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Showing 23 results for Rahimi

Mh Shahhosseiny, M Mardani, Z Hosseini, Hr Khoramkhorshid, Aa Rahimi, J Vande Yusefi,
Volume 14, Issue 56 (Sep 2006)
Abstract

Backgrounds & Objective: Mycoplasmas pneumoniae is responsible for more than 20% of community acquired pneumonia cases and also implicated in acute respiratory infections, such as sore throat, pharyngitis, rhinitis, and tracheobronchitis. Conventional assays for the detection of M. pneumoniae have their limitations, resulting in the need for more accurate diagnostic methods. Molecular methods, for example Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), have the potential to produce rapid, sensitive, and specific results, allowing early appropriate antibiotic therapy. In this study, we aimed to compare PCR and culture results and to develop a rapid and more practical PCR technique for detection of M. pneumoniae. Materials & Methods: Clinical samples from 100 patients with respiratory complaints were subjected to culture and PCR. A highly sensitive, PCR protocol using P4A and P4B primers targeting the P1 cytadhesin gene was designed and applied to nasopharyngeal swab samples collected from patients. Amplicon (345 bp) cloned by PCR-cloning and then sequenced by dideoxy chain termination. Results: The results of positive cultures (10 out of 100) well correlated with the results of PCR. Samples from 33 additional patients which showed a negative result in culture, were positive by PCR. The detection limit for this assay was found to be 10 M. pneumoniae organisms in clinical samples. There was no amplification of DNA from 11 other species of human and animal mycoplasmas and 17 other bacterial species. Conclusion: This study indicates that PCR is a sensitive, specific and reliable method for rapid diagnosis of M pneumoniae in respiratory tract samples.


H EbRahimi, M Nikravesh, Sf Oskouie, F Ahmadi,
Volume 14, Issue 57 (Dec 2006)
Abstract

Background & Objective: Studies have reported a relationship between serum ferritin and some components of insulin resistance, as well as an increased risk for type 2 diabetes. There fore, it is probable for the dietary content of iron to have an influence on the development of diabetes. In this study, the iron intake in first degree relatives of type2 diabetic patients with normal or impaired glucose tolerance was investigated. Materials & Methods: Based on the results of OGTT, 210 first degree relatives of type 2 diabetic patients were divided into 2 groups with normal and impaired (diabetic , IGT) glucose tolerance. Using a 3-day food questionnaire, the daily intake of energy, red meat, fish and poultry meat, magnesium, iron, zinc and chromium was calculated and compared between the 2 groups. Results: The mean age and BMI were 48.9 ± 5.2 years and 43.7 ± 6.7 years (P=0.373) and 29.3 ± 0.7 kg/m2 and 28.7 ± 0.8 kg/m2 (P=0.654) in impaired and normal groups, respectively. Iron intake was significantly higher in impaired group in comparison with normal subjects. (P=0.015), however, no significant differences were observed between the two groups concerning the intake of other nutrients. Conclusion: Keeping the role of other risk factors in mind, the higher iron intake observed among subjects of the impaired group shows a probable relationship between an increased intake of iron and a higher risk in developing type2 diabetes.


Z Rojhani Shirazi, E EbRahimi Takamjani, N Maroofi, A Kazemnejad, Ma Sanjari,
Volume 16, Issue 63 (6-2008)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Several studies have reported significant disturbances in vertical posture during various standing and walking conditions, but there is little evidence about the behavior of related muscles in dynamic conditions such as external perturbation, so this study was done to investigate and to compare the delay in response of upper trapezius and sternocleidomastoid muscles as two superficial muscles in the neck area, in posterior-anterior perturbation among patients with chronic neck pain and healthy subjects. Materials and Methods: This study was a case-control study with simple nonprobable sampling.32 subjects (16 healthy subjects and 16 patients with chronic neck pain) participated the study. Data collection was done using questionnaire and test performance .The equipments included dynamometer, chronometer and surface kinesiology electromyography .Dropping the weight equal to 10% of total body weight, performed using electrical magnet, followed by pulling of the trunk inducing perturbation was performed. Results: There were significant statistical differences in response onset of upper trapezius(p=0.032) and sternocleidomastoid(p=0.012) muscles between two groups.This meant the response onset in patients was longer than healthy subjects. Conclusion: Pain can change the onset of response of trapezius and sternocleidomastoid muscles and possibly decrease muscle activity in deep muscles and change the pattern of muscle activation and possibly it can increase the risk of injury in patients with chronic neck pain.


M Nouri, M Darabi, A Rahimipour, M Rahbani, N Aslanabadi, M Skaaker, A Mehdizadeh,
Volume 16, Issue 65 (12-2008)
Abstract

Background and Objective: The phospholipids fatty acid content of high density lipoprotein (HDL) has recently been found to be related to several important biological functions which may serve as a risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD). The purpose of this study was to investigate whether fatty acid composition of HDL phospholipids correlates with the presence and severity of coronary artery disease. Materials and Methods: The study population included 117 patients with coronary artery disease which was approved by angiography. The severity of CAD was assessed by the number of arteries (1, 2 or 3) with more than 50% stenosis reported by angiography. The fatty acid composition of HDL phospholipids was determined by gas liquid chromatography. The independence of association between fatty acids and CAD were evaluated by multivariate analyses which included all of the variables associated with the severity of CAD in univariate analysis. Results: These analyses showed that the association of EPA (β= 0.23, P<0.01) and DHA (β= 0.17, P<0.05) with the severity of CAD was inversely and independently significant. Conclusion: Some kinds of polyunsaturated HDL fatty acid contents such as EPA and DHA (omega-3 fatty acids) have adverse association with severity of CAD. Key words: Coronary artery disease, Fatty acids, High-density lipoprotein


P Rahimi, Mb Ghavami, A Haniloo, A Nourian, Ar Biglari,
Volume 16, Issue 65 (12-2008)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Fascioliasis is an important zoonotic disease that causes several health problems and economical losses in different parts of Iran including Zanjan. Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica are recognized as causative agents of the disease. The differential diagnosis between these two species is very important for planning and control of infection. This study was designed to identify the Fasciola species by molecular methods in Zanjan (Iran). Methods and Materials: A number of 535 adult Fasciola worms were collected from the natural infected livers of cattles and sheep in local slaughterhouse. Living flukes were washed extensively in PBS at 37 OC and then anterior half of adult worms were stored at -20 OC in 70% ethanol. Total genomic DNA was extracted from individual flukes by modified phenol-chloroform method. Nucleotide polymorphism of ITS2 fragment of rDNA was investigated using PCR-RFLP assay and sequencing technique. Results: The results of PCR-RFLP and comparison of ITS2 sequences with the BLAST GenBank database clarified that all specimens were F. hepatica. The obtained sequences are available in the GenBank, with accession numbers EU391412 to EU391424. Conclusion: The results of this study showed no evidence of F. gigantica infection in sheep and cattles in Zanjan as all of the isolates were found to be F. hepatica. Key words: Fasciola, Liver flukes, rDNA, ITS2, PCR-RFLP


M Payami Bousari, H EbRahimi, F Ahmadi, Ha Abedi,
Volume 16, Issue 65 (12-2008)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Conflicts among health care personnel including nursing personnel who require extensive interaction with different people, is common and almost inevitable. As there is not sufficient information about the causes, types, and dimensions of interpersonal conflicts among clinical nurses and the adverse effects of these conflicts on the function of nursing team in Iran, we aimed to perform this study in order to find out causes of different inter-group or inter personal conflicts among nurses using qualitative research method and Grounded Theory Approach (GT). Materials and Methods: The data was collected through interviews. Constant comparison method was used in order to perform qualitative analysis. Results: Open coding process resulted in emergence of causal conditions and different types of conflicts within the nursing society. Exposure to imposed conditions, confronting with opposition, disagreement and destructive behaviors were indicative of characteristics of conflicting events and tasks, process, relational and marginal conflicts which were major categories of conflict in clinical settings. Feeling threats towards benefits was recognized as the main apprehension of participants. This core variable can explain how conflicts occur and develop within nursing society according to conflicts of benefits. Conclusion: The findings showed that individual factors and intra as well as extra-organizational factors were major and/or contextual causes of inter-group conflicts among nurses. One of the significant and interesting findings in this study was that the conflicts did not affect the occupational function of nurses despite the significant effect on marginal issues in their work environment. The study also showed that these conflicts are part of simulation process in nursing tasks. Key words: Occupational Conflicts, Interpersonal Conflict, Nursing, Clinical Environment.


F Rezaeian, F Zamene Milani, Sf Miryousefi, A Jafari, A Kazemi, J Mohtadinia, R Mahdavi, M Vahed Jabbari, Sj Ghaem Maghami, Ar Ostad Rahimi,
Volume 17, Issue 68 (9-2009)
Abstract

Background and Objectives: Contamination of storage wheat to zearalenone producer molds represents a significant hazard to consumer health and has thus received increasing attention from food safety authorities and legislators. Various species of Fusarium genus are producer of different mycotoxins including zearalenone at certain conditions. These mycotoxins can enter into the human food and animal feed chain and cause premature or early thelarche, gynecomastia, primary and secondary mycotoxicosis in humans and animals. Materials and Methods: In this survey, contamination of 162 randomly collected wheat samples to zearalenone producer Fusarium was investigated using direct microscopic examination and culturing samples in specific media. Results: From studied 162 collected wheat samples, 160 (99%) samples had fungal contamination. Aspergillus niger, Penicillium Sp, other species of Asergillus (A. fumigatus, A. flavous, A. niveus, A. cchraceus,…) Fusarium Sp, Alternaria Sp, Cladesporium Sp, Gliocladium Sp. and Trichotecium Sp. were the most frequently detected microorganisms respectively. Conclusion: The presence of moulds such as Aspergillus Sp, Penicillium Sp, Fusarium Sp, Alternaria Sp, Cladesporium Sp, Gliocladium Sp, and Trichotecium Sp. in consumer wheat samples can lead to the presence of harmful mycotoxins and then could result in serious toxicity and illness in humans. As the fungal contamination has a strong influence on the ultimate quality of wheat, wheat end products and food safety, more attention to the quality and safety of wheat and wheat stored places are necessary. Key words: Wheat, Fungal contamination, Mycotoxins, Zearalenone, East Azarbaidjan


Ma Rahimi, E Niromand, M Rezaii,
Volume 17, Issue 69 (12-2009)
Abstract

Background and objectives: HbA1C measurement is a gold standard for controlling blood glucose in diabetic patients. There is little information about fasting and postprandial blood glucose effect on HbA1C. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between fasting and postprandial blood glucose and some other factors with HbA1C on type 2 diabetic patient in Kermanshah Diabetes Research Center. Materials and Methods: 173 type 2 diabetic patients were selected in a sectional-analytic study by easy sampling. Information were completed using a questionnaire and blood glucose were measured before and 2 hours post-breakfast and at 4pm every 2-4 weeks for a period of 3 months. At the end of the third month HbA1C were also measured. Based on HbA1C, patients were divided into three groups. Data were analyzed by SPSS software. Results: There was a relationship between fasting, 2 hours post-breakfast and 4pm blood glucose and HbA1C. Correlation coefficient was r = 0.49 (p<0.0001) for fasting blood glucose, (r=0.754, p<0.0001) for 2 hours post-breakfast and (r=0.811,p<0.001) for 4pm blood glucose. Also there were a relationship between duration of the disease (r=0.363,p<0.0001) and type of treatment(r=0.338,p<0.0001) with HbA1C. There was no relationship between age, sex, BMI, family history of diabetes and education with HbA1C. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that there was a relationship between fasting and 2 hours post-breakfast and 4pm blood glucose with HbA1C but, the most relationship was found between 4pm blood glucose with HbA1C. Therefore, fasting blood glucose is not a good character for diabetes control and postprandial blood glucose measurement should be carried out for better control of diabetes.


M Darabi, A Abolfathi, Ar Ostad Rahimi, A Kazemi, M Shaaker, M Noori,
Volume 17, Issue 69 (12-2009)
Abstract

Background and objectives: Atherosclerosis results from a complex interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Free cholesterol efflux from peripheral tissues and transferring to the liver for excretion from bile which is known as reverse cholesterol transfer (RCT) plays a central role in protection against atherosclerosis. HDL and cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) are the major participants of RCT. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the cholesteryl ester transfer protein I405V polymorphism modifies the response to changes in the dietary ratio of polyunsaturated to saturated fat (P:S). Materials and Methods: The population study included 85 healthy subjects with the different I405V genotypes (35 II, 36 IV, and 14 VV) who assigned to two consecutive 28 days experimental period. All subjects consumed a high polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) diet with P:S of 1.2 for the first period and a high saturated fatty acids (SFA) diet with a P:S of 0.3 for the next 28 days period. At the first and the end of each dietary period, serum lipid and lipoprotein concentrations were measured. Results: At beginning of screening, lipid or lipoprotein concentrations were not significantly different among CETP I405V genotype groups. After the high SFA diet, subjects carrying V allele had a greater reduction in apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) and HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) than subjects with II genotype. Conclusion: The CETP I405V polymorphism contributes to the unfavorable changes of apoA- I and HDL-C when a high PUFA diet were replaced with a high SFA diet.


M MirzaRahimi, H Saadati, A Enteshari, M Mazani, S Shahizadeh,
Volume 18, Issue 73 (6-2010)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Trace elements have been documented to play an important role in the determination of fetal outcome. It has been reported that the pregnant women in developing countries consume diets with a lower amounts of minerals and vitamins. Zinc is an essential trace element and its deficiency can lead to a variety of disorders. Materials and Methods: This case-control study was carried out at Alavi hospital in Ardabil (Iran) from August 2008- August 2009. Fifty six women who had delivered low- birth- weight infants (<2500gr) were taken as the case group and 56 women with infants with normal birth weight (≥2500gr) were selected as the control group. Venous blood sample were obtained from the mothers. Serum zinc level was determined by the atomic absorption spectrophotometer method. Results: Mean of birth weight in infants, maternal age, body mass index in mothers and socioeconomic or demographic factors did not differ between case and control groups. Maternal zinc concentration did not differ between Cases and Controls 55.84 ± 14.40 μg/dl vs.52.16 ± 8.84 μg/dl respectively. Conclusion: Results of this study showed that maternal zinc concentration has no impact on neonatal birth weight deliveries.


S Vahabi, S EbRahimi Movaghar, B Nazemi Salman,
Volume 20, Issue 80 (7-2012)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Aggressive periodontitis is a destructive disease that leads to a quick and extensive periodontal tissue loss. Mast cells are known to play important roles in allergic reactions, host defense against bacterial infections, local homeostasis, inflammation, and angiogenesis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between mast cell numbers and aggressive periodontitis. Materials and Methods: A descriptive analytical and blind study was designed and gingival specimens from 19 moderate to advanced aggressive periodontitis sites (case group) and 18 gingivitis sites (control group) was taken during flap and crown lengthening surgeries. Toluidine blue and Hematoxylin Eosin staining were done for mast cell counting and inflammation assessment, respectively. Inflammatory and mast cells in 5 micron sections were assessed by two trained observers utilizing light microscopy. ANOVAs and T test with an alpha error level less than 5% were used to analyze the data. Results: The mean values of the mast cell numbers were 7.6 10.8 and 9.8 13.0 in aggressive periodontitis and gingivitis sites, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences among the mast cell counts, clinical attachment loss, or pathologic inflammation (P> 0.05). Conclusions: The present study indicates that mast cell numbers were not significantly different between aggressive periodontitis and gingivitis. Further studies are required to evaluate dynamic aspects of host defense.


Mm ُsoltan Dallal, Z Kalafi, A Rastegare Lari, Sn Hosseini, A Rahimi Foroushani, Z Deilami Khiabani, F Nikkhahi, S Heidarzadeh,
Volume 20, Issue 81 (9-2012)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Human amniotic membrane, which is the innermost layer of placenta, contains beta defensins and elafin, which both have antibacterial properties. These antibacterial activities depend on the conditions and environmental factors. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of environmental factors on human amniotic membrane antibacterial properties against Klebsiella pneumonia (ATCC7881), Entrococcus faecalis (ATCC29212), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC27853), Salmonella enteric (BAA-708), and E. coli (ATCC25922) strains in vitro. Materials and Methods: The amniotic membrane samples were obtained from caesarean women in Imam Khomeini hospital. Participating women were all seronegative for HIV, HBV, HCV, and syphilis. The samples were cut into 1.5×1.5 cm pieces. The 0.5 McFarland bacterial suspensions were prepared and spread on Muller-Hinton agar medium, and a piece of membrane was placed in the centre of each plate. Samples were examined at different time intervals (24, 48, and 72 hr), temperatures (25, 33, 37°C) and pH (6.5, 7, and 7.5) as variables. Results: The results show that time and pH as variable parameters did not affect the antibacterial properties of the amniotic membrane. However, the change in temperature (25 and 33°C vs. 37°C) had a significant impact on P. aeruginosa. Conclusion: Antibacterial properties of the amniotic membrane seem resistant against environmental factors, except for especial cases, and this sustainability could expand its usage in clinical procedures and different conditions.


I Rahimian Boogar, Ma Besharat, M Darabian,
Volume 20, Issue 82 (7-2012)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Atrial fibrillation is the most prevalent arrhythmia, accompanied with some adverse complications, after coronary artery bypass graft surgery. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of psychological risk factors, as well as age and gender for the incidence of atrial fibrillation after coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective cross-sectional survey, a total of 317 patients, whom undergone coronary artery bypass graft surgery in the Tehran Heart Center and Tehran Cardiac Surgery Center of Bo-Ali Hospital were selected by convenience sampling. Among these cases, following the coronary artery bypass graft surgery, 89 (28.1%) of them had atrial fibrillation. Data were collected by demographical questionnaire and Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) and analyzed by chi-square, independent t-test with binary Logistic Regression using the PASW software. Results: Depression (OR= 4.57), stress (OR= 4.49), anxiety (OR= 3.61), age (OR= 4.77), and gender (OR= 2.38) could significantly differentiate the patients with atrial fibrillation from those without it after the bypass surgery (P<0.0001). The total regression model explained that 97.2% of this sample was classified correctly (P<0.05). Conclusion: Depression, stress, and anxiety as psychological risk factors, and age and gender, as background risk factors, all appear to contribute in the incidence atrial fibrillation after coronary artery bypass graft surgery. These results might have applicable implications in prevention of atrial fibrillation after the bypass surgery and its related adverse complications.


M Nazarzadeh, Z Bidel, E Ayubi, A Bahrami, J Tezval, M Rahimi, F Jafari,
Volume 21, Issue 84 (3-2013)
Abstract

Background and Objective: The age of smoking is declining in the developed and developing countries. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of smoking stages in a sample of high school students in Zanjan and assessing its related risk factors. Materials and Methods: Among the high school students in the academic year 2011-2012, a sample size of 1,064 subjects was selected by random multistage sampling. Data was gathered through standard self administered questionnaire including questions about demographical, socio-economical, psychological characteristics, smoking behavior and familiarity with various drugs. Binary logistic regression was used for assessing relationship between smoking and related factors. Results: Out of 354 (34.2%) students who reported smoking, 242 (23.4%) were classified as experimenters and 112 (10.8%) as regular smokers. The multivariate analysis by logistic regression shows that older age (OR=1.20), risk taking behaviors (OR=1.83), familiarity with Tramadol (OR=2.19), lower self-esteem (OR=1.07), positive attitude to smoking (OR=1.15), positive thinking about smoking (OR=1.07), and having friends who smoke (OR=1.94) associated with smoking. Conclusion: Results show that the prevalence of different stages of smoking among high school students in Zanjan is high compared to the studies with similar questionnaire reported from other provinces of Iran. Familiarity with Tramadol and having smoker friend/s had high association with smoking. More attention to the school base education may be effective in improvement of smoking control among high school students.


Z Rahimi, Mh Alizadeh, R Nouri, Z Rojhani,
Volume 22, Issue 95 (8-2014)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Researchers have pointed out that higher rate of female athlete lower extremity injuries are related to functional imbalances in hamstring and quadriceps muscles and suggest the use of training protocols in order to gain adequate functional muscle patterns. The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of neuromuscular, strength and combined trainings on H/Q strength ratio in professional female basketbalists. Materials and Methods: The subjects were 42 female basketbalists in 3 experimental groups and 1 control group with mean age, height and weight of 20.73±1.88 year, 172.47±6.57 cm and 63.54±4.98 kg, and BMI of 21.36±1.17 who completed 6 weeks of neuromuscular, strength and combined trainings. Functional hamstring to quadriceps muscle strength ratio was measured prior to and after training by Isokinetic Biodex Dynamometer 4, at 3 angular velocities 60,180,240.s-1. Repeated measurement, Anova, Independent sample T test and Tukey post hoc test were used to analyze the data. Results: Statistical analysis of data revealed that there was a significant difference in Functional H/Q Ratio in strength training group at 3 angular velocities in pre and post training. Differences between the strength training groups and the control group were meaningful. Conclusion: Prescription of lower extremity strength trainings in injury prevention training programs can cause improvement in functional strength ratio and may lead to reduce lower extremity injury risks. References 1- Taunton J, Ryan M, Clement D, McKenzie D, Lloyd-Smith D, Zumbo B. A retrospective case-control analysis of running injuries. Br J Sports Med. 2002 36(2): 95-101. 2- Bahr R, Reeser JC. injuries among world-class professional beach volleyball players the fédération internationale de volleyball beach volleyball injury study. Am J Sports Med. 2003 31(1): 119-25. 3- Faude O, Junge A, Kindermann W, Dvorak J. Injuries in female soccer players a prospective study in the german national league. Am J Sports Med. 2005 33(11): 1694-700. 4- Nejati V. prevalent sports injuries and related factors in female athlete students. Harkat. 2008 35(35): 5- ShahTahmasebi B, Ebrahimi A, Javaheri A. The investigation of prevalence of lower extremity injuries in Iranian elite female artistic jymnasts:Study on two women,s artistic jymnastics apparatus(floor exercise & uneven bars). paper presented at 5th Sport Medicine Congress in Country. 2007 Tehran. 6- Hewett TE, Ford KR, Hoogenboom BJ, Myer GD. Understanding and prevention ACL injuries: current biomechanical and epidemiological consideration. North Am J Sports Physical Therapy. 2010 5(4): 234-51. 7- Agel J, Arendt EA, Bershadsky B. Anterior cruciate ligament injury in national collegiate athletic association basketball and soccer. The Am J Sports Med. 2005 33(4): 524-31. 8- Hewett TE. Biomechanical and neuromuscular mechanisms of ACL injuries. In: Hewett TE, Shultz SJ, Griffin LY, eds. Understanding and preventing noncontact ACL injuries.1 st edn. Champaign: Human Kinetics. 2007 129-130. 9- Ford KR, Myer GD, Hewett TE. Valgus knee motion during landing in high school female and male basketball players. Med Sci Sports Exercise. 2003 35(10): 1745-50. 10- Hewett TE, Myer GD, Ford KR, et al. Biomechanical measures of neuromuscular control and valgus loading of the knee predict anterior cruciate ligament injury risk in female athletes. Am J Sports Med. 2005 33(4): 492-501. 11- Rosene JM, Fogarty TD, Mahaffey BL. Isokinetic hamstrings: quadriceps ratios in intercollegiate athletes. J Athletic Training. 2001 36(4): 378. 12- Li R, Wu Y, Maffulli N, Chan KM, Chan J. Eccentric and concentric isokinetic knee flexion and extension: a reliability study using the Cybex 6000 dynamometer. Br J Sports Med. 1996 30(2): 156-60. 13- MacLean CL, Taunton JE, Clement DB, Regan WD, Stanish WD. Eccentric kinetic chain exercise as a conservative means of functionally rehabilitating chronic isolated insufficiency of the posterior cruciate ligament. Clin J Sport Med. 1999 9(3): 142-50. 14- Andrade MDS, De Lira CAB, Koffes FDC, Mascarin NC, Benedito-Silva AA, Da Silva AC. Isokinetic hamstrings-to-quadriceps peak torque ratio: The influence of sport modality, gender, and angular velocity. J Sports Sciences. 2012 30(6): 547-53. 15- Dauty M, Tortellier L, Rochcongar P. Isokinetic and anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with hamstrings or patella tendon graft: analysis of literature. Inter J Sports Med. 2005 26(07): 599-606. 16- Myer GD, Paterno MV, Ford KR, Hewett TE. Neuromuscular training techniques to target deficits before return to sport after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. J Strength Conditioning Res. 2008 22(3): 987-1014. 17- Holcomb WR, Rubley MD, Lee HJ, Guadagnoli MA. Effect of hamstring-emphasized resistance training on hamstring: quadriceps strength ratios. J Strength Conditioning Res. 2007 21(1): 41-7. 18- Goldman EF, Jones DE. Interventions for preventing hamstring injuries (Review). Cochrane Database Syst Rev. Wiley publishers. 2010 2. 19- Filipa A, Byrnes R, Paterno MV, Myer GD, Hewett TE. Neuromuscular training improves performance on the star excursion balance test in young female athletes. J Orthopaedic Sports Physical Therapy. 2010 40(9): 551. 20- Süss R. Neuromascular control of the knee joint in adolescent female vollayball players. Publicatio LI/II. 2011 35. 21- Fleck SJ, Falkel JE. Value of resistance training for the reduction of sports injuries. Sports Med. 1986 3(1): 61-8. 22- Newton RU, Rogers RA, Volek JS, Häkkinen K, Kraemer WJ. Four weeks of optimal load ballistic resistance training at the end of season attenuates declining jump performance of women volleyball players. J Strength Conditioning Res. 2006 20(4): 955-61. 23- Myer GD, Ford KR, Palumbo OP, Hewett TE. Neuromuscular training improves performance and lower-extremity biomechanics in female athletes. J Strength Conditioning Res. 2005 19(1): 51-60. 24- Liu-Ambrose T, Khan KM, Eng JJ, Lord SR, McKay HA. Balance confidence improves with resistance or agility training. Gerontol. 2004 50(6): 373-82. 25- Agard P, Simonsen EB, Magnusson SP, Larsson B. A new concept for isokinetic hamstring: quadriceps muscle Strength ratio. Am J Sports Med. 1998 26: 231-7. 26- Kannus P. Knee flexor and extensor strength ratios with deficiency of the lateral collateral ligament. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1988 69: 928-1. 27- Orchard J, Marsden S. Lord, Garlick D. Preseason hamstring muscle weakness associated with hamstring muscle injury in Australian footballers. Am J Sports Med. 1997 25: 81-85. 28- Tourney-Chollet C, Leroy D, Delarue Y, Beuret-Blanqurt F. Isokinetic based comparisons of hamstrings-quadriceps ratio between soccer players and sedentary subjects. Isokin Exer Sci. 2003 11: 85-6. 29- Hewett TE, Strupe AL, Nance TA, Noyes FR. Plyometric training in female athletes. Decreased impact forces and increased hamstring torques. Am J Sports Med. 1996 24:765-73. 30- Mjolsnes R, Arnason A, Osthagen T, Raastad T, Bahr R. A10-week randomized trial comparing eccentric vs. concentric hamstring strength training in well-trained soccer players. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2004 14: 311-7. 31- Hewett TE, Myer GD, Ford KR. Prevention of anterior cruciate ligament injuries. Current Omen's Health Reports. 2001 1(3): 218-24. 32- Myer GD, Brent JL, Ford KR, Hewett TE. Real-time assessment and neuromuscular training feedback prevent ACL injury in female athletes. Strength Conditioning J. 2011 33(3): 21. 33- Harries SK, Lubans DR, Callister R. Resistance training to improve power and sports performance in adolescent athletes: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Sci Med Sport. 2012 15(6): 532-40. 34- Hägglund M, Atroshi I, Wagner P, Waldén M. Superior compliance with a neuromuscular training programme is associated with fewer ACL injuries and fewer acute knee injuries in female adolescent football players: secondary analysis of an RCT. B J Sports Med. 2013 47(15): 974-9.


S Mohamadpoor, I Rahimian Boogar, Am Rezaei,
Volume 23, Issue 97 (4-2015)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Paying attention to quality of life in patients with coronary heart disease due to the extent of damage and mortality is of importance. The present study investigated the role of defense styles and alexithymia on predicting quality of life in patients with coronary heart disease. Materials and Methods:In this cross-sectional descriptive study, 300 patients with coronary heart disease who attended Heart Center of Shahid Ayatollah Madani Hospital in Lorestan, Iran, were selected by convenience sampling method from May to October, 2013. Data was collected using Demographic Questionnaire, Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40), Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) and The MacNew Heart Disease Health Related Quality of Life (HRQL) instruments. A stepwise multiple regression procedure was used for data analysis withSPSS version 19. Results: There was no significant correlation between mature defense styles and quality of life (P=0.198).In addition, a significant (negative) correlation was found between neurotic and immature defense styles and quality of life (p<0.01). Meanwhile, a significant (negative) correlation was found between alexithymia components and quality of life (p<0.05). The results of multiple regression analysis showed that immature defense styles and difficulty in identifying feelings are able to predict a reduction in quality of life in patients with coronary heart disease (p<0.0005). Conclusion: Immature defense styles and difficulty in identifying feelings play an important role in predicting quality of life in patients with coronary heart disease. Therefore, in order to improve the quality of life in these patients, attention to the aforementioned variables during clinical trials with the goal of appropriate intervention will be beneficial. References 1- Polikandrioti M, Babatsikou F. Information to coronary disease patients. Health Sci J. 2013 7: 3-10. 2- Global status report on noncommunicable diseases 2010. Geneva, World Health Organization. 2011. 3- Foxwell R, Morley C, Frizelle D. Illness perceptions, mood and quality of life: a systematic review of coronary heart disease patients. J Psychosom Res. 2013 75: 211-22. 4- Loughlin C, Murphy N, Conlon C. Quality of life predicts outcome in a heart failure disease management program. Int J Cardiol. 2010 139: 60-7. 5- Rassart J, Luyckx K, Goossens E, Apers S, Klimstra TA, Moons P. Personality traits, quality of life and perceived health in adolescents with congenital heart disease. Psychol Health. 2013 28: 319-35. 6- Ghasemi E, Mohammad Aliha J, Bastani F, Haghani H, Samiei N. Quality of life in women with coronary artery disease. Iran Red Crescent Med J. 2014 16:e10188. 7- Carvalho A, Ramırez S, Macedo D. The psychological defensive profile of hemodialysis patients and its relationship to health-related quality of life. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2013 201: 621-28. 8- Nardelli S, Pentassuglio I, Pasquale C. Depression, anxiety and alexithymia symptoms are major determinants of health related quality of life (HRQoL) in cirrhotic patients. Metab Brain Dis. 2013 28: 239-43. 9- Brady S, Carson C. Brief report: self-harm is associated with immature defense mechanisms but not substance use in a nonclinical Scottish adolescent sample. J Adolesc. 2012 35: 765-7. 10- Malone J, Cohen S, Liu S, Vaillant G, Waldinger R. Adaptive midlife defense mechanisms and late-life health. Pers Individ Dif. 2013 55: 85-9. 11- Hyphantis T, Goulia P, Carvalho A. Personality traits, defense mechanisms and hostility features associated with somatic symptom severity in both health and disease. J Psychosom Res. 2013 75: 362-69. 12- Martinez BPR, Leon EC, Rodriguez GAR, Moctezuma LGP. Defense mechanisms in cardiovascular disease patients with and without panic disorder. Salud Mental. 2010 33: 219-27. 13- Komaki G. somatization and psychosomatic symptoms. New York: Sperliger. 2013. 14- Preti A, Sancassiani F, Cadoni F, Carta M. Alexithymia affects pre-hospital delay of patients with acute myocardial infarction: Meta-analysis of existing studies. Clin Pract Epidemiol Ment Health. 2013 9: 69-73. 15- Grabe HJ, Schwahn C, Barnow S, et al. Alexithymia, hypertension, and subclinical atherosclerosis in the general population. J Psychosom Res. 2010 68: 139-47. 16- Valkamo M, Hintikka J, Honkalampi K, Niskanen L, Koivumaa-Honkanen H, ViinamaÈki H. Alexithymia in patients with coronary heart disease. J Psychosom Res. 2001 50: 125-30. 17- Hofer S, Saleem A, Stone J, Thomas R, Tulloch H, Oldridge N. The macnew heart disease health-related quality of life questionnaire in patients with angina and patients with ischemic heart failure. Value Health. 2012 15: 143-50. 18- Asadi-Lari M, Javadi HR, Melville M, Oldrige N, Gray D. Adaptation of the Macnew quality of life questionnaire after myocardial infarction in an Iranian population . Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2003 1: 23. 19- Andrews G, Singh M, Bond M. The defense style questionnaire. J Nerv Ment Dis. 1993: 181 246-56. 20- Besharat MA. Reliability and factorial validity of farsi version of the ego mechanisms of defense scale with a sample of Iranian students. Psychol Rep. 2007 101: 209-22. [In Persian] 21- Heidarinasab l, Mansoor M, Azadfalah P, Shaery, MR. The Validity and reliability of the defense style questionnaire in Iranian sample. Daneshvar. 2007 14: 11-27. [In Persian] 22- Bagby RM, Parker JDA, Taylor GJ. The twenty-item Toronto alexithymia scale-I: item selection and cross-validation of the factor structure. J Psychosom Res. 1994 38: 23-32. 23- Ghorbani N, Bing MN, Watson PJ, Davison HK, Mack DA. Self-reported emotional intelligence: construct similarity and functional dissimilarity of higher-order processing in Iran and United-States. Int J Psychol, 2002 37: 297- 308. 24- Modestin J, Furrer RM, Malti T. Study on alexithymia in adult non-patients. J Psychosom Res. 2004 56: 707-9. 25- Albuquerque SA, Carvalho AR, Lopes RS, et al. Ego defense mechanisms in COPD: impact on health-related quality of life and dyspnoea severity. Qual Life Res. 2011 20: 1401-10. 26- Goulia P, Voulgari PV, Tsifetaki N, Drosos AA, Hyphantis T. Comparison of health-related quality of life and associated psychological factors between younger and older patients with established rheumatic disorders. Aging Ment Health. 2010 14: 819-27. 27- Hyphantis TN, Tomenso B, Bai M, Tsianos E, Mavreas V, Creed F. Psychological distress, somatization, and defense mechanisms associated with quality of life in inflammatory bowel disease patients. Dig Dis Sci. 2010 55: 724-32. 28- Khosravani E, Mahmoodi-Rad GH, Dastjerdi R. The investigation of the relation of coping styles with quality of life and psychological well-being among cardiovascular patients. Fourth International Congress on Psychosomatic. Esfehan: Islamic Azad University of Khorasgan, 2012. 29- Ali-Akbari Dehkordi M, Salehi S, Rezaee A. The comparison of illogical beliefs and defensive styles among heart coronary patients and healthy individuals. Health Psychol. 2013 2: 18-32. [In Persian] 30- Mattila AK, Saarni SI, Salminen JK, Huhtala H, Sintonen H, Joukamaa M. Alexithymia and health-related quality of life in a general population. Psychosomatics. 2009 50: 59-68. 31- Tselebis A, Kosmas E, Bratis A, et al. Prevalence of alexithymia and its association with anxiety and depression in a sample of Greek chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) outpatients. Ann Gen Psychiatry. 2010 9: 16. 32- Vieira RV, Vieira DC, Gomes WB, Gauer G. Alexithymia and its impact on quality of life in a group of Brazilian women with migraine without aura. J Headache Pain. 2013 14: 18. 33- von Rimscha SV, Moergeli H, Weidt S, Straumann D, Hegemann S, Rufer M. Alexithymia and health-related quality of life in patients with dizziness. Psychopathology. 2013 46: 377-83. 34- Vazquez I, S´andez E, Gonz´alez-Freire B, Romero-Frais E, Blanco-Aparicio, Verea-Hernando. The role of alexithymia in quality of life and health care use in asthma. J Asthma. 2010 47: 797-804. 35- Steptoe A, Wikman A, Molloy G J, Messerli-Burgy N, Kaski JC. Inflammation and symptoms of depression and anxiety in patients with acute coronary heart disease. Brain Behav Immun. 2013 31: 183-88.


َa Omidkhoda , S Kaviani, M Soleimani, M Nikougoftar, A Atashi, N Ahmadgeigi, Z Zonoubi, L EbRahimi,
Volume 23, Issue 98 (5-2015)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Nowadays, although umbilical cord blood is a commonly used source of hematopoietic stem cell, its low frequency of these cells is the main factor limiting its clinical application. The transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells derived from placenta tissue along with umbilical cord blood cells of the same sample may be an appropriate approach to solve this problem. In this study, we tried to mimic the niche of placenta by nano fiber scaffold in order to expand the hematopoietic stem cells derived from placenta tissue. Materials and Methods: Different stromal cells along with hematopoietic stem cells derived from placenta tissue were seeded on nano fiber scaffold produced from PLLA coated with collagen. Then, the rate of proliferation in these niches was studied. Results: The expansion in the mimicked niche associated with 3.6 fold increase in the number of cells but the capacity of forming colonies decreased significantly (P<0.0001). Also, the percentage of hematopoietic stem cells increased. Nevertheless, the differences were not statistically significant (P>0.05). Conclusion: Due to a decreased capacity in forming colonies of hematopoietic stem cells derived from placenta, the expansion of stem cells from a part of placenta is not an appropriate solution and other approaches such as isolation of hematopoietic stem cells from the whole placenta tissue should be considered. References 1- Delaney C, Gutman JA, Appelbaum FR. Cord blood transplantation for hematological malignancies: conditioning regimens, double cord transplant and infectious complications. Br J Haematol. 2009 147: 207-16. 2- Escalon MP, Komanduri KV. Cord blood transplantation: evolving strategies to improve engraftment and immune reconstitution. Curr Opin Oncol. 2010 22: 122-9. 3- Hofmeister CC, Zhang J, Knight KL, Le P, Stiff PJ. Ex vivo expansion of umbilical cord blood stem cells for transplantation: growing knowledge from the hematopoietic niche. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2007 39: 11-23. 4- Tung SS, Parmar S, Robinson SN, De Lima M, Shpall Ej. Ex vivo expansion of umbilical cord blood for transplantation. Best Pract Res Clin Haematol. 2010 23: 245-57. 5- Devin SM, Lazarus HM, Emerson SG. Clinical application of hematopoietic stem cells expansion: current status and future prospects. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2003 31: 241-52. 6- Shpall EJ, Quinones R, Giller R, et al. Transplantation of ex vivo expanded cord blood. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2002 8: 368-76. 7- Yao CL, Chu IM, Hsieh TB, Hwang SM. A systematic strategy to optimize ex vivo expansion medium for human hematopoietic stem cells derived from umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells. Exp Hematol. 2004 32: 720-7. 8- Schofield R. The relationship between the spleen colony-forming cell and the haemopoietic stem cell. Blood Cells. 1978: 4: 7-25. 9- Mercier FE, Ragu C, Scadden DT. The bone marrow at the cross roads of blood and immunity. Nat Rev Immunol. 2011 12: 49-60. 10- Ugarte F, Forsberg EC. Haematopoietic stem cell niches: new insights inspire new questions. EMBO J. 2013 32: 2535-47. 11- Frenette PS1, Pinho S, Lucas D, Scheiermann C. Mesenchymal stem cell: keystone of the hematopoietic stem cell niche and a stepping-stone for regenerative medicine. Annu Rev Immunol. 2013 31: 285-316. 12- Mendez-Ferrer S, Michurina TV, Ferraro F, et al. Mesenchymal and hematopoietic stem cells form a unique bone marrow niche. Nature. 2010 466: 829-34. 13- Sideri A, Neokleous N, Brunet De La Grange P, et al. An overview of the progress on double umbilical cord blood transplantation. Haematologica. 2011 96: 1213-20. 14- Barker JN, Weisdorf DJ, DeFor TE, et al. Transplantation of 2 partially HLA-matched umbilical cord blood units to enhance engraftment in adults with hematologic malignancy. Blood. 2005 105: 1343-7. 15- Gekas C, Dieterlen-Lievre F, Orkin SH, Mikkola HK. The placenta is a niche for hematopoietic stem cells. Dev Cell .2005 8: 365-75. 16- Barcena A, Kapidzic M, Muench MO, et al. The human placenta is a hematopoietic organ during the embryonic and fetal periods of development. Dev Biol. 2009 327: 24-33. 17- Serikov V, Hounshell C, Larkin S, et al. Human term placenta as a source of hematopoietic cells. Exp Biol Med. 2009 234: 813-23. 18- Omidkhoda A, Kaviani S, Soleimani M, et al. Isolation and characterization of hematopoietic and mesenchymal stem cells derived from human placenta tissue. Sci J Iran Blood Transfus Organ. 2014 11: 4-11. 19- Ehring B, Biber K, Upton TM, et al. Expansion of HPCs from cord blood in a novel 3D matrix. Cytotherapy. 2003 5: 490-9. 20- Di Maggio N1, Piccinini E, Jaworski M, Trumpp A, Wendt DJ, Martin I. Toward modeling the bone marrow niche using scaffold-based 3D culture systems. Biomaterials. 2011 32: 321-9. 21- Oswald J, Steudel C, Salchert K, et al. Gene expression profiling of CD34+ hematopoietic cells expanded in a collagen I matrix. Stem Cells. 2006 24: 494-500. 22- Leisten I, Kramann R, Ventura Ferreira MS, et al. 3D co-culture of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells and mesenchymal stem cells in collagen scaffolds as a model of the hematopoietic niche. Biomaterials. 2012 33: 1736-47. 23- Mortera-Blanco T, Mantalaris A, Bismarck A, Aqel N, Panoskaltsis N. Long-term cytokine-free expansion of cord blood mononuclear cells in three-dimensional scaffolds. Biomaterials. 2011 32: 9263-70. 24- Ferreira MS, Schneider RK, Wagner W, et al. Two-dimensional polymer-based cultures expand cord blood-derived hematopoietic stem cells and support engraftment of NSG Mice. Tissue Eng Part C Methods. 2013 19: 25-38. 25- Xue C1, Kwek KY, Chan JK, Chen Q, Lim1 M. The hollow fiber bioreactor as a stroma-supported, serum-free ex vivo expansion platform for human umbilical cord blood cells. Biotechnol J. In press.


A Ghanjal, G Torkaman, M Ghabaee, E EbRahimi, M Motaghey,
Volume 23, Issue 98 (5-2015)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Cerebrovascular accident (CVA) is a severe debilitating neurological condition in adults. This study sought to assess the effect of observation and mimicking functional activities on weight distribution and dynamic balance index improvement in lower limbs of hemiparetic patients based on mirror neuron theory. Materials and Methods: This clinical trial was performed on 36 males and females aged 45-60 years who suffered ischemic CVA for the first time. Subjects were randomly divided into 3 groups as follows: viewers of functional film, viewers of non-functional (symbol) film and the control group (not watching any film). The physiotherapy treatments in all groups were similar. Results: Weight percentage distribution was not significant. The values prior to and after dynamic balance index were statistically significant in all 3 groups. Significant differences were found between group 1 and the other 2 groups in terms of balance index percentage change (level 6). Conclusion: Observation and imitation of action along with rehabilitation exercises and functional activities had a positive effect on the improvement of balance Index in post-stroke patients. Refrences 1- Geurts AC, de Haart M, van Nes IJ, Duysens J.A review of standing balance recovery from stroke. Gait Posture. 2005 22: 267-81. 2- DE Haart M, Geurts AC, Huidekoper SC, Fasotti L, van Limbeek J. Recovery of standing balance in postacute stroke patients: a rehabilitation cohort study. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2004 85: 886-95. 3- Harris JE, Eng JJ, Marigold DS, Tokuno CD, Louis CL. Relationship of balance and mobility to fall incidence in people with chronic stroke. Phys Ther. 2005 85: 150-8. 4- Aminoff MJ, Boller F, Swaab DF. Clinical neurology and stroke. Handbook of Clinical Neurology. 2009 5- Genthon N, Rougier P, Gissot AS, Froger J, Pélissier J, Pérennou D.Contribution of each lower limb to upright standing in stroke patients. Stroke. 2008 39: 1793-9. 6- Pereira LC, Botelho AC, Martins EF. Relationships between body symmetry during weight-bearing and functional reach among chronic hemiparetic patients. Rev Bras Fisioter. 2010 14: 229-66. 7- Chen IC, Cheng PT, Chen CL, Chen SC, Chung CY, Yeh TH.Effects of balance training on hemiplegic stroke patients. Chang Gung Med J. 2002 25: 583-90. 8- Di Fabio RP, Badke MB.Stance duration under sensory conflict conditions in patients with hemiplegia. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1991 72: 292-5. 9- Ertelt D, Small S, Solodkin A, et al. Action observation has a positive impact on rehabilitation of motor deficits after stroke. Neuroimage. 2007 36 Suppl 2:T164-73. 10- Jang SH, Kim YH, Cho SH, Lee JH, Park JW, Kwon YH. Cortical reorganization induced by task-oriented training in chronic hemiplegic stroke patients. Neuroreport. 2003, 20 14: 137-41. 11- Byl N, Roderick J, Mohamed O, et al. Effectiveness of sensory and motor rehabilitation of the upper limb following the principles of neuroplasticity: patients stable poststroke. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2003 17: 176-91. 12- Nakhostin Ansari N, Naghdi S. Techniques in the treatment of stroke rehabilitation. Tehran:Arjmand Press, 2010. 13- Garrison KA, Aziz-Zadeh L, Wong SW, Liew SL, Winstein CJ. Modulating the motor system by action observation after stroke. Stroke. 2013 44: 2247-53. 14- Sale P, Franceschini M. Action observation and mirror neuron network: a tool for motor stroke rehabilitation. Eur J Phys Rehabil Med. 2012 48: 313-8. 15- Franceschini M, Ceravolo MG, Agosti M, et al. Clinical relevance of action observation in upper-limb stroke rehabilitation: a possible role in recovery of functional dexterity. A randomized clinical trial. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2012 26: 456-62. 16- Stefan K, Cohen LG, Duque J, et al. Formation of a motor memory by action observation. J Neurosci. 2005, 12 25: 9339-46. 17- Celnik P, Webster B, Glasser DM, Cohen LG. Effects of action observation on physical training after stroke. Stroke. 2008 39: 1814-20. 18- Holmes P. Evidence from cognitive neuroscience supports action observation as part of an integrated approach to stroke rehabilitation. Man Ther. 2011 16: 40-1. 19- Takeuchi N, Izumi S. Rehabilitation with poststroke motor recovery: a review with a focus on neural plasticity. Stroke Res Treat. 2013 2013: 128641. 20- Hafer-Macko CE, Ryan AS, Ivey FM, Macko RF. Skeletal muscle changes after hemiparetic stroke and potential beneficial effects of exercise intervention strategies. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2008 45: 261-72. 21- Nelles G, Spiekramann G, Jueptner M, et al. Evolution of functional reorganization in hemiplegic stroke: a serial positron emission tomographic activation study. Ann Neurol. 1999 46: 901-9. 22- Van de Port IG, Wood-Dauphinee S, Lindeman E, Kwakkel G. Effects of exercise training programs on walking competency after stroke: a systematic review. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2007 86: 935-51. 23- Forrester LW, Wheaton LA, Luft AR. Exercise-mediated locomotor recovery and lower-limb neuroplasticity after stroke. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2008 45: 205-20. 24- Arya KN, Pandian S, Verma R, Garg RK. Movement therapy induced neural reorganization and motor recovery in stroke: a review. J Bodyw Mov Ther. 2011 15: 528-37. 25- Dobkin BH. Training and exercise to drive poststroke recovery. Nat Clin Pract Neurol. 2008 4: 76-85. 26- Lewek MD, Feasel J, Wentz E, Brooks FP Jr, Whitton MC.Use of visual and proprioceptive feedback to improve gait speed and spatiotemporal symmetry following chronic stroke: a case series. Phys Ther. 2012 92: 748-56. 27- Cho K, Lee G.Impaired dynamic balance is associated with falling in post-stroke patients. Tohoku J Exp Med. 2013 230: 233-9. 28- Mansfield A, Danells CJ, Inness E, Mochizuki G, McIlroy WE. Between-limb synchronization for control of standing balance in individuals with stroke. Clin Biomech .2011 26: 312-7. 29- Carver T, Nadeau S, Leroux A. Relation between physical exertion and postural stability in hemiparetic participants secondary to stroke. Gait Posture .2011 33: 615-9. 30- Buccino G, Solodkin A, Small SL.Functions of the mirror neuron system: implications for neurorehabilitation. Cogn Behav Neurol .2006 19: 55-63.


R Banakar, F Daryanoosh, E Rahimi,
Volume 23, Issue 99 (6-2015)
Abstract

Background and Objective: The adipokines or adipocytokines are cytokines secreted from adipocyte tissue including Vaspin and chemerin. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of eight weeks of intense aerobic exercise on vaspin and chemerin level changes in female Spraw dawly rats. Materials and Methods: Among the Spraw Dawly rats available in the laboratory of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, 35 samples were selected and divided into control (15 rats) and experimental (20 rats) groups. The necessary controls were conducted in terms of nutrition, sex (female) and age (two months old). For 8 weeks, the training group rats performed a high-intensity exercise in accordance with the training program, consisting of running on a treadmill 5 times a week. This exercise was carried out progressively and in compliance with the principle of overload. The data was analyzed using independent t-test by SPSS (version 16). In order to determine the relationship between the study variables, Pearson's correlation coefficient was utilized. Results: The research findings suggest that physical exercise reduces vaspin protein levels (P<0.0001) and increases serum levels in chemerin (P<0.0001). Conclusion: It was found out that the response of adipokines in female rats to intense exercises (for 8 weeks) is different though, it cannot be claimed that all of them exhibit increasing or decreasing effects. The response is probably influenced by the duration or the intensity of the exercise. References 1- Hida K, Wada J, Eguchi J, et al. Visceral adipose tissue-derived serine protease inhibitor: a unique insulin-sensitizing adipocytokine in obesity. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2005 102: 10610-5. 2- Hashemi F, Yaghmaei P, Saadati N, et al. Association of serum adipsin levels with polycystic ovarian syndrome. Razi J Med Sci. 2012 19: 1-60. 3- Wada J. Vaspin: a novel serpin with insulin-sensitizing effects. Expert Opin. Investig Drugs. 2008 17: 327-33. 4- Brunetti L, Di Nisio C, Recinella L, et al. Effects of vaspin, chemerin and omentin-1 on feeding behavior and hypothalamic peptide gene expression in the rat. Peptides. 2001 32: 1866-71. 5- Tan BL, Heutling D, Chen J, et al. Metformin decreases the adipokine vaspin in overweight women with polycystic ovary syndrome concomitant with improvement in insulin sensitivity and a decrease in insulin resistance. Diabetes. 2008 57: 1501-1507. 6- Gulcelik NE, Karakaya J, Gedik A, Usman A, Gurlek A. Serum vaspin levels in type 2 diabetic women in relation to microvascular complications. Eur J Endocrinol. 2009 160: 65-70. 7- Bozaoglu K,Bolton K, McMillan J, et al. Chemerin is a novel adipokine associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome. Endocrinology. 2007 148: 4687-94. 8- Roh SG, Song SH, Choi KC, et al. Chemerin: a new adipokine that modulates adipogenesis via its own receptor. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007 362: 1013-8. 9- Ernst MC, Sinal CJ. Chemerin: at the crossroads of inflammation and obesity. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2010 21: 660-7. 10- Keshtkasr B, Daryanoosh F, Nabizade F, Tanideh N, Salesi M. The effect of traning program with moderate and high intensities on npy hormone and ghrelin in fat asprague- dawley rats. J Zanjan Univ Med Sci. 2014 22: 96-110. 11- Safarzade A, Garakani TA. Effects of progressive resistance training on serum levels of vaspin and some inflammatory markers in male rats. Koomesh. 2012 14: 97-103. 12- Youn BS, Klöting N, Kratzsch J, et al. Serum vaspin concentrations in human obesity and type 2 diabetes. Diabetes. 2008 57: 372-77. 13- Kim JY, Kim ES, Jeon JY, Jekal Y. Improved insulin resistance, adiponectin and liver enzymes without change in plasma vaspin level after 12 weeks of exercise training among obese male adolescents. Korean J Obes. 2011 20: 138-46. 14- Chakaroun R, Raschpichler M, Klöting N, et al. Effects of weight loss and exercise on chemerin serum concentrations and adipose tissue expression in human obesity. Metab Clin Exper. 2012 61: 706-14. 15- Chen JX, Yang WY, Liang R, Lu DY, Zhou WA. Experimental study of the effects of long term and high intensity exercise on plasma ß- endorphin, dynorphin A1-13, leucine- enkephalin and lactate in rats. Chin J Appl Physiol. 1997 14: 371-8. 16- Safarzade A, Gharakhanlou R, Hedayati M, Talebi-Garakani E. The effect of 4 weeks resistance training on serum vaspin, Il-6, CRP and TNF-Α concentrations in diabetic rats. Iran J Endoc Metab. 2011 14: 68-74. 17- Oberbach A, Kirsch K, Lehmann S, et al. Serum vaspin concentrations are decreased after exercise-induced oxidative stress. Obes Facts. 2010 3: 328-31. 18- Lee JA, Park HS, Song YS, et al. Relationship between vaspin gene expression and abdominal fat distribution of Korean women. Endocr J. 2011 58: 639-46. 19- Cho JK, Han TK, Kang HS. Combined effects of body mass index and cardio/respiratory fitness on serum vaspin concentrations in Korean young men. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2010 108: 347-53. 20- Wittamer V, Franssen J.D, Vulcano M, et al. Specific recruitment of antigen-presenting cells by chemerin, a novel processed ligand from human inflammatory fluids. J Exp Me. 2003 198: 977-85. 21- Roman A, Parlee S, Sinal C. Chemerin: a potential endocrine link between obesity and type 2 diabetes. Endocrine. 2012 42: 243-51. 22- Hart R, Greaves DR. Chemerin contributes to inflammation by promoting macrophage adhesion to VCAM-1 and fibronectin through clustering of VLA-4 and VLA-5. J Immunol. 2010 185: 3728-39. 23- Saremi A, Shavandi N, Parastesh M, Daneshmand H. Twelve-week aerobic training decreases chemerin level and improves cardiometabolic risk factors in overweight and obese men. Asian J Sport Med. 2010 1: 151-8.


M Mohammad-Shahi, F Haidari, M Karandish, S EbRahimi, Mh Haghighizadeh,
Volume 23, Issue 99 (6-2015)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Obesity is a low grade inflammatory condition. It seems that there is an association between diet quality and inflammatory markers. Healthy Eating Index (HEI) is one of the important tools to assess diet quality. In this study, we assessed the effect of improving HEI score through nutritional education on serum levels of inflammatory markers in obese women. Materials and Methods: This study was a randomized clinical trial on sixty obese women who were assigned to educated and non-educated groups. Three months of nutritional education, one session in a week, was conducted for education group. The HEI scores of diet for seven days were recorded. Then, the concentrations of inflammatory markers (hs-CRP, TNF-α) and the anthropometric indexes were assessed at the baseline and at the end of the study in both groups. Results: After adjustment for energy intake, weight and age, the HEI score of educated group improved significantly. Prior to receiving education, the HEI mean score was in need of improvement (60.58±6.31) in the educated group. Throughout education it improved to a good level (83.34±5.12). After adjustment for energy intake, weight and age, the plasma levels of hs-CRP, TNF-α significantly decreased (all p values were <0.05). Conclusion: It seems that the quality of diet could be an independent factor in preventing chronic diseases through improving inflammatory condition. References 1- Zou C, Shao J.Role of adipocytokines in obesity-associated insulin resistance. J Nutr Biochem. 2008 19: 277-86. 2- Bastard JP, Maachi M, Lagathu C, et al. Recent advances in the relationship between obesity, inflammation, and insulin resistance. Eur Cytokine Netw. 2006 17: 4-12. 3- Azadbakht L, Mirmiran P, Hosseini F, Azizi F. Diet quality status of most Tehranian adults needs improvement. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2005 14: 163-8. 4- Fung TT, McCullough ML, Newby PK. Diet-quality scores and plasma concentrations of markers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 82:163-73. 5- Lee H, Lee IS, Choue R. Obesity, inflammation and diet. Pediatr Gastroenterol Hepatol Nutr. 2013 16: 143-52. 6- Taechangam S, Pinitchun U, Pachotikarn C. Development of nutrition education tool: healthy eating index in Thailand. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2008 17: 365-7. 7- Boynton A, Neuhouser ML, Sorensen B, McTiernan A, Ulrich CM. Predictors of diet quality among overweight and obese postmenopausal women. J Am Diet Assoc. 2008 108: 125-30. 8- Boynton A, Neuhouser ML, Wener MH. Associations between healthy eating patterns and immune function or inflammation in overweight or obese postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 86: 1445-55. 9- Hu FB. Dietary pattern analysis: a new direction in nutritional epidemiology. Curr Opin Lipidol. 2002 13: 3-9. 10- Silva KF, Prata A, Cunha DF. Frequency of metabolic syndrome and the food intake patterns in adults living in a rural area of Brazil. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. 2011 44: 425-9. 11- Ford ES, Mokdad AH, Liu S. Healthy eating index and C-reactive protein concentration: findings from the national health and nutrition examination survey III, 1988-1994. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2005 59: 278-83. 12- Fargnoli JL, Fung TT, Olenczuk DM, Chamberland JP, Hu FB, Mantzoros CS. Adherence to healthy eating patterns is associated with higher circulating total and high-molecular-weight adiponectin and lower resistin concentrations in women from the nurses' health study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 88: 1213-24. 13- Acar Tek N, Hilal Yildiran, Gamze Akbulut, et al. Evaluation of dietary quality of adolescents using healthy eating index. Nutr Res Pract. 2011 5: 322-8. 14- Patricia M. Guenther, Susan M. Krebs-Smith, Jill Reedy, etal. USDA Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion and National Cancer Institute, June 2008. www.cnpp.usda.gov/HealthyEatingIndex.htm 15- L. kathleen mahan, Sylvia escott_Stump, Raymond. Krause,s food and nutrition care process. 2012 462_484 .www.cnpp.usda.gov/my palte.htm 16- Pourabdollahi P, Zarati M, Razaviyeh V, Dastgiri S, Ghaemmaghami G, Fathiazar E. The effect of nutritional education on awareness of the students of elementary school about the intake of junk food. J Zanjan Unive Med Sci. 2005 51: 13-20. 17- Fallah F, Pourabbas A, Delpisheh A, Veisani Y, Shadnoush M. Effects of nutrition education on levels of nutritional awareness of pregnant women in Western iran. Int J Endocrinol Metab. 2013 11: 175-8. 18- Shahril MR, Wan Dali WP, Lua PL. A 10-week multimodal nutrition education intervention improves dietary intake among university students: cluster randomised controlled trial. J Nutr Metab. Epub 2013 Aug 28. 19- Kresis G, Jovamovic G, Zezelj S, Cvijavoc O, Ivezic G. The effect of nutrition knowledge of dietary intake among Croatian university standents. Coll Antropol. 2009 133: 1047-56. 20- Woodruff SJ, Hanning RM, McGoldrick K, Brown KS. Healthy eating index-C is positively associated with family dinner frequency among students in grades 6-8 from Southern Ontario, Canada. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2010 64: 454-60. 21- Hurley KM, Oberlander SE, Merry BC, Wrobleski MM, Klassen AC, Black MM. The healthy eating index and youth healthy eating index are unique, nonredundant measures of diet quality among low-income, African American adolescents. J Nutr. 2009 139: 359-64. 22- Togo P, Osler M, Sørensen TI, Heitmann BL. Food intake patterns and body mass index in observational studies. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2001 25: 1741-51. 23- Esmaillzadeh A, Azadbakht L. Dairy consumption and circulating levels of inflammatory markers among Iranian women. Public Health Nutr. 2010 13: 1395-402. 24- Lopez-Garcia E, Schulze MB, Fung TT, et al. 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