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Showing 39 results for Breast Cancer

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Volume 13, Issue 52 (9-2005)
Abstract

Background & objective: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. Lymph node involvement is the most important prognostic factor in this cancer. Since there is no consensus about the relationship between lymphocytic infiltration and breast cancer prognosis, this study was conducted to investigate the correlation between stromal lymphocytic reaction and lymph node involvement in grade 1 ductal carcinoma of breast in Isfahan during 2004. Materials & methods: In this cross sectional study 182 formalin - fixed and paraffin-embedded breast cancer tissue specimens were evaluated. Samples were classified according to the number of lymph nodes and age. Finally, the correlation between these parameters and stromal lymphocytic infiltration was examined. T student, one-way analysis of variance and χ 2 were used for statistical analysis. Results: There is a significant correlation between stromal lymphocytic infiltration and lymph node involvement (P=0.001), whereas there is no significant correlation between menopause and stromal lymphocytic infiltration (P=0.09). Conclusion: The research results indicated that tumors with severe stromal lymphocytic reaction are associated with high possibility of lymph node involvement. More research is recommended.


A Davodi, M Anoosheh, R Memarian,
Volume 15, Issue 58 (3-2007)
Abstract

Background & objective: Physical complications following esophageal cancer are known as factors that affect the patrent′s quality of life. These symptoms affect the mental, social and emotional aspects of patient′s life adversely. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of self-care education on life quality of patients suffering from esophageal cancer following esophagectomy in selected hospitals of Tehran university of medical sciences. Materials & Methods: In this quasi-experimental study 77 patients treatment and control groups with esophageal cancer were selected non-randomly regarding their characteristics (35 years old and over, and transhiatal esophagectomy). Three half-hour face-to-face education sessions were held for 40 patients and their families, while 37 patients were regarded as control group. Quality of lift of patients undergoing esophagectomy and the number of problems in both groups were measured through SF36 checklist in two stages: before education and esophagectomy and one month after education and esophagectomy. Finally, life quality and the number of complications were compared in both groups. Results: Independent t-test revealed that total life quality score before intervention in two groups was not significantly different (p=0.53). Moreover, the same test showed no significant difference in two groups after intervention(P=46). However, paired t-test revealed that total life quality score in treatment group differed significantly before and after intervention (p=0.035). In addition the same test showed a significant difference in control group before and after intervention (p=0.009). Pearson correlation coefficient indicated that there was no significant difference between demographic variables and total life quality score (p>0.05). Paired t-test showed that the number of patient′s complications decreased following the education. Conclution: Self-care education following esophagectomy improves the life quality of patients and reduces the complications. Thus, regarding the follow-up period (one month) sample volume, and efficacy of the intervention more comprehensive studies using laryer sample volumes with longer follow-ups are recommended.


Gh Pouryaghoub, Kh Sadeghniiat, H Sarreshtahdar,
Volume 16, Issue 64 (9-2008)
Abstract

Neuropsychological Effects of “Perchloroethylene” on Exposed Dry Cleaning Workers Pouryaghoub Gh1, Sadeghniiat Haghighi Kh1, Sarreshtahdar H2 1 Dept of Occupational Medicine, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran 2 Occupational Health Unit, Deputy of Health Services, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran Corresponding Author’s Address: Dept of Occupational Medicine, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran Email: pourya@tums.ac.ir Received: 4 Nov, 2008 Accepted: 1 June, 2008 Background and Objective: “Perchloroethylene” is a solvent widely used in dry cleaning industry. Various effects on liver, kidney, nervous and cardiovascular systems have been attributed to exposure to this solvent. In this study we assessed some of the neuropsychological effects of chronic exposure to perchloroethylene on exposed dry cleaning workers. Materials and Methods: 40 exposed and 40 non exposed workers were compared in this historical cohort study. The researchers collected the data using a questionnaire and a check list. Frequency of selected neuropsychological effects were evaluated and compared in each group by means of statistical software. Results: After adjustment for age and educational status, the frequency of depression in exposed group and non-exposed group was calculated to be %42/5 and %22/5 respectively (P=0/056). Frequency of memory loss was higher in exposed group (%27/5) compared to non-exposed group (%17/5) (P>0.05) and the frequency of repetitive checking was surprisingly higher in non-exposed group and this difference was statistically significant (P<0/05). Conclusion: The observed difference in “frequency of depression” in exposed and non exposed workers in our study was consistent with findings of previous studies. We were not able to demonstrate any statistically significant relation between perchloroethylene exposure and other neuropsychological effects. Our findings of “repetitive checking” was unexpectedly in contrast to the findings of previous studies.


H Kakooei, Z Zamanian Ardakani, Sm Karimian, St Ayattollahi,
Volume 17, Issue 68 (9-2009)
Abstract

Background and Objective: According to previous studies shift work could desynchronize the natural circadian rhythm of the body. Although some of the internal physiologic processes become active for adaptation of the body with this desynchronization. One of these physiologic processes is endocrine system and melatonin release. This hormone is one of the most important variants which represent the circadian rhythm in human. Since the pattern of secretion of this hormone in first ours of morning and during the day in Iranian workers in particular in shift workers is unknown, therefore we aimed to determine the 24 hours profile of melatonin in shift work and permanent day shift nurses. Materials and Methods: This experimental study was carried out on forty four female nurses of the Shiraz university hospital, during 2006-2008. Thirty four people in study group had a cyclic shift work and 10 persons in control group had permanent day shift work. The serum samples with 3 hours intervals during 24 hours were taken from each person. The plasma concentration of melatonin was measured by ELISA. Our study was carried out under realistic conditions. The data were analyzed using one –way ANOVA. Results: The age range was between 22 to 50 years with a mean work history of 5.5 years. The highest and the lowest melatonin levels was found in shift work nurses at 04:00 pm (14.91 pg/mL), and 04:00 am (131.49 pg/mL). These values for permanent day work nurses in the same times was 1.02 pg/mL and 177.40 pg/mL respectively. There was a significant difference between circadian melatonin profile at different time points (P= 0.000). Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that night work induces a consistent change in melatonin circadian profile with a progressive reduction at early morning (04:00 am) and awaking time (07:00 am). These changes will also disturb sleep cycle and level of consciousness during the night and activities during the day.


A Emami, Sh Zamani Taghizadeh Rabe, A Ahi, M Mahmoudi,
Volume 18, Issue 70 (3-2010)
Abstract

Background and Objective: For most of cancers there is no treatment and most of them ended in death. So, the first investigational stage is evaluation of toxic effects of drug fractions on cancer cells. Artemisia species are important medicinal plants throughout the world. In this study, anti-tumoral effects of seven Artemisia spp. fractions from Iran were studied on cancer and normal cells. Material and Methods: Ethanol, ethylacetate, dichloromethane and hexane fractions of seven Artemisia species from Iran were prepared by step to step procedure. Cultivated cancer and fibroblast cells were incubated with different concentrations of fractions for 72 hours and cytotoxicity was determined using MTT assay. Results were reported as IC50 (concentration that kills 50 percent of cells). Results: Obtained results showed strong and dose-dependent inhibition of cancer cell growth by different Artemisia fractions. The most cytotoxicity effects were for dichloromethane fraction from Artemisia biennis on cervix cancer cells, dichloromethane fraction from Artemisia ciniformis on gastric cancer cells and dichloromethane fraction from Artemisia diffusa on colon cancer cells. Ethylacetate, dichloromethane and hexane fractions from Artemisia biennis, hexane fraction from Artemisia ciniformis, hexane fraction from Artemisia santulina and ethylacetate fraction from Artemisia vulgaris had the least toxic effect on normal L929 cells. Conclusion: Some isolated fractions caused a significant decrease in cancer cell growth and had less toxicity on normal cells. So, study on Artemisia in prevention or efficient treatment of different cancers is useful. Study the effect of effective fractions on apoptosis induction and determination of their mechanisms of actions is suggested.


Mm Soltan Dallal, Mh Yazdi, Zh Mohammad Hassan, M Holakuyee, Tp Abedi Mohtasab, F Aminharaty, S Agha Amiri, M Mahdavi,
Volume 18, Issue 73 (6-2010)
Abstract

Background and objective: Antitumor effect of lactic acid bacteria have been shown in many studies, this effect maybe due to the immunomodulatory properties of these bacteria. In present work we have studied the effect of Lactobacillus (L) acidophilus on the immune responses of BALB/c mice against transplanted tumor derived from breast tissue. Materials and Methods: 6-8 week-old in-bred BALB/c mice, each weighing 25–30 g, were used. The mice were divided into two groups each consisted of 9 mice as test and control groups. The L.acidophilus ATCC4356 strain was used in this study. It was inoculated in MRS agar and cultivated overnight under anaerobic conditions then collected and resuspended in PBS. After preparation of proper amount of this suspension it was orally (2.7 × 108 CFU/ml) administered to the mice with a gastric feeding 2 weeks before tumor transplantation and 3 weeks after that, with 3 days break and 7 days administration. The control mice received an equal volume of PBS during the study. Results: Results of the present work showed that L.acidophilus can increase the production of immunomodulatory cytokine IL-12 and decrease the TGF-β which can suppress immune response. Moreover, the growth rate of tumor in group which received L.acidophilus were decreased and the results of delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) of this group in 48h were better than control group. Conclusion: The results of our study suggest that daily use of L.acidophilus can regulate immune response with Th1 dominance and may be helpful for cancer immunotherapy, but further studies are needed to investigate the other mechanisms of this effect.


A Hamta, Sma Shariatzadeh, M Soleimani, F Seifi,
Volume 19, Issue 74 (3-2011)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Discovery of genetic changes which contribute to cellular neoplastic and malignant tumor transformation is one of the major aims in oncology researches. The aim of this study was to investigate the DMBA-induced breast cancer in SD rat strains using bioinformatical methods and also to find their homologous regions in human chromosomes. Materials and Methods: In this research, we used SD rat strains as a suitable model for DMBA-induced breast cancer. We gavaged the rats twice with 10 mg DMBA solved in 0.5 ml sesame oil. After tumors appeared in DMBA-treated rats, they were subjected to histopathology and immunohistochemistery studies, cell culture, metaphase chromosomal preparation, and finally G-banding stain. According to databases, we collected genes in the affected area and prepared a gene list by comparing genome of the rats and human in changed chromosomal segments. Results: Our data showed numerical and frequent structural changes in different number of chromosomes. For example, we found recurrent gain in chromosomes 3, 4, 8, 12, 17, loss in chromosomes 3, 9, 12 and 15, also deletion in chromosomes 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 20 and addition in chromosomes 11, 15 and 19. Conclusion: According to these chromosomal changes and based on bioinformatics studies we predict that the genesTGFBR3, HACE1, UBR5, CALB2, HPR, LCP1, RRM2B, ABO, ZFHX3, TNFSF11, ABL1, EPSTI1, PRDM1, REG3A, FOXA1 and PRKD1, probably may contribute to the development of breast cancer.


H Khani, Ma Hosseinpourefeizi, N Pouladi, N Chaparzadeh, V Montazeri, P Azarfam,
Volume 20, Issue 78 (3-2012)
Abstract

Background and Objectives: Breast cancer (BC) is the most common invasive malignancy affecting women worldwide. The tumor-suppressor P53 gene (P53) is frequently mutated in breast tumors. To use P53 as a target for therapy, it is important to accurately assess p53 mutation status in tumor samples. Materials and Methods: A total of 102 tumor samples were collected from breast cancer patients referred to Tabriz hospitals between the 2007-2009 period. DNA was extracted by Proteinase K– Isopropanol method and then performed amplification and sequencing of P53 from exons 5 and 6. Results: Mutations in the P53 gene were detected in 17.6% of the patients. Including 7 polymorphisms (6.68%) and 11 mutations (10.78%). Overall, 18.2% of the mutations were found in codons 160 (ATG>AAG) and 163 (ATC>AAG) in exon 5. Also 81.8% of the mutations observed in exon 6: codon 193(CAT>AAT), codon195 (ATC>TTC), codon 195 (ATC>AAC), codon 198(GAA>TAA), codon 220 (TAT>TGT), codon 213 (CGA>CTA), and codon 214 (CAT>CG). No alteration observed in intron5 and all of polymorphism detected in 13399A>G nucleotide of exon 6. The majority of detected mutations are missense that located on DNA-binding domain of P53. This type of mutation usually leads to the production of a mutant protein with a compromised structure and altered DNA-binding capacity. Conclusion: This is the first report of its kind from the East Azarbaijan region. Our results indicate a rather high frequency of exon 6 mutations in P53 among patients with breast cancer. Furthermore, the mutation pattern appears differs from other regions. However, further studies are needed to determine the role of P53 mutations in breast cancer development.


M Reyhani, F Fahami, Sh Mosharaf, N Tarkesh,
Volume 20, Issue 81 (9-2012)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers affecting women around the world and in Iran. A limited number of studies have been conducted on the relationship between dietary factors and breast cancer development in Iran. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of dairy products and animal proteins consumption and breast cancer among women in the province of Isfahan in the year 1390. Materials and Methods: This case-control study was carried out on 100 women diagnosed with breast cancer and 100 healthy women as the control group. All participants were Iranian and over 18 years old. The case and control groups were matched regarding age, body mass index, physical activity, and age of menarche. Data were collected by Frequency Food Questionnaire (FFQ) and analyzed by T-test, Chi-square, Man Whitney and Logistic Regression. Results: Our findings show that while red meat and milk were consumed the most among animal proteins and dairy products, respectively, fish and butter were consumed the least. Logistic Regression analysis indicates that consumption of sausage and salami, red meat, and high-fat milk and yogurt show a significant correlation with breast cancer risk (P< 0.0001). Conclusion: Consumption of fish and low-fat dairy products might decrease the risk of breast cancer in the Iranian women. Further researches are recommended to investigate the role of chicken consumption in breast cancer risk.


R Eghdam Zamiri, M Moghimi, N Mosavi Nasab, H Amirmoghadami, M Joghatae , A Feizi,
Volume 20, Issue 81 (9-2012)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Elevation of the b-HCG serum levels has been reported in several tumors including breast cancer, and it is usually associated with aggressiveness. The aim of this study was to examine the possible correlation between the b-HCG serum levels and different grades of breast cancer tumors in patients undergoing chemotherapy. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in the city of Zanjan during 2009-10. Serum samples from 56 cases of breast cancer patients were collected after surgery and prior to chemotherapy for analysis of total free b-HCG by electro chemiluminescence immunoassay, and the same procedure was repeated after 8 courses of chemotherapy. The b-HCG serum levels were compared in poor versus mild to moderate grades before and after chemotherapy. Results: In 37 cases of mild to moderate grade tumors, the mean b-HCG level was 1.09 ±1.4 miu/ml compared with 1.2 ±0.3 miu/ml (P= 0.75) in 29 cases of poor grade tumors. The mean b-HCG levels before and after chemotherapy were 1.15 ±1.4 miu/ml and 1.17 ±1.4 miu/ml (P=0.24), respectively. Conclusion: We did not find any significant association between the b-HCG serum levels and breast cancer tumor grades. Furthermore, chemotherapy does not appear to have an effect on b-HCG serum levels.


S Rajaie, L Azadbakht, P Saneei, M Hkazaei, A Esmaeilzadeh,
Volume 20, Issue 83 (8-2012)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Dietary carbohydrate restriction is one of the most effective approaches in the management of metabolic syndrome. However, there is little information available on the role of inflammatory processes. Materials and Methods: In a randomized cross-over clinical trial, thirty overweight or obese (BMI>25 kg/m2) women with metabolic syndrome were randomly allocated into two groups, to follow either a high-carbohydrate (HC) (60-65% carbohydrates, 20-25% fats) or a moderately-restricted carbohydrate (MRC) (43-47% carbohydrate, 36-40% fats) diet for 6 weeks. After a 2-week washout period, individuals were switched to the alternate diet for an additional 6 week period. At the beginning and the bend of each period, markers of inflammation (hs-CRP, hs IL-6, hs TNF-α and SAA), endothelial function (E-selectin, sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1), and adipocytokines (leptin and adiponectin) were measured in both study groups at baselines (i.e., fasting state). Results: Consumption of the HC diet was associated with increased levels of SAA (3.27 ±1.22 μg/ml), while consumption of MRC diet did not result in such unfavorable effects (P=0.04). Serum concentrations of leptin and adiponectin were reduced by the HC diet (P<0.02), but these changes were not significant between the two diets (P>0.05). Serum concentrations of hs-CRP, hs TNF-α and IL-6 were not influenced by either diet. There were also no significant differences observed between the two diets in terms of their effects on serum sICAM-1, sVCAM-1, and E-selectin concentrations. Conclusion: Short-term substitution of dietary carbohydrates by unsaturated fats seems to have no significant effects on serum levels of adipocytokines, biomarkers of inflammation, and endothelial function except for SAA.


M Moodi, M Rezaeian, F Mostafavi, Gr Sharifirad,
Volume 21, Issue 84 (3-2013)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Breast cancer is the most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death among women worldwide. Mammography is a sensitive and specific test that is used for early diagnosis of breast cancer. Mammography screening behavior is one of the behaviors that early study on its stage of change can be used in proper planning and effective interventions for performing mammography screening behavior. This study was done with the aim of determining mammography screening behavior stage of change among women aged 40 and older in Isfahan. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive population-based study, 384 women aged 40 and older were recruited by random sampling method in the city of Isfahan. Mammography screening behavior stage of change was determined by the Rakoweski stage of change questionnaire. The data were analyzed by SPSS software using statistical chi-square and ANOVA at the significant level of α = 0.05. Results: The mean age of the women was 52.24 ± 8.22 years. The results indicate that 36.2%, 21.1%, 4.2%, 6.2%, and 32.3% of the women studied were in the stages of Pre-contemplation, Contemplation, Action, Maintenance, and Relapse, respectively. The statistical analysis show that there were some significant correlationship between age (p<0.0001), education (p= 0.009), married status (p= 0.011), insurance status (p= 0.025) and income level (p= 0.009) with the stages of change. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that the majority of subjects were in the pre-contemplation and contemplation stages, and that a low percentage of women were in the action and maintenance stages. Therefore, appropriate intervention based on stage of change for promotion of mammography screening behavior seems to be essential.


N Meshgin Abadi, F Ramezani Badr, Kh Mahmoodi,
Volume 21, Issue 86 (5-2013)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Movement restriction is one of the most important considerations in nursing care following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). After this procedure, in order to prevent from potential vessel complications, such as hemorrhage and hematoma in femoral site, patients should have complete bed rest without flexion in hip joint for at least 8 hours. This immobility for extended period of time may lead to back pain. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of aromatherapy massage on back pain of patients undergoing PCI. Materials and Methods: A pre-test/post-test design with one control group was used in this semi- experimental study. 76 patients under elective PCI who had the inclusion criteria of the study were selected by simple method sampling and were randomly divided into two control and experimental groups. After PCI, the patients in the control group received the conventional care of the ward including 8 hours of movement restriction. In contrast, patients in the experimental group, after bearing 8 hours of movement restriction received massage with aromatherapy solution composed of peppermint, celery and lavender essence in sweet almond oil )%1 concentration(. The back pain severity was measured by visual analog scale (VAS) in three levels (before intervention, immediately after intervention and 2 hours after intervention). The hemorrhage both in pre and post interventions and hematoma 24 hours after intervention were assessed and recorded by applying observation technique. Results: Severity in back pain significantly decreased in the experimental group immediately after receiving aromatherapy massage in comparison to the control group (P< 0.0005). This effect lasted as long as 2 hours after the intervention (P< 0.0005). In the experimental group, back pain mean changes were meaningful immediately after the intervention and prior to it (P< 0.0005) however, the changes were not significant in the control group (P> 0.0005). No evidence of hemorrhage or hematoma was seen in the patients. Also, 92.1% of the experimental group expressed their overall satisfaction with the intervention. Conclusion: The results showed that aromatherapy massage is a safe and effective method in diminishing back pain of patients undergoing PCI.


Kh Shahrokhabadi, J Baharara, S Zafar Balanejad, Z Hesami,
Volume 21, Issue 88 (7-2013)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Due to progressive increase in the number of cases of cancer, there is a need to develop anti- tumor compounds. Statins have a variety of different effects on proliferation, migration and survival of cells and have been suggested as proper candidates for the inhibition of this disease. The aim of this study was to determine cytotoxicity effects of Atorvastatin with variety of concentrations on the growth of MCF7 cell line. Materials and Methods: MCF7 cell lines were incubated in RPMI 1640 medium supplemented with 10% FBS in a humidified incubator (37 ºC & 5% CO2). Different concentrations of Atorvastatin on quantitative proliferation of the cell line were determined by Dimethyl Thiazol Tetrazolium bromide (MTT) colorimetric assay and Trypan blue. The data were analyzed by SPSS version 11.5. The statistical analysis was performed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey's tests. Results: There was no statistical significance in cytotoxicity effect of 1 µmol and 0.1 µmol of Atorvastatin on survival of MCF7 cells after 24, 48 and 72 hrs comparing to control cells. But in 10 µmol concentration of Atorvastatin, a significant decrease was observed in survival of MCF7 cells at the mentioned time points. Conclusion: Different concentrations of Atorvastatin have different effects on the growth of cultured cell lines. It seems that 10µmol concentration decreases growth of cultured human breast cancer cells. Further animal studies on this subject are suggested.
S Ghasempour, Ma Shokrgozar, R Ghasempour, Mr Jafari, M Alipour,
Volume 21, Issue 88 (7-2013)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Currently, as an important trace element, is increasingly used in drug delivery, hyperthermia and diagnosis and treatment of cancer. The main objective of this study was to determine the cytotoxicity effects of nanostructure iron oxide and to implement the findings for its safe applications. Materials and Methods: Urea coated iron oxide nanorods were modified with fetal bovine serum. Toxicity at doses of 100 and 400μg/ml in modified nanorods vs. non-modified nanorods was tested via (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Toxicity of Polyethylene glycol (PEG) coated iron oxide nanorods with identical doses were compared with Urea coated iron oxide nanorods by MTT assay. All the procedures were carried out on L929 cell lines for periods of 24 and 48 h. Results: Cells on exposure to modified nanorods had more viability than non-modified ones at all doses and all the time points. PEG coated in comparison to urea coated nanorods exhibiteda higher cell death at all doses and all time points. Conclusion: Based on the obtained results, unmodified nanorods in comparison to modified ones demonstrated more toxicity which appears to stem from formation of a protein ring called Hard Corona around these nanorods in a protein contained media. Protein rings are not formed in the modified nanorods. Meanwhile, the reduction of apoptosis in urea coated nanorods as compared with PEG, verifies that the type of coating depending on size is effective on cellular toxicity.
R Nuri, B Mahmudieh, A Damirchi, F Rahmani Nia, N Rahnama, H Emami,
Volume 22, Issue 91 (4-2014)
Abstract

Background and Objective: IGFs (Insulin-like growth factors) and some binding proteins can cause occurrence and recurrence of breast cancer. Since the role of combined exercise training on these factors is not clear, therefore, the aim of this study was to look at the changes of IGF axis and some binding proteins in postmenopausal women with breast cancer after 15 weeks of combined exercise training. Materials and Methods: Twenty- nine women with breast cancer (58.27 ± 6.31 years) who underwent surgery, chemotherapy and radiation- therapy with current hormone therapy were divided into two groups of experimental and control. Subjects of the experimental group performed 15 weeks of combined exercises including walking (2 sessions per week) and resistance training (2 sessions per week that differed from walking days). Data were analyzed by using ANCOVA (p≤ 0.05). Results: Combined exercise training had significant effect on IGF-1 levels (P= 0.001), IGFB-3 levels (P= 0.000) and IGF-1: IGFB-3 (P= 0.000) in postmenopausal women with breast cancer. After 15 weeks, IGE -1 reduced in the experimental group up to 9 percent and IGFB-3 increased by 28 percent. On the other hand, exercise training had no significant effect on the IGFB-1 (P= 0.652) in postmenopausal women with breast cancer. Conclusion: While the IGF axis factors and some binding proteins play an important role in breast cancer and its recurrence, it seems that changes in these factors through combined exercise training programs can delay its recurrence.


Ar Esmaeilzadeh, M Ebtekar, Ar Biglari, S Saraf, T Yoshimoto,
Volume 22, Issue 91 (4-2014)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Breast cancer, assumed as a difficult -to –treat disorder across the world, is the most common malignancy among women. Over decades, significant advances in breast cancer immunotherapy and tumor immune biology have been brought about. In vitro studies of the effect of various cytokines have been conducted in breast tumor. Among Interleukins, IL-27 -a novel cytokine- is associated with specific properties. Moreover, IL-27 contributes to the Th1 induction and also acts as a pro- inflammatory cytokine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the IL-27 anti-proliferative effects on 4T1 cell line in vitro. Materials and Methods: In this study, 4T1 cells were cultured in RPMI1640. mIL-27 gene was cloned, cells were transfected and recombinant protein was produced. Then, anti-proliferative effect of IL-27 on 4T1 breast cancer cell line was evaluated. Results: Our results indicated that IL-27 could suppress 4T1 cell proliferation significantly (p<0/01). Cell to cell interactions and also morphology of the cells were remarkably changed in comparison to control cells. Conclusion: Our results showed that, IL-27 under in vitro conditions, could potentially suppress tumor without any essential cells and biologic factors of tumor matrix. Therefore, rmIL-27 may be a probable candidate protein as an antitumor agent, applicable to breast cancer immunotherapy.


R Bakhshi Biniaz, Y Mortazavi, R Taherkhani, N Dehghan, L Mostafaei, F Sefidi, M Azad,
Volume 22, Issue 91 (4-2014)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Exact recognition of the needs of patients with leukemia and move to solve them will promote the health standards in the country. The aim of this study was to evaluate the needs and to assess the process of diagnosis and treatment of leukemia and their shortcomings according to experts’ views in this field. Materials and Methods: This study was a descriptive study and the population under study consisted of 101 specialists in Hemato-oncology and pathology across the country, who were selected by random cluster sampling. Data was collected by valid peer reviewed questionnaires with Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.80. The collected data were evaluated and analyzed using SPSS, and chi-square test. Results: According to specialists, lack of diagnostic facilities in small cities, timely diagnosis, especially in cases of chronic leukemia and inadequate attention to the mental state of patients during the treatment process was considered as the most important problems of health system in the diagnosis and treatment of leukemias. Conclusion: Shifting the health policies towards greater attention to equip the health care centers and reviewing the policies resulting in concentration of services in large cities, providing health care plans acceptable for the patient's mental state by counseling centers during the process of treatment and finally financial support of patients with leukemia (particularly low-income patients) by governmental and non-governmental organizations will certainly pave the way to achieve modern standards.


J Faradmal, M Mafi, A Sadighi-Pashaki, M Karami, Gh Roshanaei,
Volume 22, Issue 93 (6-2014)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women. Various factors are associated with survival of patients with breast cancer. The aim of this study was to determine the survival rate of patients with breast cancer who referred to MRI center of Hamadan and to explore its related factors. Materials and Methods: In this historical cohort study, 542 women with breast cancer who had referred to Darol-Aitam-e Mahdieh center of Hamadan were included during 2004-2011. All patients had undergone chemotherapy and radiotherapy after surgery. Data were obtained from the patients’ medical records and were analyzed using time-dependent Cox model. Results: The mean (SD) age of patients was 46.06 (±10.82) years. The median of survival time was 109.7 months. 201 (37.1%) patients died during the study period. One, five and ten-year survival of the patients was 96.8%, 68% and 31%, respectively. The results of the current study showed that the tumor size and metastasis status were statistically related to the hazard of death in these patients (p<0.05). Conclusion: Age, metastasis status, tumor size, number of involved lymph nodes and the status of progesterone receptor were associated with survival of patients. Since early detection of breast cancer may have an influence on some of these factors, therefore, these results reveals the important role of public education for regular referral to physicians and screening of breast cancer for all women for early detection of breast cancer.


F Mortazavi, Kh Abdolmaleki, Aa Samety, A Hashemian, Sh Haghjooy Javanmard,
Volume 22, Issue 94 (7-2014)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Some evidence about the relationship between heme oxygenase and many cancers is available. Heme oxygenase has anti-apoptotic effects and contributes to tumor growth. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of heme oxygenase on melanoma tumor cells mitosis and tumor size in C57BL/6 mice. Materials and Methods: B16F10 melanoma cells were injected subcutaneously to 18 C57BL6 mice with 8 weeks of age. Mice were randomly divided into three groups: the first group received Zinc protoporphyrin (Znpp), heme oxygenase inhibitor (n = 6), the second group, hemin (heme oxygenase activator) (n = 6) and the third group((control group) (n = 6)) received diluent injection. They received their injection every other day from the first day of study for 16 days. Tumors were extracted in the 16th day of study. Length and width of tumors were measured and mitotic cell activities were evaluated using immunohistochemistry staining and counting Ki-67 posetive cells. Results: Our study results showed that size and weight of tumor and mitotic index in treated mice by Hemin were higher than two other groups. (P≤0.05). But mitotic index, tumor size and tumor weight in the recipient Znpp group and the control group were not statistically different. Conclusion: Stimulation of Hemeoxygenase-1 pathway by hemin injection can increase melanoma tumor growth. However, inhibition of this pathway by Hemeoxygenase -1 inhibitors may not be effective in reducing tumor growth and size. References 1- Elwood JM, Jopson J. Melanoma and sun exposure: an overview of published studies. Int J Cancer. 1997 73: 198-203. 2- Chang KW, Lee TC, Yeh WI, et al. Polymorphism in heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) promoter is related to the risk of oral squamous cell carcinoma occurring on male areca chewers. Br J Cancer. 2004 91: 1551-5. 3- Halliwell B. Oxidative stress and cancer: have we moved forward? Biochem J. 2007 401: 1-11. 4- Brigelius-Flohe R, Flohe L. 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