1 (12-1992)
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Volume 2, Issue 5 (12-1994)
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Volume 2, Issue 7 (6-1994)
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Volume 3, Issue 11 (6-1995)
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Volume 7, Issue 28 (9-1999)
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Volume 9, Issue 34 (3-2001)
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Volume 10, Issue 39 (6-2002)
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Volume 11, Issue 43 (Jun 2003)
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Volume 11, Issue 44 (Sep 2003)
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Volume 12, Issue 46 (Mar 2004)
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Volume 12, Issue 49 (Dec 2004)
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Background: Mosquitoes are the most important blood feeding insects that can transmit serious diseases such as malaria and arboviruses. Each species of mosquitoes selects a specific host according to biological conditions of the region and genetic characteristics. Anopheles maculipennis complex and Culex theileri are dominant mosquito species in Zanjan. This study was carried out in order to determine the blood feeding index of mosquitoes by Sanduwich Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) in 2004. Materials and Methods: An. maculipennis complex and Cx. theileri mosquitoes were collected from indoors and outdoors by pyrethrum spray catch (PSC) and light trap in 2003 and blood fed samples were separated and kept at -20°c subsequent to drying. The samples were tested for human blood after establishing Sandwich ELISA technique. The results were analyzed through test. Results: A total of 6436 samples were studied, out of which 3072 (47.73%) were An. maculipennis and 3364 (52.3%) Cx. theileri. Human blood-feeding index in An. maculipennis complex was 3.2% while this rate reached 1.5% in Cx. theileri. An. maculipennis complex showed 2.12% more anthropophilic behavior than Cx. theileri. Anthropophilic index of this anopheles by PSC was 0.2%. This index was 7.3% (93) in samples collected by light trap. There was a significant difference in two rates (p=0001). In PSC samples anthropophilic index was 35.17 times less than light trap samples. Anthropophilic index of this Culex was 1.8% through PSC and 1.3% through light trap, which shows no significant difference. Conclusion: With regard to high human blood feeding index of An. maculipennis complex, we suggest that health officials of the province pay careful attention to malaria control and monitoring programs. To reduce human blood feeding index people should be encouraged to use personal protection and keep livestock to divert mosquitoes. More research associated with molecular biology, ecology and bionomy is recommended to determine this difference.


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Volume 13, Issue 52 (Sep 2005)
Abstract

Background & Objectives: Blatella germanica as a significant urban pest, can transmit various diseases and cause allergy. In spite of frequent pyrethroid spraying, contamination to German cockroach continues in Shahid Beheshti hospital and so far no survey has been carried out concerning the cause of persistent contamination to this pest. This study was carried out to assess the susceptibility of German cockroach in shahid Beheshti hospital during 2003-2004. Materials and Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, B. germanica samples were collected from different wards of Shahid Beheshti hospital and transferred to the laboratory. Both hospital and susceptible strains were divided into treatment and control groups. Adult males were sorted out and bioassayed through surface contact with 15.62, 31.25, 62.5, 125, 250 and 500 mg/m2 of permethrin and the number of knockdown samples was counted at different time intervals in all groups. Each dose of permethrin was tested in three replications of ten and a control replication of ten, surface contact with acetone was also carried out. The data were analyzed through probit test and linear regressions between contact time and percentage of knockdown samples was plotted through which knockdown time for 50% of samples (KT50) was estimated. Results: The survey of 480 cockroaches in two group of 240 (60 control and 180 treated) showed resistance to knockdown effect in contact with permethrin in hospital samples. At contact dose of 15.61 mg/m2, hospital samples were heterogeneous (P=0.0004) and resistant samples were easily recognized from susceptible ones. In this dose, KT50 in hospital samples was 63.6 (95% CI: 60.37-67) minutes and in susceptible strain 22.42 (95% CI: 20.28- 26.65) minutes. Resistance ratio in hospital samples reached 2.83 (95% CI: 2.72-2.96). Conclusions: Regarding the resistance to permethrin, the study of genetic nature of resistance, cross resistance to new pesticides and their bioassay are necessary in control measures.


A Mohammadi, Ar Shoghli,
Volume 14, Issue 54 (Mar 2006)
Abstract

Background & Objective: Improving quality of hospital services helps to optimize resource utilization and promotes quality of care and community satisfaction. Since identification of staff perceptions and expectations leads to increased efficiency, improvement of organization products and fulfillment of customers' present and future needs, this research was conducted in order to analyse total quality management (TQM) elements in Zanjan's hospitals from 2003 through 2004. Materials & Methods: This descriptive study was carried out on 256 employees of different hospitals in Zanjan province who had been selected through stratified random sampling. Data collecting tool was questionnaire (Likert scale) including optimal situation (expectations) and present situation (perceptions) of TQM elements which was completed by research samples. The gap between expectations and perceptions was calculated by subtracting the perceptions scores from expectations score. The results were analysed through statistical test (Kroscal-Wallis Wilcoxon). Results: The mean gap scores between optimal situation (expectations) and present situation (perceptions) were significant in all elements of TQM (P=0.01). The fair recognition and reward system was the most important dimension from employees' standpoint and scored the most negative (mean gap score= -3). Quality culture and staff empowerment were rated as the second and third most important dimensions. Conclusion: The results indicate that fair recognition and reward system, the initiative and creative culture and staff empowerment are the most important preconditions of effective implementation of TQM in hospitals. Thus, it is recommended that hospital managers establish fair reward system based on well-done performance and encourage creative work and quality culture.


M Ghaemi, M Ansari, S Mohammadi,
Volume 14, Issue 56 (Sep 2006)
Abstract

Background & Objective: Outpatient surgery can be performed by general or spinal anesthesia. Spinal anesthetic drugs have side effects. Many anesthesiologists choose general anesthesia, because of its relative predictability and to avoid undesirable side effects associated with spinal anesthesia. For example lidocaine is frequently associated with Transient Neuroligic Symptoms (TNS). Bupivacaine may cause urinary retention, prolonged discharge time and unpredictable level of anesthesia dependent on dose. Reducing bupivacaine dose will shorten the duration of action and its anesthesia level will be predictable in saddle block technique. This study was designed to assess the effects of hyperbaric, low dose bupivacaine in level of sensory block, duration of anesthesia and selective sensory block in an rectal surgery and its comparison with lidocaine. Materials & Methods: In a clinical trial study, 64 patients who were the candidates for anorectal surgery were divided in two groups randomly. In one group, hyperbaric bupivacaine 0.5% was injected in sitting position. The other group received hyperbaric lidocaine 5% in the same position. The patients were laid in lithotomy position after 5 minute. Blood pressure, pulse rate, severity of sensory & motor block, duration of anesthesia and tonicity of anal sphincter were recorded in two groups. The results were analyzed through T-test, chi square and variance analysis. Results: Sensory level and anesthesia duration in bupivacaine group were higher than lidocaine group. Motor block degree and anal sphincter tonicity loss in lidocaine group were greater than the other one. Blood pressure decreasing in lidocaine group was significantly higher to bupivacaine group. Conclusion: The proper sensory level and short anesthetic duration of low-dose hyperbaric bupivacaine are comparable with lidocaine in saddle block position, and selective sensory block may be useful for anorectal surgery in lithotomy position.


S Mazloomzadeh, A Moosani, H Dinmohammadi,
Volume 14, Issue 56 (Sep 2006)
Abstract

Background & Objective: The prevalence of obesity, one of the greatest public health problems in the world has tripled in many countries since three decades ago this increase is often faster in developing countries than in the developed world. Gathering information on the main factors involved in the occurrence of obesity in different geographical areas plays a key role in the prevention of it. Therefore, the aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of overweight and obesity in relation to various factors in the Zanjan population. Materials & Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 2500 Zanjan residents aged between 15 and 64 years who were randomly selected through cluster sampling via their postal codes, using the protocol of the WHO STEPwise approach. Information on demographic characteristics was collected using questionnaires. Weight and height were measured according to standard protocols. Those with a BMI within the range of 25-29.9 Kg/m2 and 30 Kg/m2 or above were classified as overweigh and obese, respectively. Overweight and obesity were defined based on the WHO classification. Data was analyzed using Chi-Square tests and Logistic regression models to estimate odds ratios. Results: The prevalence of being overweight and obese in this population were 30.7% and 15% respectively. The proportion of obesity was 21.3% in women and 8.9% in men. The prevalence of obesity increased with increasing age and in both sexes was the highest in 45-54 year olds. Both prevalences of overweight and obesity were greater in urban residents and married participants. The prevalence of obesity was also decreased with increasing educational level. Conclusion: High prevalence of overweight and obesity in this population, specifically within high-risk groups, highlights the need to implement interventions for reducing this epidemic.


Mr Jafari, S Golmohammadi, F Ghasvand,
Volume 14, Issue 57 (Dec 2006)
Abstract

Background & Objective: ‎Cannabinoids have a dose-related antinociceptive effect in animals and humans through Cannabinoid receptors (CB1,CB2). Several ‎studies have suggested that CB2 receptors are not expressed in the CNS but others suggest that there are a few, although significant, receptors in that area. To date no studies have been done on the antinociceptive effect of central administration of a CB2 agonist. In this study the central and peripheral analgesic effect of JWH133 (a CB2 agonist) was examined.‎ Materials & Methods: Male mice were used in this study. The antinociceptive effects of intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of JWH133 ‎using formalin test was studied in stereotaxed mice after one week of ‎surgery and the insertion of a stainless steel cannula in the left cerebroventricle. To study peripheral effects of JWH133, the drug was administered intraperitoneally (i.p.). Results: The i.c.v injection of JWH133 had no effect but i.p. injection of the drug had analgesic effects. Conclusion: The present results may suggest that there are no any effective analgesic CB2 receptors in the CNS.


M Roghani, T Baluchnejadmojarad, M Fallah_ Mohammadi,
Volume 15, Issue 59 (6-2007)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Diabetes mellitus (DM) especially type A, is accompanied by disturbances in learning, memory, and cognitive skills in human society and experimental animals. Regarding the beneficial effect of SM on lipid peroxidation in hyperlipidemia and on serum lipids in DM, this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of prolonged oral administration of SM on learning and memory in diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Female wistar rats (n = 36) were randomly divided into control, SM-treated control, diabetic, and SM-treated diabetic groups. Treatment groups received a mixture of SM and standard rat food at a weight ratio of 6.25% for 4 weeks.To induce diabetes, streptozotocin was injected intraperitoneally at a single dose of 60 mg/kg. For evaluation of learning and memory, initial latency (IL) and step-through latency (STL) were determined at the end of the study using passive avoidance test. Meanwhile, alternation behavior percentage was determined using Y maze test. Results: There was a significant increase (p = 0.032) in IL in diabetic and SM-treated diabetic groups after 4 weeks compared to control group. There was no significant difference between diabetic and SM-treated diabetic groups. On the other hand, STL decreased significantly (p = 0.032) in diabetic group while it increased significantly (p = 0.027) in SM-treated group compared to control group at the end of the study. The results of Y maze showed that alternation score was not different between treated and untreated diabetic groups. Conclusion: SM could enhance the consolidation and recall capability of stored information but did not affect spatial memory of diabetic animals.


Mr Din Mohammadi, K Amini, Mr Yazdan Khah,
Volume 15, Issue 59 (6-2007)
Abstract

Background and objective: Opioid addiction is a major social problem among all societies worldwide. According to official reports there are about 1,200,000 chronic addicts and 800,000 recreational consumers throughout the country. One of the perplexing problems regarding addiction is its relapse since 50% of rehabilitated Iranian addicts tend to reconsumption. The aim of this study is to determine the socicl and environmental factors related to the relapse of opioid addiction. Materials and methods: In this descriptive study 96 volunteer male addicts referring to rehabilitation center of welfare organization were selected through convenient sampling. The survey tool was the questionnaire whose validity and reliability had bean confirmed before the application. Data collecting wa carried out by two trained experts through structured interview within three months. The data was analysed using SPSS -Win software. Results: The results showed that the mean age of research population was 34.66 ± 8.52. All study cases had experienced at least one attempt to quit drug use. The investigation regarding the career factor showed that they believed lack of permanent job (51%), exhausting work conditions (42.7%), failure in career achievement (41.7 %) were the leading factors in relapse of opioids substance use. The addicts reported their viewpoints regarding the other factors as follows: cost of living burden (53.1%), educational factors ( poor literacy skills (33.3%), and illiteracy (19.8%). Among familial factors in singles, lack of appropriate family relations (43.7%), and in married addicts, marital discord (22.5%), and lack of proper interaction among family members (21.2%) were the major factors. Regarding the social factors convenient availability of opioids substance (85.4%), common use of opioids in public (80.2%), and association with addicted friends (70.8%) were the leading factors. Conclusion: the study results indicated that among investigated factors, social, occupational and economic factors rank the most important factors in relapse of opioid addiction. Accordingly, a few recommendations have been given.


A Oodi, R Halabian, M Mohammadipour, N Amirizadeh, M Amani, N Masroori, A Gharehbaghian, M Habibi Roudkenar,
Volume 15, Issue 60 (5-2007)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Rh (Rhesus) is a highly complex blood group system in man which plays an important role in transfusion medicine. The aim of this study was the isolation of RhD protein from the membrane of RBCs. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study immunoprecipitation method with human anti-RhD polyclonal antibody was utilized for the isolation of RhD antigen from Rh+ human blood samples Proteins of RBCs were characterized by SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis. Antigenicity of the RhD protein was assessed by ELISA using commercially available human anti-RhD polyclonal antibody with peroxidase conjugated goat anti-human as a secondary antibody. Results: The results show that RhD protein has successfully been isolated by immunoprecipitation method. The expected size of RhD protein was confirmed by Western blot analysis. RhD antibody reacted with RhD antigen prepared from ghost with polyclonal antibody in ELISA, but no reaction was observed in Western blot analysis with monoclonal antibody: It is necessary to mention that this is the primary report of relative purification of RhD and further studies are recommended. Conclusion: The RhD may be helpful to further investigate the molecular basis of RhD protein and could be applicable for production of anti- D antibody in an animal model.


M Gholami, H Mohammadi, Sh Mirhosseini, A Ameri, Z Javadi,
Volume 15, Issue 61 (12-2007)
Abstract

Background and Objective: PACT is an adsorption- degradation process through which slowly or non-biodegradable waste water compounds such as dye can be degraded. This study was carried out to evaluate the efficacy of PACT in removal of dyes form textile industry wastewaters. Materials and Methods: This research was carried out in pilot scale. The pilot design had two parts: an aeration tank with 40L volume and a clarifier with 12L volume. The dyes used in this research were acid and reactive dyes in different concentrations which are mostly used in textile industries. First, the biodegradability of the dye was studied through Zahen-Wellens method (ISO 9888, 1999). Then, dye removal efficiency in different conditions of powdered-activated carbon concentration and operational conditions were evaluated. American Dye Manufacture Institute (ADMI) method was utilized for determination of dye removal in samples. Results: Biodegradability of acid dyes and basic dyes in 100 mg/L dye concentration, were 60 and 80% respectively. On the other hand, the best efficiency for application of PAC in activated sludge process, was obtained in 1500 mg/L PAC concentration. In this situation, with 30 hydraulic retention time, and 30oC temperature, the rejection percent of dye was 98.8%. Conclusion: PACT process could be the best method for removal of different dyes used in textile industry with high efficiency (up to 90%). Application of this method in treatment of textile wastewaters is an important economic improvement, which in a single step, allows the removal of COD and color from textile wastewater without additional physicochemical treatment.



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