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Showing 28 results for Sadegh

M Sadeghi Shabestari, H Hosseinpour Feizi,
Volume 14, Issue 54 (Mar 2006)

Adverse reactions induced by BCG vaccination are rare and appear either in the form of lymphadenitis or osteitis. One of the rarest complications of the vaccine is disseminated mycobacterial infection which mostly occurs in infants with immune deficiency. In this paper a case of disseminated BCG infection is reported in a four-month-old infant suffering from severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). Plain radiographs showed multiple osteolytic lesions in skull and extremities abdominal sonography revealed multiple nodules in the liver and spleen in thoracic radiography disseminated interstitial infiltration was observed, and gastric tub age culture tested positive for Mycobacterium bovis.

M Dalirrooi Fard, M Sadeghzadeh, A Arjmand Shabestari,
Volume 15, Issue 61 (12-2007)

Jarcho-Levin syndrome is a rare central skeletal system defect with the involvement of ribs and vertebrae and association of short trunk stature and some other organ anomalies. One of the common problems is different rate of respiratory abnormalities. Chest X-Ray is the primary base for the diagnosis, but spiral 3D CT scan give us more accurate evaluation of the ribs situation. There are also cardiac problems associated with this syndrome. In this case we present a 9- month- old infant who had Jarcho-Levin syndrome with right-sided heart failure.

Gh Pouryaghoub, Kh Sadeghniiat, H Sarreshtahdar,
Volume 16, Issue 64 (9-2008)

Neuropsychological Effects of “Perchloroethylene” on Exposed Dry Cleaning Workers Pouryaghoub Gh1, Sadeghniiat Haghighi Kh1, Sarreshtahdar H2 1 Dept of Occupational Medicine, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran 2 Occupational Health Unit, Deputy of Health Services, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran Corresponding Author’s Address: Dept of Occupational Medicine, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran Email: Received: 4 Nov, 2008 Accepted: 1 June, 2008 Background and Objective: “Perchloroethylene” is a solvent widely used in dry cleaning industry. Various effects on liver, kidney, nervous and cardiovascular systems have been attributed to exposure to this solvent. In this study we assessed some of the neuropsychological effects of chronic exposure to perchloroethylene on exposed dry cleaning workers. Materials and Methods: 40 exposed and 40 non exposed workers were compared in this historical cohort study. The researchers collected the data using a questionnaire and a check list. Frequency of selected neuropsychological effects were evaluated and compared in each group by means of statistical software. Results: After adjustment for age and educational status, the frequency of depression in exposed group and non-exposed group was calculated to be %42/5 and %22/5 respectively (P=0/056). Frequency of memory loss was higher in exposed group (%27/5) compared to non-exposed group (%17/5) (P>0.05) and the frequency of repetitive checking was surprisingly higher in non-exposed group and this difference was statistically significant (P<0/05). Conclusion: The observed difference in “frequency of depression” in exposed and non exposed workers in our study was consistent with findings of previous studies. We were not able to demonstrate any statistically significant relation between perchloroethylene exposure and other neuropsychological effects. Our findings of “repetitive checking” was unexpectedly in contrast to the findings of previous studies.

R Parandin, Hr Sadeghipour Rodsari, S Shamili, Hr Ghasempour,
Volume 16, Issue 65 (12-2008)

Background and Objective: Evaluation of the importance and the effects of plant derived drugs on fertility of laboratory animals have long been recognized. In this research the effects of administration of aqueous extract of Boswellia thurifera on fertility indices, body weight and reproductive organs weight was evaluated in male rats. Materials and Methods: Eighteen rats were randomly divided into 3 groups, control, group A and group B. Each group comprises of six rats. Animals in control group received 1 ml of distilled water (vehicle) and test groups (A and B) received graded doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight of aqueous extract of Boswellia thurifera respectively on daily basis for 60 days. At the end of 60 days of treatment period, fertility indices such as body weight, reproductive organs weight, sperm motility and count, fertility rate, epididymal sperm reserve (ESR), daily sperm production (DSP) and blood testosterone concentration were measured. Results: There was a significant increase in the reproductive organs and body weight, sperm motility and count, ESR, DSP, blood testosterone concentration and fertility rate especially in the group which received the higher doses of aqueous extract of Boswellia thurifera. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that aqueous extract of Boswellia thurifera could increase fertility rate in male rats. Key words: Boswellia thurifera, Fertility, Male rats

I Moghaddami, M Iikhanipoor, G Sadeghi-Hashjin,
Volume 17, Issue 69 (12-2009)

Background and objectives: Non steroidal anti inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used to reduce inflammation, pain and fever. The present study was organized to induce an experimental inflammation in an animal model, using a putative biological oxidant, Peroxynitrite (ONOO-) and to study the effects of Flunixin meglumine and Ketoprofen on the pressure-induced pain. Materials and Methods: For this purpose, 24 male guinea pigs were divided into 4 groups each consisting of 6 animals. Three groups (groups 2, 3 and4) were injected Peroxynitrite and one group (the first: control) received physiological salt solution subcutaneously in the paw. After induction of a local inflammatory response, Flunixin meglumine (1mg/kg) and Ketoprofen (2 mg/kg) were injected to the second and third groups, 5 times with 12h intervals. The first and the fourth groups were injected saline solution in the same manner. Pressure analgesiometry was performed before and 1 hour after injections. Result: The animals in all 3 groups treated with Peroxynitrite demonstrated an increased sensitivity to painful pressure (P<0.05). Both NSAIDs decreased the pain sensation dramatically after the 1st and the 2nd injections but, not after the 3rd, 4th and the 5th injections. Conclusion: The study suggested that NSAIDs may be helpful in reducing pressure-induced pain in animal model in early hours of the treatment, whereas the effect subsides over time and ends up after a few days. This effect may be of importance in humans who receive these kinds of drugs for a long period as they may not be effective in reducing pain after a while.

P Khoshnevisasl, M Sadeghzadeh, S Mazloomzadeh, A Koosha, Sn Dariabari,
Volume 18, Issue 71 (5-2010)

Background and Objective: Children suffering from failure to thrive (FTT) may have significant impairments in physical growth as well as cognitional and developmental functions .After 6 months of age approximately one third of the energy needed for a child should be provided by supplemental nourishments. Studies have shown that poverty itself is not a factor of malnutrition alone and the role of the mother’s knowledge in proper use of the family income and the use of the supplementary nutrition in appropriate time with proper food is significant. The aim of this study was to evaluate maternal knowledge about nutritional status of children and its related factors. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted on three hundred mothers who had a child between 6 to 12 months, at the health care center of the community oriented medical education in Zanjan University of Medical Sciences .The mothers were interviewed about supplemental nutrition. Information about maternal age, education, number of children, and family income were also gathered. Results: One hundred eighty one (60/3%) of mothers were between the ages 20-29years and 35/3% had only elementary education. Fifty five percent lived in rental houses and 47/5% had one child. 42/3% of them were found to have average knowledge. Eighty two percent knew the appropriate time to start supplemental nutrition but 92% did not know that the best time of supplemental nutrition was after breast feeding. Conclusion: According to this study, there was a significant relationship between maternal knowledge about supplemental nutrition and maternal age, education, and the number of children P (0.0001). However there was no significant relationship between mother’s knowledge and family type of home ownership. It seems that up-grading maternal knowledge plays an important role in prevention of FTT.

Mansour Sadeghzadeh, Parisa Khoshnevis Asl, Seyed Norodin Mousavinasab, Ali Koosha, Mahmoud Norouzi Pakdel,
Volume 19, Issue 74 (3-2011)

Background and Objective: Febrile seizures (FS) are the most common seizures seen in childhood with a prevalence of 2-14% in different societies. This study was carried out regarding the possibility of the relationship between serum zinc levels and occurrence of FS.
Materials and Methods: 117 children ranging from 6 months to 5 years were divided into four groups: FS (n=39), febrile patients with no seizures (FNS) (n=40), control group of afebrile patients with no seizures (AFNS) (n=32), and patients with seizures without fever (n=6). After completion of a questionnaire and obtaining blood, serum zinc levels were measured. Data was analyzed using SPSS software.
Results: The mean serum zinc levels in 39 FS patients was 75.67 mcg/dl, 40 febrile patients with no seizure had a mean serum zinc level of 87.58 mcg/dl. 32 afebrile patients with no seizure had a mean serum zinc level of 89.06  mcg/dl and in 6 afebrile patients with seizure; the mean serum zinc level was 96/67 mcg/dl. The serum zinc level in FS patients was significantly lower than the other groups (p=0.002 and p=0.001), whereas the 3 other groups had no significant difference (P= 0.971).
Conclusion: Regarding the high incidence of hypozincaemia in FS, low serum zinc levels may be associated with the occurrence of FS.

A Vahedian Azimi, M Sadeghi, A Movafegh, R Sorouri Zanjani, D Hasani, Ar Salehmoghaddam, Mb Kashshsfi,
Volume 20, Issue 78 (3-2012)

Background and Objectives: Stress and stressful situations can be a prelude to fatal diseases such as cardiovascular diseases and hypertension. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between perceived stress with five major characteristics of the heart disease in patients with myocardial infarction. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional descriptive-analytical study that was conducted from May 2005 till October 2009, a total of 3,200 patients with myocardial infarction, from cardiovascular care unit of Gha'em and Imam Reza hospital, Mashhad, were randomly selected. A demographic questionnaire, an instrument for recording laboratory and electrocardiograph finding, and the Perceived Stress Scale were used for data collection. Results: The results of this study show that while 35% of all cases suffer from moderate stress, 65% percent of them suffer from high level of stress. The level of perceived stress in different categories of variables such as gender, educational level, hypertension, history of hypertension, depression, cigarette smoking, exercising, job, level of incoming, location of living, and family history of cardiovascular disease was significantly different from each other. Conclusion: Considering the high levels of stress among patients with myocardial infarction, design and implementation of interventions for identifying stressors, as well as their management seem to be crucial.

R Ranjbar, M Sarshar, N Sadeghifard,
Volume 20, Issue 81 (9-2012)

Background and Objective: Salmonella spp. are enteric pathogens with a worldwide distribution comprising a large number of serovars characterized by different hosts and distribution. Among Salmonella spp., the number of infections and diseases caused by the serotype Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis started to increase significantly in the last decade. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic diversity of the clinical stains of Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis isolated in Tehran, Iran by using the Ribotyping method. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive study from November 2007 to December 2010, clinical samples, collected from different hospitals in Tehran, were investigated for detection of Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis. Bacterial isolation and identification was achieved through biochemical and bacteriological methods. The Ribotyping technique was applied for the molecular typing of the strain of Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis. Results: Out of the 26 Salmonella serogroup C samples isolated in this study, 19 strains (73%) belonged to Salmonella enterica serotype Infantis. Ribotyping results divided Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis stains into 9 clusters (1c to 9c). The majority (7) of the strains belonged to cluster 1c. Conclusion: The results obtained from the Ribotyping patterns indicate that Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis strains, circulating among the patients in Tehran, belong to a diverse number of clones. Moreover, our data show that Ribotyping is an appropriate method for the molecular typing of Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis strains.

Ar Sadeghi, M Karmi, M Jameshorani, S Mazlumzade, R Salmani,
Volume 21, Issue 84 (3-2013)

Background and Objective: Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis and joint disease and a major cause of disability among middle-aged and elderly people. The process of the progressive destruction of articular cartilage, causes pain and dysfunction of the joints involved. However, the main cause of this disease is not known. In several epidemiological studies from other countries, the problem was reported to be associated with cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to find the relationship between carotid artery atherosclerosis in elderly women and osteoarthritis of the joints. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was done on 256 middle-aged and elderly women referred to the Vali-e-Asr Hospital in Zanjan. The patients were divided randomly into two groups of test and control following medical examination. The rate and severity of atherosclerosis and the presence or absence of atherosclerotic plaques were evaluated using Doppler Sono. The data were analyzed using the SPSS software. The mean values were subjected to student t-test and chi-square methods. Results: Of the total of 256 women who participated (mean age 56.79 years) in the study, 30.8% of women with osteoarthritis and 17.5% of the normal groups had carotid artery atherosclerotic plaque (P=0.009 OR=2.1). Even after normalization for age, osteoarthritis was still considered a risk factor for the carotid plaque. The mean carotid artery intima-media thickness was 0.975 mm in the test group compared with 0.910 mm in the control group (P<0.0001). Conclusion: Our findings are consistent with the outcome of some previous studies reporting a significant relationship between osteoarthritis and atherosclerotic disease. A proper drug treatment to reduce the severity of atherosclerosis in order to prevent the progress of osteoarthritis is recommended.

F Sadeghi, M Khalaj-Kondori, Ma Hosseinpour Feizi, F Shaikhzadeh Hesari,
Volume 22, Issue 95 (8-2014)

Background and Objective: Learning is the acquisition of information about the world and memory is a mechanism to encode, store and retrieve the learned information. Weak memory and learning disorders are the most common cognitive problems. In the present study, the pharmacological effects of aqueous extract of Boswellia on learning and spatial memory in male rats was investigated using the Morris water maze (MWM) test. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 21 male rats were divided into 3 groups including a control group (distilled water) and two groups treated with aqueous extract of Boswellia (50 and 100 mg/kg) that received the treatment for 4 weeks. To evaluate learning ability of animals, Morris Water Maze was used. Results: In the first and the last day of training, all groups showed significant reduction in escape latency (P<0.0001) and traveled distance (P<0.0001). In the sixth day of training, both treatment groups showed significant reduction in escape latency (P<0.05) and traveled distance (P<0.05) in comparison with the control group. Conclusion: The results suggest that intake of Boswellia facilitates the learning and spatial memory formation in rats via Morris water maze test method. References 1- Sharifzadeh M, Sharifzadeh K, Naghdi N, Ghahremani MH, Roghani A. Posttraining intrahippocampal infusion of a protein kinase AII inhibitor impairs spatial memory retention in rats. J Neurosci Res. 2005 79(3): 392-400 2- Francis PT, Palmer AM, Snape M, Wilcock GK. The cholinergic hypothesis of Alzheimer’s disease: a review of progress. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1999 66(2): 137-47. 3- Abdel-Tawab M WO, Schubert-Zsilavecz M. Boswellia serrata: an overall assessment of in vitro, preclinical, pharmacokinetic and clinical data. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2011 50(6): 349-69. 4- Hussain H, Al-Harrasi A, Al-Rawahi A, Hussain J. Chemistry and biology of essential oils of genus boswellia. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013:140509. doi: 10.1155/ 2013/ 140509. 5- Moussaieff A, Mechoulam R. Boswellia resin: from religious ceremonies to medical uses a review of in‐vitro, in‐vivo and clinical trials. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2009 61(10): 1281-93. 6- Thulin M, Warfa A. The frankincense trees (Boswellia spp., Burseraceae) of northern Somalia and southern Arabia. Kew Bulletin. 1987: 487-500. 7- Sharma A, Mann A, Gajbhiye V, Kharya M. Phytochemical profile of Boswellia serrata: An overview. Pharmacog Rev. 2007 1(1): 137. 8- Poeckel D, Werz O. Boswellic acids: biological actions and molecular targets. Curr Med Chem. 2006 13(28): 3359-69. 9- Kimmatkar N, Thawani V, Hingorani L, Khiyani R. Efficacy and tolerability of Boswellia serrata extract in treatment of osteoarthritis of knee–A randomized double blind placebo controlled trial. Phytomedicine. 2003 10(1): 3-7. 10- Marshall S. Frankincense: festive pharmacognosy. Pharmaceutical J. 2003 271 (7280): 862-4. 11- Hosseini -Sharifabad M, Esfandiari E, Alaei H. Effects of frankincense aqueous extract during gestational period on increasing power of learning and memory in adult offsprings. Journal of Isfahan Medical School (iums). 2004 21(71): 16-20. 12- Hosseini-sharifabad M, Esfandiari E. Alaee, H. Moatar F. Effect of maternal consumption of aqueous extract of the gum resin of Boswellia serrata during lactation on increasing power of learning and memory in adult off springs. Iran J Basic Med Sci. 2003 6(3): 207-11. 13- Alaei H, Motahar F, Tory L. Effects of the abstract of oliban on learning and memory. J Ghazvin Univ Med Sci. 1999 21: 21-8. 14- Mahmoudi A, Hosseini-Sharifabad A, Monsef-Esfahani HR,et al. Evaluation of systemic administration of Boswellia papyrifera extracts on spatial memory retention in male rats. J Nat Med. 2011 65(3-4): 519-25. 15- Fathi FHH, Ali Hemmati AR, Banan Khojasteh SM. Effects of sesame oil on improving spatial memory in alzheimer's disease. J Babol Univ Med Sci. 2014 16(2): 34-41. 16- Hosseini M, Hadjzadeh MA, Derakhshan M, Havakhah S, Rassouli FB, Rakhshandeh H, Saffarzadeh F. The beneficial effects of olibanum on memory deficit induced by hypothyroidism in adult rats tested in Morris water maze. Arch Pharm Res. 2010 33(3): 463-8. 17- Hosseini M, Shafei MN, Safari V, Taiarani Z, Kafami Ladani M, Sadeghian R. The effects of olibanum administered to methimazole-treated dams during lactation on learning and memory of offspring rats. Nat Prod Res. 2012 26(16): 1544-8. 18- Hosseini-Sharifabad M, Esfandiari E. Effect of Boswellia serrata gum resin on the morphology of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells in aged rat. Anat Sci Int. 2014 Feb 11. [Epub ahead of print] 19- Jalili C, Salahshoor MR, Moradi S, Pourmotabbed A, Motaghi M. The therapeutic effect of the aqueous extract of boswellia serrata on the learning deficit in kindled rats. Int J Prev Med. 2014 5(5): 563-8. 20- Karima O, Riazi G, Yousefi R, Movahedi AAM. The enhancement effect of beta-boswellic acid on hippocampal neurites outgrowth and branching (an in vitro study). Neurol Sci. 2010 31(3): 315-20. 21- Lee S-C, Moon Y-S, You K-H. Effects of red ginseng saponins and nootropic drugs on impaired acquisition of ethanol-treated rats in passive avoidance performance. J Ethnopharmacol. 2000 69(1): 1-8. 22- Savelev S, Okello E, Perry N, Wilkins R, Perry E. Synergistic and antagonistic interactions of anticholinesterase terpenoids in Salvia lavandulaefolia essential oil. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2003 75(3): 661-8. 23- Singh G, Atal C. Pharmacology of an extract of salai guggal ex-Boswellia serrata, a new non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent. Agents Actions. 1986 18(3-4): 407-12. 24- Dhingra D, Parle M, Kulkarni S. Memory enhancing activity of Glycyrrhiza glabra in mice. J Ethnopharmacol. 2004 91(2): 361-5. 25- Mayford M, Kandel ER. Genetic approaches to memory storage. Trends Genet. 1999 15(11): 463-70. 26- Tully T, Bourtchouladze R, Scott R, Tallman J. Targeting the CREB pathway for memory enhancers. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2003 2(4): 267-77.

Hr Sadeghipour, F Daryanoosh, M Salesi,
Volume 23, Issue 96 (3-2015)

Background and Objective: Chemerin and vaspin are adipose tissue-driven adipokines and appear to be associated with inflammation and insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 12 weeks of aerobic interval training on chemerin, vaspin and insulin resistance index in overweight students. Materials and Methods: Twenty four male students voluntarily participated in this study and were randomly divided into experimental and control groups (n=12). The experimental group took part in an aerobic interval training program (3 days/wk, continued for 12 weeks, 40 minutes each session) and the control group continued their routine daily life. Before and after this intervention program, chemerin,vaspin and insulin resistance index were measured. Paired and independent t- tests and Pearson’s correlations were used for data analysis. Results: Results showed a significant decrease in chemerin concentration (t= 5.02, P= 0.001) and insulin resistance index (t= 3.73, P= 0.003) in the experimental group after 12 weeks of aerobic interval training. The results did not show any significant change in the serum vaspin (t= 2.04, P= 0.06). Also, there was a significant relationship between insulin resistance index and both chemerin (P= 0.007) and vaspin levels (P= 0.04). Conclusion: In conclusion, aerobic interval training affects serum chemerin and insulin resistance and suggests that it can play a major role in reducing inflammatory responses caused by overweight and obesity.

P Khoshnevisasl, M Sadeghzadeh, N Mousavinasab, A Rezaei,
Volume 23, Issue 99 (6-2015)

Background and Objective: Diabetic ketoacidosis is one of the most common and life threatening complications in children with diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was to evaluate predisposing factors, complications and prognosis of the patients with diabetic ketoacidosis admitted to Zanjan hospitals. Materials and Methods: The records of patients with DKA admitted to Mousavi and Vali-e Asr Hospitals of Zanjan city from 2006 to 2011 were studied. The presenting complaints along with laboratory results were collected and analyzed. Results: This study was carried out on fifty one patients with diabetic ketoacidosis. The mean age of children was 6.6±3.9 years. The most frequent symptoms were nausea and vomiting and the most frequent signs were dehydration (94.1%) and tachypnea (88.2%). Regarding laboratory results, 49% of patients showed hypokalemia, 25.5% hypoglycemia, 17.6% hyponatremia, 11.8% hypernatremia, and 9.8% hyperkalemia. Finally, 48 patients were discharged while 3 patients died two of whom were died due to cerebral edema. Conclusion: Cerebral edema was the major mortality factor in our study. Therefore, prevention and treatment of cerebral edema is recommended. References 1- Graham BB, Keniston A, Gajic O, et al. Diabetes mellitus does not adversely affect outcomes from a critical illness. Care Med. 2010 38: 16-24. 2- Berry D, Melkus GD. Epidemiologic perspectives of risk for developing diabetes and diabetes complications. Nurse Clin North Am. 2006 41: 487-98. 3- Orlowski JP, Cramer CL, Fiallos MR. Diabetic ketoacidosis in the pediatric ICU. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2008 55: 577-87. 4- Razavi Z. Frequency of ketoacidosis in newly diagnosed type 1 diabetic children. Oman Med J. 2010 25: 114-17. 5- Agus MS, Wolfsdorf JI. Diabetic ketoacidosis in the pediatric ICU. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2005 52: 1147-63. 6- Lone SW, Siddiqui EU, Muhammed F, Atta I, Ibrahim MN, Raza J. Frequency, clinical characteristics and outcome of diabetic ketoacidosis in chidren with type-1 diabetes at a tertiary care hospital. JPMA. 2010 60: 725-9. 7- Rewers A, Chase HP, Mackenzie T, et al. Predictors of acute complications in children with type 1 diabetes. JAMA. 2002 287: 2511-8. 8- Sheikholeslami H, Ziaee A, Shariatmadari M, Evaluation of clinical manifestation, laboratory data and precipitating factors in patients with diabetic ketoacidosis in educational and medical care center of Booali Sina in Ghazvin (1999-2004). J Birjand Unive Med Sci. 2008: 60-64. 9- Jayashree M,Singhi S. Diabetic ketoacidosis: predictors of outcome in a pediatric intensive care unit of a developing country. Pdiatr Crit Care Med. 2004 5: 492-3. 10- Marcin JP, Glaser N, Barnett P, McCaslin I, Nelson D, Trainor J. Factors associated with adverse outcomes in children with diabetic ketoacidosis-related cerebral edema. Pediatr. 2002 141: 793-7. 11- Jahagirdar RR, Khadilkar RR, Khadilkar AV, Lalwani SK. Management of diabetic ketoacidosis in PICU. Indian J Pediatr. 2007 74: 551-4. 12- Lawrence SE. Population-based study of incidence and risk factors for cerebral edema in pediatric diabetic ketoacidosis. J Pediatr. 2005 146: 688-92. 13- Edge JA, Hawkins MM, Winter DL, Dunger DB. The risk and outcome of cerebral oedema developing during diabetic ketoacidosis. Arch Dis Cild. 2001 85: 16-22. 14- Yordam N, Gönç EN, Kandemir N, Alikaşifoğlu A, Ozön A. Ten-year experience in management of diabetic ketoacidosis and ketosis: 140 episodes at pediatric age. Turk J Pediatr. 2005 47: 334-8. 15- Lin SF, Lin JD, Huang YY. Diabetic ketoacidosis: comparisons of patient characteristics, clinical presentations and outcomes today and 20 years ago. Chang Gung Med J. 2005 28: 24-30. 16- Flood RG, Chiang VW. Rate and prediction of infection in children with diabetic ketoacidosis. Am J Emerg Med. 2001 19: 270-3. 17- Ganesh R, Arvindkumar R, Vasanthi T. Clinical profile and outcome of diabetic ketoacidosis in children. Natl Med J India. 2009 22: 18-9. 18- Shiva S, Zarintan A. Clinical laboratory and epidemiological characteristics of diabetic ketoacidotic patients in children in Tabriz. J Tabriz Unive Med Sci. 2010 32: 53-57. 19- Irigoyen M, Cuartero B, Castellanos R, et al. Ketoacidosis at onset of type 1 diabetes mellitus in pediatric age in Spain and review of the literature. Pediatr Endocrinol Rev. 2012 9: 669-71. 20- Onyiriuka AN, Ifebi E . Ketoacidosis at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes in children and adolescents: frequency and clinical characteristics. J Diabetes Metab Disord. 2013 12: 47 doi: 10. 1186/2251-6581-12-47. 21- Abdul-Rasoul M, Al-Mahdi M, Al-Qattan H, et al. Ketoacidosis at presentation of type 1 diabetes in children in Kuwait: frequency and clinical characteristic. Pediatric Diabetes. 2010 11: 351-56.

T Elahi, M Sadeghabadi,
Volume 23, Issue 99 (6-2015)

Background and Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare depression in children of single parent and two-parent families and examine the convergence of Family Drawing test and Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI) in diagnosing depression disorders. Materials and Methods: This study was of causal-descriptive type. Sample included 217 third grade students who were selected randomly. The research instrument was Children’s Depression Inventory (kovacs, 1992) and Draw-A-Family-test (Hall, 1951). Students completed Children’s Depression Inventory and then they were assessed using family drawing test. Results: Data were analyzed based on gender and family type (single parent and two-parent family) using descriptive methods, Pearson correlation and T test. Results from Pearson correlation indicated a significant correlation (R=0/328, p<0/001) between two tests. The mean of depression of children with single parent in Children’s Depression Inventory and Family Drawing Test was significantly higher than the mean of depression of children with normal families. There was no difference in the mean of depression between girls and boys in Children’s Depression Inventory, but a significant difference was observed between two genders in terms of Family Drawing test. Conclusion: Separation from one of the parents is associated with high risk of depression in children. Both of the aforementioned tests have high analytic value in diagnosis of children’s depression. References 1- Mc clintock SM. (2005). Relationship of internalizing behavior problems to intelligence and executive functioning in children. Master of science. The University of Texas southwestern madicall center at Dallas 2005. 2- Halgin RP, Whitbourne SK. Abnormal psychology: Clinical perspectives on psychological disorders. Translated by: Yahya seyed Mohammadi. Ravan Publications. 2007. 3- Luby J. Affective disorders. In: Delcarmen-Wiggens R, Carter A. Handbook of infant and toddler mental health assessment. New York: Oxford University Press 2004. 4- Carr A. Depression in young people Description, assessment and evidence based treatment. J Developmental Neurorehabilitation. 2008 11: 3-15. 5- Gooder I. Life events Thir nature and effect. In: Goodyer I, editor. The depressed child and adolescent. Cambrige university pres 2001, 204-232. 6- Blatt S. Experiences of depression: Theoretical, clinical and research perspectives. Washington, DC: APA 2004. 7- Zavieh R. Study of depression in nursing and midwifery student of Zanjan university of medical sciences. J Zanjan Unive Med Sci. 2000 9: 44-54. 8- Kazemi M, Bahrami B. The role of spiritual belief and improment of mental health and prvention of mental disorders. J Zanjan Unive Med Sci. 2014 22: 62-74. 9- Dunn J, Oconnor TG, Levy L. Out of the picture: A study of family drawing by children from step-single-parent, and non –step families. J Clin child and Adolescent psychol. 2002 31: 505-15. 10- Prokic T, Droukers J. Paper presented at seventh meeting of the European for sociological and demographic study of divorce 2009. 11- Moilanen I, Rantakallia P. The single parent family and the childs mental health. J Social Science & Medicine. 1988 27 (2). 12- Nelson R, Israel A. Behavioral disorders of children. Translated by M.T. Monshi Toosi. Astan Ghodse Razavi Publications 1992. 13- Soltanifar A, Bina M. (2007). Depressive symptomatology in school children of Tehran- Iran (9-11 years old) and its relation to function of their families. J Fundamental of Mental Health. 2007 34: 7-14. 14- Shahnazi M, Sadrimehr F, Esmaeeli F. (2008). Epidemiology of depression between female students of state schools in Tabriz. J Nursing and Midwifery. 2008 9: 38-45. 15- Khodayarifard M. Abnormal psychology of children and adolescents. Tehran University Publications 2006. 16- Ingram RE. The international enclopedia of depression. Springer publishing company, LLG 2009. 17- Tomas G. Selik A. Introduction to children s drawing psychology. Translated by M.T. Faramarzi. Publication of Donyaye No 2003. 18- Drissnack M. Children’s drawing as facilitators of communication: A meta –analysis. J pediatric nursing. 2005 20: 415-23. 19- Dadsetan. P. Assesment of children s personality upon the drawing tests. Roshd Publications 1997. 20- Bridyes R, Dunn J, Oconnor TG. Yong children’s representations of their families: A longitudinal fallow up study of family drawing by children living in different family setting. J Behavioral Development. 2006 30: 529-36. 21- Mohammadi K, Borjali A, Eskandari H, Delavar A. (2010). Clinical effectiveness of childrens depression inventory for diagnosing depression disorder of children and adolescents. J Clinical Psychology. 2010 5: 1-8. 22- Dehshiri GH, Najafi M, Shikhi M, Habibi Askarabad M. (2009). Investigating primary psychometric properties of children s depression inventory (CDI). J Famili Research. 2009 18: 159-173. 23- Korman L. Children drawings: application of family drawing test in clinic. Translated by P. Dadsetan & M. Mansoor. Roshd publications 2006. 24- Dadsetan P, Tehranizadeh M, Tabatabaee K, Azadfallah P, FathiAshtiani, A. Effectiveness of the coping cat therapy program in decreasing internalized symptoms of Iranian children. J Developmental Psychology. 2011 28: 313-22. 25- Mazaheri MA, Mehdipour S, Anari A. Family drawing test on hurt children in Bam s earthquake. J Research in Psychological Health. 2008 6: 41-50. 26- Fry PS, Leahey M. Children perception of major positive and negative events and factors in single-parent families. J Applied Development Psychology. 2003 4: 371-88. 27- De Graw DD. Using the kinetic family drawing (K-F-D) to assess Bowenian dynamics in young adult population. For degree doctor of philosophy. 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H Zardooz, N Sarahian, H Sahraei, B Sadeghi,
Volume 23, Issue 101 (8-2015)

Background and Objective: Memantine is a glutamate N-Methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist with low receptor binding affinity which is currently used in moderate to severe Alzheimer’s disease. So far, the effect of memantine on stress system has not been investigated. This study focused on the effects of both peripheral and intra-accumbal memantine administration on plasma corticosterone concentration in female NMRI mice.

Materials and Methods: Four groups of mice (n=6/group) received different doses of memantine (1, 0.5 and 0.1 mg/kg) intraperitoneally. In this groups were canulated bi- or unilaterally in the nucleus accumbens by stereotaxic instrument. After a week of recovery, memantine (1, 0.5 and 0.1 µg/kg mouse) was administrated to the animals intra-accumbally. Blood samples were taken from retro-orbital sinus of all animals 30 min (intraperitoneally administration) or 5 min (intra-accumbally) following memantine injection for the evaluation of plasma corticosterone.

Results: Intraperitoneal memantine injection led to a dramatic increase in plasma corticosterone concentration in a dose-independent manner. On the other hand, intra-accumbal memantine administrations increased plasma corticosterone level significantly (P<0.001) in a dose and site –dependent manner. 

Conclusion: Memantine may have a severe effect on stress system by virtue of plasma corticosterone level increment which may be the side effect of this medication.

M Sadeghzadeh, P Khoshnevisasl,
Volume 23, Issue 101 (8-2015)

Methyl malonic acidemia is an autosomal recessive disease with presentations of mental retardation, recurrent vomiting, ketoacidotic attacks, dehydration, shock, hypoglycemia and hyperamonemia. It will lead to coma and death if unrecognized and untreated. Methyl malonic acidemia may have different skin manifestations. The involvement of blood cells leads to neutropenia, thrombocytopenia and pancytopenia. Most patients have hypoglycemia which in rare cases may be associated with hyperglycemia. The association of mucormycosis, neutropenia and hyperglycemia has been reported in some cases. The case reported in this article carried all three complications together.

M Hejazi, A Sobhi, A Sadeghi Jahan,
Volume 24, Issue 104 (5-2016)

Background and Objective: Pervasive prevalence of mental disorders among drug dependent individuals may reduce the success of treatment for drug addiction. In this study, the effect of life skills training on attenuation of anxiety and depression among drug dependent people referred to drop-in centers for harm reduction in Zanjan City was investigated.

Materials and Methods: The population included 90 drug dependent subjects referred to drop-in center for harm reduction in Zanjan City. Using convenience sampling method, the researchers took advantage of pretest-posttest control group design throughout this study. Beck Anxiety Inventory and Beck Depression Inventory were implemented as instruments. Teaching life skills to the experimental group was carried out for 8 sessions 90 minutes each. Analysis of covariance in inferential statistics was used to analyze the collected data.

Results: The results exhibited diminution in the experimental group’s post-test anxiety and depression scores.

Conclusion: Life skills training can be valuable in reducing depression among drug abusers and in the similar way can be efficient in reducing mental disorders of drug dependent people.

M Sadeghpour, F Noorbakhsh,
Volume 24, Issue 104 (5-2016)

Background and Objective: Pomegranate peel contains many compounds of glycosides, flavonoids and anthocyanins. Candida albicans is the commonest cause for oral fungal infections in individuals with immune system deficiency and people with diabetes. This study was an endeavor to illustrate the effects of pomegranate peel on some blood parameters including creatinine, urea, total protein, albumin, and liver enzymes AST, ALT and ALP in rats infected with Candida albicans.

Materials and Methods: In this experimental study 30 male Wistar rats were allocated to six groups of five. In the control group, the diabetic rats were contaminated by an infectious dose of fungus Candida albicans. Then, the rats were treated with dissolved extract of itraconazole in drinking water. The remaining four groups received pomegranate peel extract dissolved in drinking water at doses of 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg according to their body weight for 7 days 24 hours. The effectiveness of pomegranate peel extract was compared with itraconazole. Their weight was measured on days zero and seven.

Results: The results showed a significant increase in the plasma concentration of albumin and total protein levels than the control group (p<0.01). Liver enzymes decreased in a dose dependent manner according to the concentration changes (p<0.001).

Conclusion: The administration of pomegranate peel extract showed significant improvement in oral Candidiasis lesions and repair of mucosal tissue. However, the presence of flavonoids and alkaloids in Punicaceae plants has negative effect on biomedical parameters and lead to disorders in functioning of vital organs.

L Bahrami, B Sadeghi Bigham, K Kamali,
Volume 24, Issue 105 (6-2016)

Background and Objective: Endometriosis is a prevalent disease in women which may lead to infertility or low fertility. Grasping the genetic grounds for the disease may contribute to its treatment because it is presumed that genetic factors predispose to endometriosis risk factors. 

Materials and Methods: 9 genes involved in endometriosis in patients suffering from endometriosis and also in healthy individuals (total 260 samples) were examined. The data were obtained from Ibn Sina (Jahad Daneshgahi) Research Center of new Technologies in Biological Sciences Institute. The study incorporated standard process Crisp for data mining. Weka data mining and software modeling were implemented with the aid of four algorithms.

Results: Comparison of four algorithms implied prominent accuracy of K-Star model. Meanwhile, filtering, while reducing the percentage of models, presented a positive impact on the MLP model. The lowest percentage pertained to Naïve Bayes.

Conclusion: K-Star model without any filtering proved to have the highest accuracy in the early diagnosis of endometriosis.

P Khodarahmi, N Hayati Roodbari, K Parinar, M Sadeghian,
Volume 24, Issue 107 (8-2016)

Background and Objective: Iron oxides nanoparticles have numerous applications in medical industry. Nanoparticles are particles with 100 nm in diameter. Despite their various applications, toxic effects of Iron oxide nanoparticles call for supplementary investigations. In this study, the toxic effect of iron oxide nanoparticles on lung development in fetal mice was examined.

Materials and Methods: Using in vivo technique, the mice were allocated to one of the following groups: the control group without the effect of nano iron oxide, sham group with injection of distilled water and experimental groups with low doses (10, 30 and 50 µg /kg) and high doses (10, 30 and 30 mg/kg) of nano iron oxide with 20 nm in diameters injected intraperitoneally on day 9 of pregnancy. On day 16 of pregnancy, embryos were removed and the lung tissue sections were assessed.

Results: The findings showed a significant decrease in the length of the fetus with 30 and 50 mg/kg doses and a significant decrease in the fetal weight and number of primitive bronchioles with 10, 30 and 50 mg/kg. Results  also showed a significant increase in lung weight and lung length with doses of 30 and 50 µg/kg, a significant increase in the number of alveolus with doses of 10, 30, 50 µg/kg and 10 mg/kg and a significant increase in the number of necrotic cells  with doses of  30 and 50 mg/kg.

Conclusion: Iron oxide nanoparticles showed dual effects. It is asserted throughout this study that fetal lung development increases at low doses and necrotic effect increases with high doses.

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