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Volume 12, Issue 48 (9-2004)
Abstract


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Volume 13, Issue 52 (9-2005)
Abstract

Background & objective: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. Lymph node involvement is the most important prognostic factor in this cancer. Since there is no consensus about the relationship between lymphocytic infiltration and breast cancer prognosis, this study was conducted to investigate the correlation between stromal lymphocytic reaction and lymph node involvement in grade 1 ductal carcinoma of breast in Isfahan during 2004. Materials & methods: In this cross sectional study 182 formalin - fixed and paraffin-embedded breast cancer tissue specimens were evaluated. Samples were classified according to the number of lymph nodes and age. Finally, the correlation between these parameters and stromal lymphocytic infiltration was examined. T student, one-way analysis of variance and χ 2 were used for statistical analysis. Results: There is a significant correlation between stromal lymphocytic infiltration and lymph node involvement (P=0.001), whereas there is no significant correlation between menopause and stromal lymphocytic infiltration (P=0.09). Conclusion: The research results indicated that tumors with severe stromal lymphocytic reaction are associated with high possibility of lymph node involvement. More research is recommended.


M Moghimi, M Karimi, K Alimoghadam,
Volume 15, Issue 60 (5-2007)
Abstract

Sjögren’s syndrome (SS) is a systemic autoimmune disease that presents with sicca symptoms of the main mucosal surfaces. The spectrum of disease extends from sicca syndrome to systemic involvement and may be complicated by the development of lymphoma. Many types of malignant and pseudo malignant diseases have been reported, but the most important is non Hodgkin lymphoma. We here present a 45 year-old woman with SS that referred with pancytopenia. By molecular and histochemical techniques a diagnosis of acute myeloblastic leukemia of M3 type (AML-M3) was made for this patient.


P Mohajeri, A Tavakoli, S Moghim,
Volume 17, Issue 66 (5-2009)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Drug resistance to tuberculosis is continuously increasing and is a significant threat to tuberculosis control programs because afew effective drugs are present against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Although isoniazid (INH) is the most effective drug against tuberculosis, resistance to this drug also develops readily. Mutations in katG, specially the Ser315Thr substitution, are responsible for isoniazid resistance in a large proportion of patients with tuberculosis. However, the frequency of the katG Ser315Thr substitution varies among population samples. This study provided molecular characterization of isoniazid resistance of M. tuberculosis strains and extended our knowledge about molecular basis of M. tuberculosis drug resistance that is widely applicable for rapid drug resistance detection. Materials and Methods: Using 1% proportional method, the sensitivity of 126 strains isolated from patients in Isfahan and Tehran to isoniazid was determined. The katG mutations in codon 315 associated with isoniazid resistance among isoniazid resistant isolates was determined by PCR-RFLP. In this way, 355 bp PCR products were digested by MspI. Results: Out of 126 isolates of M. tuberculosis, 32 (25.4%) strains were determined as INH resistant. Resistance rate was 22.6% (19 strains) in Isfahan and 31% (13 strains) in Tehran. Overall, 72% of isoniazid-resistant isolates could be identified by analysis of just katG 315 loci. Conclusion: The PCR-RFLP using MspI restriction enzyme that detects katG Ser315Thr substitution could be identified in 72% of isoniazid-resistant strains. Elucidation of the molecular characterization of isoniazid resistance in M. tuberculosis has led to the development of different genotypic approaches to the rapid detection of isoniazid resistant in clinical isolates.


A Karami, M Joze Panahi, E Sadr,
Volume 17, Issue 66 (5-2009)
Abstract

Intracranial Tuberculoma is a rare form of Tuberculosis (Tb) with presentation of multiple space occupying lesions. Clinical manifestations of intracranial Tuberculoma are dependent to the site of involvement. MRI, positive smear and the evidences of other organs infection can help us to diagnose intracranial Tb. We should consider tuberculosis in patients with unusual presentations even when presents with normal CXR. A 24 years old man was admitted to the infectious ward. He presented with a decreased consciousness level and weakness in four limbs during the past 7 days. He complained of a productive cough since 3months ago and knee arthralgia from 5 months ago. He was febrile and ill appearance. Breathing sound was decreased at the base of the right lung among with Cracle sound. Patient was quadriplegic without deep tendon reflex. Laboratory tests showed the rise of liver transaminases and elevation in the serum ESR and CRP. Gastric fluid smear was positive for AFB. In brain MRI, multiple hyperdense heterogen lesions were reported. The patient was treated with anti tuberculosis drugs and prednisolon. He discharged from the hospital with good general appearance after 21 days.


E Asdollahy, A Khosravi, P Oneil,
Volume 18, Issue 70 (3-2010)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Resistance to chloroquine (CQ) in Plasmodium falciparum malaria has become a major health concern in the developing countries. This problem has prompted investigators for finding alternative antimalarials that may be effective against resistant strains. Amodiaquine (AQ) is an antimalarial which is effective against many chloroquine-resistant strains of P. falciparum. However, clinical use of AQ has severely been restricted because of its hepatotoxicity and agranulocytosis side effects. The aim of this study was to design and examine the effects of new analogues of amodiaquine. Materials and Methods: A successful four-step synthesis of a new series of 4-fluoro analogues was designed and applied to the synthesis of an array of 10 analogues. Antimalarial activity of these agents was assessed against chloroquine-resistant (TM6) and sensitive strains (3D7) of P. falciparum. Results: Several analogues have shown potent antimalarial activity against sensitive 3D7 strain of the parasite. The 6h analogue was superior to the pyrollidino analogue 6b against all of the strains examined. The N-tert butyl analogue 6b was potent against chloroquine resistant strains, though it was not quite as active as amodiaquine (AQ) against both chloroquine sensitive and resistant parasites. Conclusion: From the different analogues made, it was shown that the analogue 6h was more potent than the others. However, this analogue has equal or slightly less potent than amodiaquine and chloroquine against P. falciparum. Further studies on the metabolism and pharmacokinetics of 6h are recommended.


Mk Sharifi Yazdi, M Azarsa, Mh Shirazi, A Rastegar Lari, P Owlia, J Fallah Mehrabadi, H Molla Aghamirzaei, A Sabbaghi, F Shamkani, G Mobasseri, R Bakhtiari, Mm Soltan Dallal,
Volume 19, Issue 77 (6-2011)
Abstract

Background and Objective: The production of Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamases (ESBLs) by Escherichia coli is the main cause of resistance to Cephalosporins. In the past decade, CTX-M enzymes have become the most prevalent ESBLs in Europe, Canada, and Asia. In this study, the frequency of ESBL-producing E.coli and molecular detection of the CTX-M-I group was investigated. Materials and Methods: A total of 400 urine samples were collected from both hospitalized and out-patients in Khoy’s hospitals between November 2009 and April 2010. Out of these samples, 188 were identified as E.coli by standard biochemical tests. The antibiotic Susceptibility tests to 10 antibiotics were performed by the-disk-agar diffusion (DAD) method. ESBL production was screened by phenotypic test that including disk diffusion agar and combined disk as recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Screened isolates were investigated by PCR assay for detection of CTX-M-I group genes. Results: The results show that out of 188 E.coli isolates identified, 56 (29.8%) were producing ESBls by phenotypic test. All isolates were sensitive to imipenem. Overall, 49 (87.5%) isolates were confirmed as CTX-M-I producer by PCR. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that about 30% of the identified E.coli were producing ESBl. Therefore, we recommend to use molecular methods in such researches.


M Jamehshorani, R Eghdam Zamiri, M Moghimi,
Volume 20, Issue 78 (3-2012)
Abstract

Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world that can metastasize to other sites. The most common sites of metastasis are liver, lung, bone, and adrenal glands. Skin metastasis in gastric cancer is rare, and it usually occurs after diagnosis of primary cancer (1). The patient reported here is a 65-years old male with gastric adenocarcinoma that in the course of chemotherapy came down with some skin lesions. The biopsy report points to skin metastasis from gastric cancer. In spite of good systemic response to chemotherapy, the lesions progressed. Skin metastasis has poor prognosis, and it is a sign of disease diffusion (2).


F Didgar, H Sarmadian, N Zarin Far, M Rafiee, M Choghae,
Volume 20, Issue 80 (7-2012)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Brucellosis is an endemic disease in Iran that has a worldwide spread and is associated with chronic disabilities in humans. Combination therapy of brucellosis leads to recovery of symptoms, shortening of the symptomatic intervals, and decrease in the rate of relapse and drug resistance. Considering the use of rifampin in the treatment of tuberculosis, and the necessity for an alternative treatment in regions endemic for both tuberculosis and brucellosis, in this study we compared the efficiency of the WHO's standard regimen of rifampin-doxycycline (RD) versus ciprofloxacin-doxycycline (CD) for the treatment of brucellosis. Materials and Methods: This randomized controlled trial was performed on 90 patients, affected with brucellosis, who were referred to the Infectious Disease Clinics at Arak University of medical sciences. The patients were randomly divided into two groups: the DR group, received 100 mg of Doxycycline twice a day and 300 mg of rifampin Bid daily for eight weeks and the CD group, received 100 mg of doxycycline plus 500 mg of ciprofloxacin twice a day for eight weeks. The patients were analyzed for the relief of symptoms, drug side effects, and laboratory findings during the treatment. Results: In this study, the rate of symptom relief and laboratory findings in both groups were similar. The relief of symptoms was seen in 93.2% and 83.9% of the patients for the DR and CD groups, respectively (P=0.182). The side effects of the drug were not significant in either groups, with no significant difference, and did not lead to discontinuation of the therapy. Conclusion: Due to the similar efficacy of CD and DR regimens in the treatment of brucellosis and considering the usage of rifampin in regions with high prevalence of tuberclusis, the CD regimen is recommended as an appropriate treatment.


Gh Roshanaei, M Safari, Ar Baghestani, S Sadighi,
Volume 20, Issue 80 (7-2012)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Gastric cancer (GC) is one the most common causes of death worldwide. Despite the decreasing rate for GC in the world during recent years, it remains the most common cancer in our country, especially among men. This study aimed to assess the survival of the patients with GC and to determine the risk factors involved. Materials and Methods: A total of 400 patients with GC in the Cancer Institute of Imam Khomeini Hospital, were entered in the study during 2003 - 2007. Patients were followed up through periodical referrals and hospital visits and/or phone calls. The survival time was considered as the time period from diagnosis to either death or the end of study. The effects of various risk factors such as gender, age at diagnosis, tumor site, pathologic stage, type of treatment, and tumor size were evaluated by Cox Proportional Hazard (PH) model. Data were analyzed using SPSS16 statistical software. Results: Of the total of 400 cases studied, 303 (75.8%) were males. About one third of the patients (130 32.5%) experienced death. The survival mean and median were 41.8 3.1 and 26 months, respectively. The percentages of one-, three-, and five-year survivals were 74%, 31% and 23%, respectively. Gender, age at diagnosis, pathologic stage, and tumor size appear to be the most significant factors affecting the survival rate among GC patients. Conclusions: The majority of the risk factors, affecting the survival rate in this study, were related to the delayed diagnosis. Therefore, it seems that if the cancer is diagnosed at early stages, it may lead to better prognosis.


A Vahedian Azimi, M Asghari Jafarabadi, M Payami Bousari, Mb Kashshafi,
Volume 20, Issue 81 (9-2012)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of death and the major cause of disability in many countries, including Iran, and it causes stress and tension in afflicted patients. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of progressive muscle relaxation on perceived stress in patients with myocardial infarction. Materials and Methods: In this randomized clinical trial study, after sampling with a convenient method, the participants were randomly assigned to either the control or test group. The procedure included one orientation session for informing the participants with the study objectives and intervention method, followed by doing 120 intervention sessions for 2 months. Data collection tools included a demographic questionnaire, and perceived stress and self-reporting checklist. Results: A total of 66 patients participated in the study. The results of repeated measured ANOVA test on perceived stress show that there were no significant differences between the control and test groups pre-intervention. However, there was a significant difference between the two groups, 1 and 2 months post-intervention (P<0.001). Conclusion: Our findings show that performing the progressive muscle relaxation is an effective and useful technique for the treatment of perceived stress in patients with myocardial infarction. This technique is practically feasible, and it appears capable of decreasing the level of stress.


R Eghdam Zamiri, M Moghimi, N Mosavi Nasab, H Amirmoghadami, M Joghatae , A Feizi,
Volume 20, Issue 81 (9-2012)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Elevation of the b-HCG serum levels has been reported in several tumors including breast cancer, and it is usually associated with aggressiveness. The aim of this study was to examine the possible correlation between the b-HCG serum levels and different grades of breast cancer tumors in patients undergoing chemotherapy. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in the city of Zanjan during 2009-10. Serum samples from 56 cases of breast cancer patients were collected after surgery and prior to chemotherapy for analysis of total free b-HCG by electro chemiluminescence immunoassay, and the same procedure was repeated after 8 courses of chemotherapy. The b-HCG serum levels were compared in poor versus mild to moderate grades before and after chemotherapy. Results: In 37 cases of mild to moderate grade tumors, the mean b-HCG level was 1.09 ±1.4 miu/ml compared with 1.2 ±0.3 miu/ml (P= 0.75) in 29 cases of poor grade tumors. The mean b-HCG levels before and after chemotherapy were 1.15 ±1.4 miu/ml and 1.17 ±1.4 miu/ml (P=0.24), respectively. Conclusion: We did not find any significant association between the b-HCG serum levels and breast cancer tumor grades. Furthermore, chemotherapy does not appear to have an effect on b-HCG serum levels.


F Haghi, H Zeighami, N Keramati, F Hemmati, F Hajiahmadi,
Volume 21, Issue 85 (4-2013)
Abstract

Background and objective: Extended Spectrum Beta lactamases (ESBL) such as TEM (Temoneria) is one of the bases of antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli isolates. The aim of this study was evaluation of TEM Extended Spectrum Beta lactamase producing E. coli, in clinical samples isolated from Zanjan hospitals, by phenotypic and PCR methods. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study 200 E.coli isolates were collected from the clinical specimens such as wound, blood, secretion, urine, and stool from Zanjan hospitals from 2011 to 2012. After identification of isolates by biochemical tests, the antibiotic susceptibility test (Kirby-Bauer method) was done according to CLSI advice against 13 antibiotics. The Combined Disk method was thencarried out for detection of ESBLs and thebla TEM gene was determined by a PCR method. Results: In this study, 77.6 % of E. coli isolates were collected from urine samples. The majority of the samples (71.35%) were resistant to Amoxicillin. By contrast, Imipenem was an effective antibiotic (100% susceptibility) against all isolates. From the total of 200 isolates, the extended spectrum beta-lactamase was detected in 66 (33%) of the strains,only about half of whichwere positive for thebla TEM gene. Conclusion: As only about 15% of the isolates were positive forthebla TEM gene,it is likely that other beta-lactamase enzymes cause the antibiotic resistance. Because resistance agents exist on mobile genetic elements, a rapid detection of these strains couldhelpto prevent their distribution.


J Norouzi, A Akhavan Sepahy, N Bazzazzadeh,
Volume 21, Issue 88 (7-2013)
Abstract

Background and Objective Widespread use of co-trimoxazole in urinary tract infection treatments and its incorrect use has led to the emergence of co-trimoxazole resistant E. coli strains. The aim of this study was to evaluate sul2 gene among E.coli isolates of patients admitted to the clinical centers of Khoy city. Materials and Methods: Three hundred urine samples were collected from clinical centers of Khoy city. Among them, 100 E.coli isolates were confirmed by standard biochemical tests. Furthermore, the antibiotic susceptibility tests to 10 antibiotics were performed by the-disk-agar diffusion (DAD) method. Also, MIC and MBC were evaluated for co-trimoxazole by microdilution broth method. Finally, PCR was done in order to find sul2 gene in resistant isolates. Results: Of 100 isolates, 71(71%) were resistant to co-trimoxazole out of which 57(80%) had sul2 gene. This gene was recognized in sulfonamides-resistant isolates which did not create any zone of inhibition. Also, the isolates with sul2 gene were found to be simultaneously resistant to ampicillin, nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin. In co-trimoxazole-resistant isolates, MIC and MBC for Co-trimoxazole were calculated 16 and 32μg/ml. Conclusion: This study was the first of its kind in Iran with the main objective of manifesting the presence of sul2 gene in E.coli. The results of the present study indicate that antibiotic-resistance percentage in Khoy city reaches to 71%. In such a situation, it is inevitable to see resistance to all common antibiotics currently prescribed to patients at clinical centers which will, in turn, result in treatment failures.
Ash Akya, M Khodadoost, E Rashiditabar,
Volume 21, Issue 88 (7-2013)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) is one the most prevalent bacterial infections and Escherichia coli is the most common causative agent of UTI. However, the incidence of community acquired UTI caused by extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing E. coli is increasing worldwide. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of blaTEM gene in E. coli isolated from UTI of outpatients in Kermanshah. Materials and Methods: One hundred and forty E. coli strains were isolated from the midstream urinary samples of outpatients. The susceptibility of isolates to selected antibiotics was tested using disc diffusion method followed by confirmation for the ESBL producing strains using combined disc method. Finally, the blaTEM gene was determined among the ESBL producer isolates using PCR. Results: Of 140 isolates, 34 (24.28%) were positive ESBL and PCR determined that 18(53%) of ESBL producing isolates contained blaTEM gene. When testing their susceptibility to antibiotics, 81.43% of the isolates were resistant to ampicillin while all isolates were sensitive to imipenem. Conclusion: The production of ESBL by pathogenic bacteria, in particular in outpatients, is a serious concern for the use of various beta-lactam antibiotics including the third generation of cephalosporins. Due to the presence of blaTEM gene in the high proportion of the isolates, more molecular and epidemiological studies on pathogenic gram-negative bacteria are recommended.
R Nuri, B Mahmudieh, A Damirchi, F Rahmani Nia, N Rahnama, H Emami,
Volume 22, Issue 91 (4-2014)
Abstract

Background and Objective: IGFs (Insulin-like growth factors) and some binding proteins can cause occurrence and recurrence of breast cancer. Since the role of combined exercise training on these factors is not clear, therefore, the aim of this study was to look at the changes of IGF axis and some binding proteins in postmenopausal women with breast cancer after 15 weeks of combined exercise training. Materials and Methods: Twenty- nine women with breast cancer (58.27 ± 6.31 years) who underwent surgery, chemotherapy and radiation- therapy with current hormone therapy were divided into two groups of experimental and control. Subjects of the experimental group performed 15 weeks of combined exercises including walking (2 sessions per week) and resistance training (2 sessions per week that differed from walking days). Data were analyzed by using ANCOVA (p≤ 0.05). Results: Combined exercise training had significant effect on IGF-1 levels (P= 0.001), IGFB-3 levels (P= 0.000) and IGF-1: IGFB-3 (P= 0.000) in postmenopausal women with breast cancer. After 15 weeks, IGE -1 reduced in the experimental group up to 9 percent and IGFB-3 increased by 28 percent. On the other hand, exercise training had no significant effect on the IGFB-1 (P= 0.652) in postmenopausal women with breast cancer. Conclusion: While the IGF axis factors and some binding proteins play an important role in breast cancer and its recurrence, it seems that changes in these factors through combined exercise training programs can delay its recurrence.


R Bakhshi Biniaz, Y Mortazavi, R Taherkhani, N Dehghan, L Mostafaei, F Sefidi, M Azad,
Volume 22, Issue 91 (4-2014)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Exact recognition of the needs of patients with leukemia and move to solve them will promote the health standards in the country. The aim of this study was to evaluate the needs and to assess the process of diagnosis and treatment of leukemia and their shortcomings according to experts’ views in this field. Materials and Methods: This study was a descriptive study and the population under study consisted of 101 specialists in Hemato-oncology and pathology across the country, who were selected by random cluster sampling. Data was collected by valid peer reviewed questionnaires with Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.80. The collected data were evaluated and analyzed using SPSS, and chi-square test. Results: According to specialists, lack of diagnostic facilities in small cities, timely diagnosis, especially in cases of chronic leukemia and inadequate attention to the mental state of patients during the treatment process was considered as the most important problems of health system in the diagnosis and treatment of leukemias. Conclusion: Shifting the health policies towards greater attention to equip the health care centers and reviewing the policies resulting in concentration of services in large cities, providing health care plans acceptable for the patient's mental state by counseling centers during the process of treatment and finally financial support of patients with leukemia (particularly low-income patients) by governmental and non-governmental organizations will certainly pave the way to achieve modern standards.


J Faradmal, M Mafi, A Sadighi-Pashaki, M Karami, Gh Roshanaei,
Volume 22, Issue 93 (6-2014)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women. Various factors are associated with survival of patients with breast cancer. The aim of this study was to determine the survival rate of patients with breast cancer who referred to MRI center of Hamadan and to explore its related factors. Materials and Methods: In this historical cohort study, 542 women with breast cancer who had referred to Darol-Aitam-e Mahdieh center of Hamadan were included during 2004-2011. All patients had undergone chemotherapy and radiotherapy after surgery. Data were obtained from the patients’ medical records and were analyzed using time-dependent Cox model. Results: The mean (SD) age of patients was 46.06 (±10.82) years. The median of survival time was 109.7 months. 201 (37.1%) patients died during the study period. One, five and ten-year survival of the patients was 96.8%, 68% and 31%, respectively. The results of the current study showed that the tumor size and metastasis status were statistically related to the hazard of death in these patients (p<0.05). Conclusion: Age, metastasis status, tumor size, number of involved lymph nodes and the status of progesterone receptor were associated with survival of patients. Since early detection of breast cancer may have an influence on some of these factors, therefore, these results reveals the important role of public education for regular referral to physicians and screening of breast cancer for all women for early detection of breast cancer.


F Mortazavi, Kh Abdolmaleki, Aa Samety, A Hashemian, Sh Haghjooy Javanmard,
Volume 22, Issue 94 (7-2014)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Some evidence about the relationship between heme oxygenase and many cancers is available. Heme oxygenase has anti-apoptotic effects and contributes to tumor growth. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of heme oxygenase on melanoma tumor cells mitosis and tumor size in C57BL/6 mice. Materials and Methods: B16F10 melanoma cells were injected subcutaneously to 18 C57BL6 mice with 8 weeks of age. Mice were randomly divided into three groups: the first group received Zinc protoporphyrin (Znpp), heme oxygenase inhibitor (n = 6), the second group, hemin (heme oxygenase activator) (n = 6) and the third group((control group) (n = 6)) received diluent injection. They received their injection every other day from the first day of study for 16 days. Tumors were extracted in the 16th day of study. Length and width of tumors were measured and mitotic cell activities were evaluated using immunohistochemistry staining and counting Ki-67 posetive cells. Results: Our study results showed that size and weight of tumor and mitotic index in treated mice by Hemin were higher than two other groups. (P≤0.05). But mitotic index, tumor size and tumor weight in the recipient Znpp group and the control group were not statistically different. Conclusion: Stimulation of Hemeoxygenase-1 pathway by hemin injection can increase melanoma tumor growth. However, inhibition of this pathway by Hemeoxygenase -1 inhibitors may not be effective in reducing tumor growth and size. References 1- Elwood JM, Jopson J. Melanoma and sun exposure: an overview of published studies. Int J Cancer. 1997 73: 198-203. 2- Chang KW, Lee TC, Yeh WI, et al. Polymorphism in heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) promoter is related to the risk of oral squamous cell carcinoma occurring on male areca chewers. Br J Cancer. 2004 91: 1551-5. 3- Halliwell B. Oxidative stress and cancer: have we moved forward? Biochem J. 2007 401: 1-11. 4- Brigelius-Flohe R, Flohe L. Basic principles and emerging concepts in the redox control of transcription factors. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2011 15: 2335-8. 5- Willett WC, MacMahon B. Diet and cancer--an overview. N Engl J Med. 1984 310: 633-8. 6- Maines MD. Heme oxygenase: function, multiplicity, regulatory mechanisms, and clinical applications. FASEB J. 1988 2: 2557-68. 7- Origassa CST, Câmara NOS. Cytoprotective role of heme oxygenase-1 and heme degradation derived end products in liver injury. World J of Hepatol. 2013 5: 541. 8- Doi K, Akaike T, Fujii S, et al. Induction of heme oxygenase-1 nitric oxide and ischaemia in experimental solid tumours and implications for tumour growth. Br J Cancer. 1999 80: 1945-54. 9- Maines MD, Abrahamsson PA. Expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HSP32) in human prostate: normal, hyperplastic, and tumor tissue distribution. Urology. 1996 47: 727-33. 10- Kiemer AK, Bildner N, Weber NC, Vollmar AM. Characterization of heme oxygenase 1 (heat shock protein 32) induction by atrial natriuretic peptide in human endothelial cells. Endocrinol. 2003 144: 802-12. 11- Henry F, Bretaudeau L, Barbieux I, Meflah K, Gregoire M. Induction of antigen presentation by macrophages after phagocytosis of tumour apoptotic cells. Res Immunol. 1998 149: 673-9. 12- Jozkowicz A, Was H, Dulak J. Heme oxygenase-1 in tumors: is it a false friend? Antioxidants & Redox Signaling. 2007 9: 2099-118. 13- Tiligada E. Chemotherapy: induction of stress responses. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2006 13 Suppl 1: S115-24. 14- Fang J, Sawa T, Akaike T, Greish K, Maeda H. Enhancement of chemotherapeutic response of tumor cells by a heme oxygenase inhibitor, pegylated zinc protoporphyrin. Int J Cancer. 2004 109: 1-8. 15- Yoshida C, Yoshida F, Sears DE, Hart SM, Ikebe D, Muto A, et al. Bcr-Abl signaling through the PI-3/S6 kinase pathway inhibits nuclear translocation of the transcription factor Bach2, which represses the antiapoptotic factor heme oxygenase-1. Blood. 2007 109: 1211-9. 16- Fang J, Sawa T, Akaike T, Greish K, Maeda H. Enhancement of chemotherapeutic response of tumor cells by a heme oxygenase inhibitor, pegylated zinc protoporphyrin. International Journal of Cancer. 2004 109: 1-8. 17- Mayerhofer M, Gleixner KV, Mayerhofer J, et al. Targeting of heat shock protein 32 (Hsp32)/heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in leukemic cells in chronic myeloid leukemia: a novel approach to overcome resistance against imatinib. Blood. 2008 111: 2200-10. 18- Mayerhofer M, Florian S, Krauth MT, et al. Identification of heme oxygenase-1 as a novel BCR/ABL-dependent survival factor in chronic myeloid leukemia. Cancer Res. 2004 64: 3148-54. 19- Nowis D, Legat M, Grzela T, et al. Heme oxygenase-1 protects tumor cells against photodynamic therapy-mediated cytotoxicity. Oncogene. 2006 25: 3365-74. 20- Fang J, Sawa T, Akaike T, et al. In vivo antitumor activity of pegylated zinc protoporphyrin: targeted inhibition of heme oxygenase in solid tumor. Cancer Res. 2003 63: 3567-74. 21- Hirai K, Sasahira T, Ohmori H, Fujii K, Kuniyasu H. Inhibition of heme oxygenase-1 by zinc protoporphyrin IX reduces tumor growth of LL/2 lung cancer in C57BL mice. Int J Cancer. 2007 120: 500-5. 22- Amjadi F, Javanmard SH, Zarkesh-Esfahani H, Khazaei M, Narimani M. Leptin promotes melanoma tumor growth in mice related to increasing circulating endothelial progenitor cells numbers and plasma NO production. J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2011 30: 21. 23- Nowis D, Bugajski M, Winiarska M, et al. Zinc protoporphyrin IX, a heme oxygenase-1 inhibitor, demonstrates potent antitumor effects but is unable to potentiate antitumor effects of chemotherapeutics in mice. BMC Cancer. 2008 8: 197. 24- Devadas K, Dhawan S. Hemin activation ameliorates HIV-1 infection via heme oxygenase-1 induction. The Journal of Immunology. 2006 176: 4252-7. 25- Cesarovic N, Jirkof P, Rettich A, Nicholls F, Arras M. Combining sevoflurane anesthesia with fentanyl–midazolam or s-ketamine in laboratory mice. Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science JAALAS. 2012 51: 209. 26- Jensen MM, Jørgensen JT, Binderup T, Kjær A. Tumor volume in subcutaneous mouse xenografts measured by microCT is more accurate and reproducible than determined by 18F-FDG-microPET or external caliper. BMC Medical Imaging. 2008 8: 16. 27- Diehn F, Costouros N, Miller M, et al. Noninvasive fluorescent imaging reliably estimates biomass in vivo. Biotechniques. 2002 33: 1250-5. 28- Yang G, Nguyen X, Ou J, Rekulapelli P, Stevenson DK, Dennery PA. Unique effects of zinc protoporphyrin on HO-1 induction and apoptosis. Blood. 2001 97: 1306-13. 29- Murali R, Scolyer RA. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and mitotic index in metastatic melanoma as predictors of patient survival. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 107(13): E46 author reply E7. 30- Motterlini R, Foresti R, Bassi R, Calabrese V, Clark JE, Green CJ. Endothelial heme oxygenase-1 induction by hypoxia. Modulation by inducible nitric-oxide synthase and S-nitrosothiols. J Biol Chem. 2000 275: 13613-20. 31- Shibahara S, Muller RM, Taguchi H. Transcriptional control of rat heme oxygenase by heat shock. J Biol Chem. 1987 262: 12889-92. 32- Lin F, Girotti AW. Hyperresistance of leukemia cells to photodynamic inactivation after long-term exposure to hemin. Cancer Res. 1996 56: 4636-43. 33- Gueron G, De Siervi A, Ferrando M, et al. Critical role of endogenous heme oxygenase 1 as a tuner of the invasive potential of prostate cancer cells. Mol Cancer Res. 2009 7: 1745-55. 34- Hill M, Pereira V, Chauveau C, et al. Heme oxygenase-1 inhibits rat and human breast cancer cell proliferation: mutual cross inhibition with indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase. The FASEB Journal. 2005 19: 1957-68. 35- Glanemann M, Schirmeier A, Lippert S, Langrehr J, Neuhaus P, Nussler A, editors. Cobalt-protoporphyrin induced heme oxygenase overexpression and its impact on liver regeneration. Transplantation proceedings. Elsevier 2005.


Sma Shariatzadeh, A Hamta, M Soleimani, S Darvishi,
Volume 22, Issue 94 (7-2014)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women worldwide. Saffron is one of the most well-known plants as an antioxidant and anticancer. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of saffron on the viability of breast cancer cells and simultaneous interaction effect of Paclitaxel drug. Materials and Methods: In this study, saffron extract (Crocus sativus L.) was prepared by Soxhlet method. Breast cancer cells (4T1) were prepared from the Pasteur cell bank then passaged several times until the required number of cells obtained. Cytotoxicity of Paclitaxel and the extracts of saffron were assessed separately and simultaneously using colorimetric MTT assay and trypan Blue test with certain concentrations of drug and extracts in the treatment period of 48 and 72 h. Then, the rate of apoptogenic changes in each compound was evaluated by Hoechst and PI methods. Results: Data from 48 and 72 h treatment of extract of Crocus sativus showed antitumor effects on breast cancer cells. These effects were dose and time dependent. The synergistic effects in 48 hour treatment indicated a significant increase in cytotoxicity of saffron/Paclitaxel (P <0.05). Conclusion: The results showed that ethanol and aqueous extract of saffron and Paclitaxel have significant anticancer properties against breast cancer cells. It was also found that the aqueous and ethanol extracts of saffron can considerably increase cytotoxicity in cancer cells induced by Paclitaxel while the aqueous extract of saffron showed better results. Referenses 1- Abdullaev Fl. Cancer chemoperventive and tumoricidal properties of saffron. Biol Med. 2002 227: 20-25. 2- Eisenberg D, Kessler R. Saffron redgold of brackish. Tehran Agricultural Information Bank. 1995. 3- Akhondzadeh S, Tahmacebi-Pour N, Noorbalaa A, et al. Crocus sativus L. 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