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Showing 25 results for Hosseini

Mh Shahhosseiny, M Mardani, Z Hosseini, Hr Khoramkhorshid, Aa Rahimi, J Vande Yusefi,
Volume 14, Issue 56 (Sep 2006)

Backgrounds & Objective: Mycoplasmas pneumoniae is responsible for more than 20% of community acquired pneumonia cases and also implicated in acute respiratory infections, such as sore throat, pharyngitis, rhinitis, and tracheobronchitis. Conventional assays for the detection of M. pneumoniae have their limitations, resulting in the need for more accurate diagnostic methods. Molecular methods, for example Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), have the potential to produce rapid, sensitive, and specific results, allowing early appropriate antibiotic therapy. In this study, we aimed to compare PCR and culture results and to develop a rapid and more practical PCR technique for detection of M. pneumoniae. Materials & Methods: Clinical samples from 100 patients with respiratory complaints were subjected to culture and PCR. A highly sensitive, PCR protocol using P4A and P4B primers targeting the P1 cytadhesin gene was designed and applied to nasopharyngeal swab samples collected from patients. Amplicon (345 bp) cloned by PCR-cloning and then sequenced by dideoxy chain termination. Results: The results of positive cultures (10 out of 100) well correlated with the results of PCR. Samples from 33 additional patients which showed a negative result in culture, were positive by PCR. The detection limit for this assay was found to be 10 M. pneumoniae organisms in clinical samples. There was no amplification of DNA from 11 other species of human and animal mycoplasmas and 17 other bacterial species. Conclusion: This study indicates that PCR is a sensitive, specific and reliable method for rapid diagnosis of M pneumoniae in respiratory tract samples.

H Rahmanpour, Sn Hosseini, Sn Mousavinasab, M Nazarian, M Khodayar,
Volume 15, Issue 60 (5-2007)

Background and Objective: HG is a severe form of expectancy nausea and vomiting, occurring in 0/5 to 2% of the expectancies. The etiology of HG is unknown, though hormonal stimuli, and psychologic predisposition are attributable to the condition. Recent studies suggest a relationship between HG and H.pylori infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between HG and H.pylori infection. Material and Methods: Forty pregnant women with HG (Treatment group) and forty asymptomatic pregnant women (control group) were assigned into the research from April to August 2006. Specific serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) for H.pylori was assayed by ELISA. The data was analyzed using SPSS software, Chi-Square and T-test. Results: Out of 40 pregnant women with HG 25 individuals (62/5%) were found to have serologically positive H.pylori, whereas in asymptomatic pregnant women 19 (47.5%) individuals were positive, which shows no significant difference between H.Pylori infection with HG (P=0.178). No significant difference was observed between positive H.pylori and the number of pregnancy, body mass index (BMI), and duration of hospital stay. Conclusion: Since HG has a multifactorial etiology and with regard to high prevalenve of H pylori in our country, research studies with higher sample sizes and utilization of more sensitive diagnostic methods for the detection of active H pylori is recommended.

M Gholami, H Mohammadi, Sh MirHosseini, A Ameri, Z Javadi,
Volume 15, Issue 61 (12-2007)

Background and Objective: PACT is an adsorption- degradation process through which slowly or non-biodegradable waste water compounds such as dye can be degraded. This study was carried out to evaluate the efficacy of PACT in removal of dyes form textile industry wastewaters. Materials and Methods: This research was carried out in pilot scale. The pilot design had two parts: an aeration tank with 40L volume and a clarifier with 12L volume. The dyes used in this research were acid and reactive dyes in different concentrations which are mostly used in textile industries. First, the biodegradability of the dye was studied through Zahen-Wellens method (ISO 9888, 1999). Then, dye removal efficiency in different conditions of powdered-activated carbon concentration and operational conditions were evaluated. American Dye Manufacture Institute (ADMI) method was utilized for determination of dye removal in samples. Results: Biodegradability of acid dyes and basic dyes in 100 mg/L dye concentration, were 60 and 80% respectively. On the other hand, the best efficiency for application of PAC in activated sludge process, was obtained in 1500 mg/L PAC concentration. In this situation, with 30 hydraulic retention time, and 30oC temperature, the rejection percent of dye was 98.8%. Conclusion: PACT process could be the best method for removal of different dyes used in textile industry with high efficiency (up to 90%). Application of this method in treatment of textile wastewaters is an important economic improvement, which in a single step, allows the removal of COD and color from textile wastewater without additional physicochemical treatment.

N Gheibi, H Jahani Hashemi, E Abbasi, Sm Hosseini, M Shahsavan,
Volume 16, Issue 63 (6-2008)

Background and Objective: Effects of electeromagnetic exposure on different parts of neruous system and memory of humans and animals has been established. In spite of important human studies, animal studies have been more precise and comprehensive. Extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF, <300Hz), have been reported to induce a variaty of behavioral and physiological function changes in animals. The object of present study was to determine the delay and durartion time of convulsions induced by co- exposure of ELF and strychnine. Materials and Methods: The effects of ELF on convulsions induced by strychnine (1mg/Kg) were investigated in 60 albino mice. Animals were devided into 6 groups (n=10), including control (I), 100Hz and 20Volt (II), 25Hz and 20Volt (III), 25Hz and 260Volt (IV), 100Hz and 260Volt (V), and 100Hz and 260Volt (VI). Delay time (Det) and duration time (Dut) of convulsions were measured respectively. Increase and decrease in Det and Dut were determined and were compared in control and five ELF exposed groups. Results: There was no significant difference in Det and Dut parameters between control (I) and III, IV and VI groups. In all these groups the convulsions terminated in animal death after a low Dut. In contrast there was a significant difference (P<0.001) in Det parameters between control (I) and the other groups (II and V). No deaths happened in groups (II and V). Conclusion: Co-exposure of higher ELF frequency and strychnine may decrease the epileptic effects of the drug.

Z ShahHosseini, K Abedian, H Azimi,
Volume 16, Issue 63 (6-2008)

Background and Objective: Preterm delivery has considerable social, economical and mental effects on neonate and related family. Factors predisposing to, and preventing preterm delivery are still not clearly recognized. However some studies have shown psychological factors to play some role. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of anxiety in inducing preterm delivery. Materials and Methods: In this cohort study conducted in sari (1384-85) a consecutive series of 282 pregnant women with singleton pregnancies reffered for routine prenatal care were included. Anxiety was assessed using self-administered Spielberger's state-trait anxiety questionnaire. The 75th percentile was used for anxiety scores. Results: Mean score of state and trait anxiety of cases was 38.59.9 (20-74) and 41.29.2 (20-77) respectively. There was a meaningful statistical relationship between state anxiety and preterm delivery (P=0.02, RR=2.71) and trait anxiety and preterm delivery (P=0.009, RR= 1.59). Conclusion: Further studies incorporating multiple psychosocial domains, gaining information about women's social environment, life circumstances and possible biologic pathways through which anxiety and stress operates may reinforce our understanding of the role of stress in pregnancy.

S Mohammadi, Mj Hasseinzadeh Attar, M Karimi, A Hossainnezhad, Mr Eshraghian, Sh Hosseini, M Rahmani, A Karimi, N Jafari,
Volume 18, Issue 70 (3-2010)

Background and Objective: Adiponectin is a novel adipose tissue-specific adipokine that can increase insulin sensitivity. Many studies have shown anti obesity and anti diabetic effects of green tea consumption. In this study we examined the effects of green tea extract on circulating adiponectin levels and insulin resistance status in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Materials and Methods: In this double blind randomized clinical trial 58 type 2 diabetic patients with BMI ≥ 25 were recruited from an unselected population from the outpatient clinic of Shariati Hospital, Tehran, Iran. Patients were randomly divided into two groups green tea extract and placebo. All the patients received the capsules for 8 weeks. Laboratory measurements including fasting serum adiponectin, insulin, HOMA-IR, FPG, OGTT, HbA1c and lipid profile and anthropometric were performed before and after the intervention. Nutrient intakes were obtained via 24- hour recall from each patient in three successive days. The data were analyzed using appropriate software. Results: We found a significant effect of green tea extract on increasing the logarithm of serum adiponectin in diabetic patients (0.15±0.10 µg/ ml, P < 0.05). A significant independent correlation between the logarithm of serum adiponectin and WHR (Waist to Hip Ratio) was found (P= 0.009, t= -2.7). The consumption of green tea extract had a significant effect in control the levels of HbA1C, weigh and also BMI in green tea group (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The results showed that consumption of green tea extract can be useful in the control of T2DM by increasing the levels of serum adiponectin and controlling the weight, BMI and HbA1C levels in patients with T2DM.

S Motamed, Sn Hosseini,
Volume 18, Issue 72 (11-2010)

The term aplasia cutis is used to describe congenital localized defects of the skin. The most common site is scalp. The preauricular location is a rare form of aplasia cutis. The presented patient in this paper had skin tag and atrophy in preauricular region from after birth. Skin biopsy was performed, but surgical wound site was not healed. The results of precise investigation, deep biopsy and existence of localized skin atrophy guided to aplasia cutis diagnosis. Aplasia cutis could be recommended in every patient with skin atrophy. The treatments include protection, excision and skin graft or flap.

Sh Hosseini, B Amoghli Tabrizi, Ssr Mazlom Mogaddam,
Volume 19, Issue 75 (4-2011)

Background and Objective: Diabetes is a metabolic disorder that occurs as a consequence of decrease in insulin secretion or resistance to insulin. Most diabetes related treatments have problems with adverse reactions. Natural therapeutics have been in use from long time ago up to present time. Ginseng is a traditional drug used for treatment of many dieses particularly diabetes. The aim of this study was to find out the effect of oral Ginseng on the serum glucose and other biochemical parameters such as lipid profile. Materials and Methods: In this study 30 male rats with a body weight of 250±25 gr and age of 4-6 months was used. Each animal was housed under controlled temperature (21+_2 C) and standard conditions with free access to food and water. Blood test was carried out to measure glucoses and other biochemical parameters such as cholesterol, TG, ALT, AST and BUN. Animals were equally divided into three groups 1-control group, 2-the STZ-induced-diabetes (60 mg/kg) group, 3- the STZ-induced-diabetes (60 mg/kg) and150 mg/kg oral ginseng. The study was lasted for 6 weeks. Blood samples were taken and tested for glucoses and other parameters. Results: The average blood sugar in the control group was 131.1±7.9 mg/dl, but it was higher than 550mg/dl in streptozocine- received group. In group 3, which received ginseng, blood sugar decreased up to 50%. Cholestrol decreased up to 40% in the treatment group. Among the measured parameters HDL showed a 50%decrease in treatment group in comparison with diabetic group. AST and ALT values between the control and treatment groups did not show a significant difference. BUN values decreased from 71.6±6.6 in diabetic group to 50.1±5.7 mg dl in the treatment group. Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that ginseng can be considered as a substance which decreases blood glucoses, reduces diabetes adverse reactions, and consequently diminishing blood lipids in animal model. However, to apply these results to human, further studies are needed to be carried out.

S Nabavi, Mh Behzad Moghadam, Mh Arab Hosseini, M Vaezi, R Rajabi,
Volume 19, Issue 75 (4-2011)

Background and Objective: Hyperbilirubinemia is a common neonatal abnormality. Severe hyperbilirubinemia is a risk factor for auditory system injury. Auditory brainstem responses (ABR) are important in early diagnosis of hearing impairments in healthy term infants with elevated bilirubin levels requiring exchange transfusion. Materials and Methods: During a two- year- period (2007 – 2009), in a prospective descriptive analytical study, in Tehran Milad Hospital, 64 (32 female, 32 male), healthy term (> 37 weeks) infants, who required treatment or were treated with phototherapy or received exchange transfusion for elevated bilirubin levels or jaundice, were studied. After obtaining a written consent from their parents, the infants were tested with auditory brain responses and results were analyzed using SPSS 16 software. Results: No significant correlation was found between ABR and age, weight, bilirubin level or ABO blood group. Nineteen out of 64 infants received exchange transfusion. Three out of 19 infants (16%) exhibited abnormal ABR and 16 infants (84%) had normal ABR. There was no significant correlation between exchange transfusions and ABR (P>0.05). Conclusion: The results pointed out that 14% of the infants with elevated bilirubin who required exchange transfusion had abnormal ABR. This indicates that elevated bilirubin levels even without inducing kernicterus should be considered as risk factors for hearing impairments. Further studies are needed on how long these tests may remain abnormal.

Sh Mojtahedi, Mr Kordi, M Soleimani, Se Hosseini,
Volume 20, Issue 81 (9-2012)

Background and Objective: Transcription factors (TF) and microRNAs, are the largest families of transacting gene regulatory molecules in multicellular organisms. Our goal was to examine the effect of aerobic running on the expression of miR-124 and RE1-silencing TF in the hippocampus of adult male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: A total of twelve 8-week-old adult male Wistar rats with a mean body weight of 200-225 g were selected as subjects. Following 1 week of familiarization, the animals were randomly divided into two groups of test (n=6) and control (n=6). In the test group, animals were forced to run on a treadmill, at a speed of 25 m/min for 30 minutes per day, for 14 consecutive days. The animals were sacrificed 24 hours after the last exercise session, and the hippocampi were removed from both sides of the brain hemispheres. Changes in the expression of miR-124 and RE1-silencing TF were analyzed using the quantitative RT-PCR technique. Results: Statistical analysis by independent sample t-test, showed that there was a significant difference between the exercise and control groups (P≤0.05), and while exercise significantly elevated the expression of miR-124, it reduced the expression of RE1-silencing TF. Conclusion: Our findings show that forced aerobic running at a speed of 25 m/min could lead to positive changes in mechanisms involved in exercise-induced neurogenesis.

Mm ُsoltan Dallal, Z Kalafi, A Rastegare Lari, Sn Hosseini, A Rahimi Foroushani, Z Deilami Khiabani, F Nikkhahi, S Heidarzadeh,
Volume 20, Issue 81 (9-2012)

Background and Objective: Human amniotic membrane, which is the innermost layer of placenta, contains beta defensins and elafin, which both have antibacterial properties. These antibacterial activities depend on the conditions and environmental factors. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of environmental factors on human amniotic membrane antibacterial properties against Klebsiella pneumonia (ATCC7881), Entrococcus faecalis (ATCC29212), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC27853), Salmonella enteric (BAA-708), and E. coli (ATCC25922) strains in vitro. Materials and Methods: The amniotic membrane samples were obtained from caesarean women in Imam Khomeini hospital. Participating women were all seronegative for HIV, HBV, HCV, and syphilis. The samples were cut into 1.5×1.5 cm pieces. The 0.5 McFarland bacterial suspensions were prepared and spread on Muller-Hinton agar medium, and a piece of membrane was placed in the centre of each plate. Samples were examined at different time intervals (24, 48, and 72 hr), temperatures (25, 33, 37°C) and pH (6.5, 7, and 7.5) as variables. Results: The results show that time and pH as variable parameters did not affect the antibacterial properties of the amniotic membrane. However, the change in temperature (25 and 33°C vs. 37°C) had a significant impact on P. aeruginosa. Conclusion: Antibacterial properties of the amniotic membrane seem resistant against environmental factors, except for especial cases, and this sustainability could expand its usage in clinical procedures and different conditions.

M Salehi, M Gholizadeh, S Nematollahi, M Bandehpour, B Kazemi Damaneh, A Hosseini,
Volume 21, Issue 85 (4-2013)

Background and Objective: Protamine deficiency and DNA fragmentation have a profound effect on embryo gene expression. Incubation of sperm in culture medium leads to morphological changes of the nucleus and DNA release. However, the relationship between protamine deficiency and DNA fragments released from incubated sperm and the presence of the DNMT1 gene is not known. Materials and Methods: Semen analysis was performed according to the WHO criteria. CMA3 staining was used to determine protamine deficiency. Twenty million sperms per sample were incubated in Ham’s F10 medium for 24 hr at 37 °C. After centrifugation, DNA was extracted from the supernatant. DNA concentration was measured by biophotometer. The presence of the DNMT1 gene was confirmed by PCR using specific primers and agarose gel electrophoresis. Results:A significant correlation was observed between the DNA fragments released from sperm in culture media and CMA3 staining (P<0.05). The presence of DNMT1 gene was significantly correlated with DNA fragments released from the sperm (P<0.05). Protamine deficiency and the presence of DNMT1 gene were not significantly correlated. Conclusion:These results demonstrate that incubation of protamines-deficient sperm leads to the release of additional DNA fragments that eventually could have detrimental effectson embryo’s health.

K Mousavi Hosseini, S Nasiri, M Heidari,
Volume 21, Issue 85 (4-2013)

Background and Objective: Human plasma is a suitable source for different proteins and enzymes with a variety of therapeutic effects. Examples include coagulation factors VIII and IX, immunoglobulin, and albumin, which consists of a 585 amino-acid chain, weighing 66.5 kD. Albumin molecule also has 17 di-sulfide bridges which form a stable spherical protein structure, which it cause of 80% of oncotic blood pressure. The aim of this study was to separate albumin from the human plasma by using ethanol at low temperature. Materials and Methods: Fresh frozen plasma was used as the starting material. In this study, albumin was separated from human plasma by using ethanol (commercial grade with 94-96% purity) in low temperature. By adjustment of different parameters such as pH, temperature, and concentration of alcohol, different factions of plasma can be separated which are from fraction I to fraction V. Fraction I is a good source for fibrinogen and coagulation factor VIII preparation, fraction II is suitable for preparation of immunoglobulin, and fraction V is a good source for albumin preparation. Results: Albumin was prepared with 5 and 20 percent concentrations. Quality comparison of the two concentrations showed a purity of more than 95%. The average yields of the 5 % and 20 % albumin preparations were 71% and 75.5%, respectively. Conclusion: Our data show that the produced albumin has a purity of higher than 95% and contains less than 5% polymer. In preparation of 5 % albumin, it is possible to use lower concentrations of sodium caprylate as stabilizer. It has also been shown in the formulation that the preparation process can be started at the acidic pH of 4.7, instead of 6.5, in order to avoid bacterial contamination.

A Fadaei, H Miladi Gorji, Sh Makvand Hosseini,
Volume 21, Issue 87 (6-2013)

Background and Objective: Development of effective ways to impede drug-induced synaptic changes can play a vital role in the treatment and prevention of relapse as a clinical problem. Previous studies suggest that exercise decreases the sensitivity to the rewarding effects of morphine in rats. This study was designed to investigate the effects of regular swimming exercises on naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal signs in rats. Materials and Methods: In this study, 16 rats were divided into the control and experimental groups. The rats were injected with bi-daily doses (10 mg/kg, at 12 hr intervals) of morphine over a period of 14 days during swimming exercises. Exercised rats were submitted to swimming sessions (45 min/d, five days per a week, for 14 days). On day 15, after an acute injection of naloxone (2 mg/kg, IP) 2 h after receiving morphine injection according to a modified version of the Gellert–Holtzman scale, morphine dependent intensity was measured in both groups (swimmer and none swimmer). Results: The results showed that withdrawal signs including abdominal contractions (P= 0.000), wet dog shakes (P= 0.005), weight loss (24h) (P= 0.001), jumps (P= 0.002) and overall Gellert–Holtzman score (P= 0.000) were significantly lower in the swimmer morphine treated rats as compared with non-swimmer control ones (P= 0.0001). Among the evaluated signs, the number of rats per group with erection and genital grooming (62.5%, P=0.05), diarrhea (40%, P=0.025) and writhing (50%, P=0.025) displayed a decrease in swimmer morphine treated rats compared to non-swimmer rats. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that regular swimming exercises can minimize severity of dependency upon morphine in rats.

F Hosseini, A Seyahy, M Varghaei,
Volume 21, Issue 89 (8-2013)

Background and Objective: Cephalosporin acylases (CA) are highly specialized peptidases that are able to break down the amide bond between the lactam nucleus and lateral chain without destruction of beta-lactam ring. This enzyme transmutes the cephalosporin C to 7-ACA. The 7-ACA is an important intermediate in synthesizing the semi-synthetic cephalosporin in pharmaceutical industries. The purpose of this study was to screen and optimize the species having maximum amount of production of cephalosporin acylase enzyme isolated from clinical samples among some gram- negative bacteria producing cephalosporin acylase. Materials and Methods: Out of a total of 60 species gathered from several hospitals in different places of Tehran city, the clinical species such as Pseudomonas, Acintobacter and Escherichia coli were isolated. At first, the resistant species were differentiated by antibiogram method. Then, the activity of enzyme was measured by spectrophotometer. After identification and isolation of the enzyme producing species, the effect of factors such as time, temperature, pH and the amount of aeration of cultivation environment on the amount of enzyme production was investigated. Results: In this study, among the three groups of bacteria mentioned above, a species of Pseudomonas aeroginosa showed a significant cephalosporin acylases activity. Optimum activity for this species regarding the mentioned factors was estimated as follows: pH 8, incubation time 48 h, temperature 37 C and the component of aeration was 150 rpm. Conclusion: The findings point out that Pseudomonas species has a significant cephalosporin acylases activity compared with other species examined in this study. Therefore, this species may have implication for industrial production of the above mentioned enzyme and also can be used in related researches.

Z Hosseini, S Esmaeilzadeh,
Volume 22, Issue 90 (3-2014)

Background and Objective: The Holy Quran is a book for guidance of human beings. The Almighty God has clearly stated all the steps and aspects for the guidance majority of which have been appreciated by human beings over time. The Holy Quran has mentioned the philosophy of prohibition of having sex within menstruation time by the word " أذی" only once in Al-Baghareh (Verse 222). The reasons for this prohibition are due to problems which arise in fetus such as abnormality, leprosy and vitiligo. Materials and Methods: In this mini review study, data was collected from the documents and books in library and the Internet about the word " أذی". This study analyzed and considered the viewpoints of lexicologists and commentators about this word. After all, a comparative study was carried out to account for the prohibition of having sex during the menstruation period with respect to the Holy Quran, religious narrations, as well as actualization of this knowledge in medicine. Results: Scientific and clinical deductions regarding the physiological status of women in menstruation confirm the Quranic and religious narrations and perspectives about prohibition of sex in this period. Ignorance of this fact can cause infection and disease in male and female genitalia track, added to them are the mental problems which may be encountered by each of the spouse. Conclusion: Medical knowledge confirms the Quranic and religious perspectives concerning prohibition of having sex during the menstruation.

Ss Khoramrooz, N Rahbari, N Parhizgari, A Sharifi, M Yazdanpanah, F Gharibpour, Sm Rabani, Saa MalekHosseini, M Marashifard,
Volume 23, Issue 99 (6-2015)

Background and Objective: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen causing nosocomial burn infections. Disease results from the production of numerous virulence factors, some of which are injected directly into the eukaryotic host cells via the type III secretion system (T3SS).The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of cytotoxins encoding exoT, exoY, exoS and exoU genes among the P. aeruginosa isolated from burn patients. Materials and Methods: Over one year period of study, a total of 95 isolates of P. aeruginosa were collected and identified from burn infections in hospitalized patients. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method was used for detection of exoT, exoY exoS and exoU genes. According to CLSI (Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute) guidelines antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by disc diffusion method against 10 antibiotics. The data were analyzed by χ2 test. A p value of <0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: All of the isolates of P. aeruginosa contained exoT gene while exoY gene was detected in 69.5 % of isolates. The prevalence of exoU and exoS genes was 44.1% and 35.8%, respectively. 8.42% of isolates harbored all of the four genes. Coexistence of exoS and exoU was seen in 10.5% of the isolates. High resistance rates were seen for cefipime, Azteronam and Ofloxacin. Conclusion: Considering the low prevalence of exoS in P. aeruginosa causing burn infection in comparison with other infections caused by this bacterium, it seems that this gene has a minor role in the P. aeruginosa pathogenesis isolated from burn infection. Instead, exoT and exoY were found in nearly all isolates and probably, these genes may have a greater role in burn infections. References 1- Veesenmeyer JL, Hauser AR, Lisboa T, Rello J. Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence and therapy: evolving translational strategies. Crit Care Med. 2009 37: 1777-86. 2- Jabalameli F, Mirsalehian A, Sotoudeh N, et al. Multiple-locus variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) fingerprinting MLVF and antibacterial resistance profiles of extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa among burnt patients in Tehran. Burns. 2011 37: 1202-7. 3- Ranjbar R, Owlia P, Saderi H, et al. Characterization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated from burned patients hospitalized in a major burn center in Tehran, Iran. Acta Med Iran. 2011 49: 675-9. 4- Branski LK, Al-Mousawi A, Rivero H, Jeschke MG, Sanford AP, Herndon DN. Emerging infections in burns. Surg Infect (Larchmt). 2009 10: 389-97. 5- Mesaros N, Nordmann P, Plésiat P, et al. Pseudomonas aeruginosa: resistance and therapeutic options at the turn of the new millennium. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2007 13: 560-78. 6- Roy-Burman A, Savel RH, Racine S, et al. Type III protein secretion is associated with death in lower respiratory and systemic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections. J Infect Dis. 2001 183: 1767-74. 7- Engel J, Balachandran P. Role of Pseudomonas aeruginosa type III effectors in disease. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2009 12: 61-6. 8- Gala´n JE, Collmer A. Type III secretion machines: bacterial devices for protein delivery into host cells. Science. 1999 284: 1322-28. 9- Galle M, Carpentier I, Beyaert R. Structure and function of the Type III secretion system of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Curr Protein Pept Sci. 2012 13: 831-42. 10- Lin HH, Huang SP, Teng HC, Ji DD, Chen YS, Chen YL. Presence of the exoU gene of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is correlated with cytotoxicity in MDCK cells but not with colonization in BALB/c mice. J Clin Microbiol. 2006 44: 4596-7. 11- Lee VT, Smith RS, Tu¨ mmler B, Lory S. Activities of Pseudomonas aeruginosa effectors secreted by the type III secretion system in vitro and during infection. Infect Immun. 2005 73: 1695-705. 12- Hauser AR. The type III secretion system of Pseudomonas aeruginosa: infection by injection. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2009 7: 654-65. 13- Shen DK, Quenee L, Bonnet M, et al. Orf1/SpcS chaperones ExoS for type three secretion by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Biomed Environ Sci. 2008 21: 103-9. 14- Radke J, Pederson KJ, Barbieri JT. Pseudomonas aeruginosa exoenzyme S is a biglutamic acid ADP-ribosyltransferase. Infect Immun. 1999 67: 1508-10. 15- Garrity-Ryan L, Kazmierczak B, Kowal R, Comolli J, Hauser A, Engel JN. The arginine finger domain of ExoT contributes to actin cytoskeleton disruption and inhibition of internalization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by epithelial cells and macrophages. Infect Immun. 2000 68: 7100-13. 16- Barbieri JT, Sun J. Pseudomonas aeruginosa ExoS and ExoT. Rev Physiol Biochem Pharmacol. 2004 152: 79-92. 17- Yahr TL, Vallis AJ, Hancock MK, Barbieri JT, Frank DW. ExoY, an adenylate cyclase secreted by the Pseudomonas aeruginosa type III system. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1998 95: 13899-904. 18- Cowell BA, Evans DJ, Fleiszig SMJ. Actin cytoskeleton disruption by ExoY and its effects on Pseudomonas aeruginosa invasion. 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Distribution of the type III effector proteins-encoding genes among nosocomial Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from Bulgaria. Annals Microbiol. 2010 60: 503-50. 29- Jain M, Ramirez D, Seshadri R, et al. Type III secretion phenotypes of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains change during infection of individuals with cystic fibrosis. J Clin Microbiol. 2004 42: 5229-37. 30- Azargoon R, Doustdar F, Khanbabaei G, Ghazi M, Mehrnejad F, Goudarzi H. Type III secretion system characterization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates associated with cystic fibrosis. Pejouhesh. 2013 37: 189-193. 31- Choy MH, Stapleton F, Willcox MD, Zhu H. Comparison of virulence factors in Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated from contact lens- and non-contact lens-related keratitis. J Med Microbiol. 2008 57: 1539-46. 32- Moradian Kouchaksaraei F, Ferdosi Shahandashti E, Molana Z, et al. Molecular detection of integron genes and pattern of antibiotic resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated from intensive care unit, Shahid Beheshti hospital, north of Iran. Int J Mol Cell Med. 2012 1: 209-17. 33- Mirsalehian A, Feizabadi M, Nakhjavani FA, Jabalameli F, Goli H, Kalantari N. Detection of VEB-1, OXA-10 and PER-1 genotypes in extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated from burn patients. Burns. 2010 36: 70-4.

N Mirazi, S Shamohammadi, A Hosseini,
Volume 23, Issue 101 (8-2015)

Background and Objective: Malva silvestris (Malvaceae), which is used in traditional medicine has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. The effects of this plant on clonic seizure have not yet been studied. The present study evaluated the anticonvulsant effect of M. silvestris in a model of clonic seizures induced with pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) on male mice.

Materials and Methods: In this experimental study the anticonvulsant effect of M. silvestris was investigated using i.v PTZ-induced seizure models on mice. Different doses of the hydroethanolic extract of M. silvestris (150 and 300 mg/kg) were administered intraperitonally 2 hours before the  induction of PTZ. The effect of M. silvestris on the appearance of three separate seizure endpoints including myoclonic, generalized clonus and forelimb tonic extension phase was recorded. Differences were considered significant at p <0.05.

Results: The results showed that the M. silvestris extract had anticonvulsant effects on all the experimental treatment groups and significantly increased the seizure threshold. Hydroethanolic extract of M. silvestris significantly increased the onset time of myoclonic seizure (p<0.001) and increased the threshold for the forelimb tonic extension seizure (p<0.01) compared with the control group. But it did not show any significant effect on generalized clonic phase response.

Conclusion: The results of the present study imply that injection of hydroethanolic extracts of M. silvestris led to anticonvulsant activity in i.v. PTZ-induced seizure in male mice.

D Mahdian, A Hosseini, H Rakhshandeh,
Volume 24, Issue 104 (5-2016)

Background and Objective: Doxorubicin is one of the most effective chemotherapeutic agents against solid tumors. Doxorubicin causes cardio-toxicity via production of free radicals and depletion of anti-oxidants. However, the use of anti-oxidants can decrease doxorubicin-induced cardio-toxicity. Apium graveolens (celery) contains anti-oxidant compounds. Hence, this study was an attempt to figure out if it can protect heart cells against oxidative stress of doxorubicin.

Materials and Methods: The cells were incubated with different concentrations of Apium graveolens (celery) extract for 4 hours which continued in the presence of 5µM doxorubicin for 24 hours. Cell viability and the apoptotic induction were determined using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium (MTT) and propidium iodide (PI) staining assays, respectively.

Results: Celery extract increased toxicity of doxorubicin at a concentration of 125-500 µg/ml. Also apoptosis was induced in the presence of doxorubicin at a concentration of 250 and 500µg/ml.

Conclusion: Results showed that celery has no toxicity effect on heart cells alone. However, this extract could not protect cells against doxorubicin- induced cardiotoxicity. A number of mechanisms may instigate this effect such as augmentation of free radicals, increased drug delivery into the cells and expression of apoptotic proteins. Further research is needed to decide upon accuracy mechanism.

N Hosseini, Mm Vakili, H Haddadi,
Volume 24, Issue 107 (8-2016)

Background and Objective: Burn is one of the morbidity factors in developing countries and majority of burns in the foot fingers and dorsum of foot is due to hot liquids and falling in traditional baking ovens in the north-west of Iran. Children are specifically high–degree- burn victims resulting in severe contracture and deformity. On the other hand, excavation of chronic scar and skin graft brings about recurrence of contracture and failure in the treatment of deformity. Such dilemmas gave rise to this research in order to find out the efficiency of flapping and grafting as a new method of skin repair.

Materials and Methods: In order to treat patients (n=17), we utilized flap. Due to the lack of enough tissues, we applied split thickness graft technique. In the meantime, dissection of articular capsule and pinning were fulfilled to prevent deformity and the patients were regularly visited and followed up for 6 consequent months.

Results: 17 patients (14 females and 5 males), with a mean age of  13.76 and the average burn time  of 10 years after burn with deformity and difficulty in wearing shoes underwent this procedure. The first to third week after surgery, 4 patients (23.5%) developed a mild flap tip ischemia that was treated and no recurrence of deformity was reported. In the meantime, 11.7% of the patients were moderately satisfied, and 88.3% were totally satisfied with the outcome. A 6- month- follow- up period demonstrated a general satisfaction.

Conclusion: It is concluded that Z plasty accompanied by skin grafting, articular capsule release and long time pinning prevents contracture recurrence and flap necrosis.

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