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Showing 11 results for Pentylenetetrazol

, اعظم امینی کمیجانی,
Volume 12, Issue 48 (9-2004)

Mr Palizvan, A Esmaeili, H Rajabian, Y Jand, E Mirzazadeh,
Volume 14, Issue 56 (9-2006)

Background & Objective: Regarding the high prevalence of epileptic seizures, its complications and the necessity to control them, this study was carried out in order to assess the role of progesterone administration in newborn rats on Pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) kindling susceptibility after maturity. Materials & Methods: This experimental study was carried out on 32 newborn Wistar rats. Rats were randomly divided into four groups, which are as follows: progesterone-injected females, progesterone-injected males, sesamoid-injected females and sesamoid-injected males. Progesterone and sesamoid groups were injected with progesterone (100 mg/Kg) and sesamoid (100 mg/Kg) respectively. Sixty days after injection chemical kindling in the rats was analyzed by PTZ administration. Results: Progesterone significantly increased the susceptibility for PTZ kindling in female rats however it did not have a significant effect on seizure parameters in male rats. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that chronic administration of progesterone can only increase susceptibility for chemical kindling in female rats and not in the males.

M Ganjkhani, K Moradi, S Ramezani, F Mirzamohammadi, A Fallah,
Volume 18, Issue 70 (3-2010)

Background and Objective: Epileptic seizures are generally considered as complex and abnormal hyperexcitable phenomena in the brain. Probable changing of excitability in visual cortex by dark rearing (DR) might lead to clonic seizure. In this study the possible effect of dark rearing on Pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) - induced generalized clonic seizure was studied. Materials and Methods: To assess the generalized clonic seizure (GCS) threshold and incidence and latency of GCS, 0.5% Pentylenetetrazol was administrated intravenously and 80 mg/kg subcutaneously to the control and dark reared animals. Results: Our results showed that generalized clonic seizure threshold in DR group was not changed but occurring of GCS in DR animals was significantly lower and its latency was higher than the control animals. The tonic – clonic seizure was not different between the two groups. Conclusion: In spite of increasing seizure susceptibility in visual cortex by light deprivation, a kind of protection was observed in dark reared animals. Further studies seem to be necessary to elucidate the role of other factors such as melatonin.

S Saeidi, H Azhdari Zarmehri, E Erami, B Alimohammadi,
Volume 21, Issue 86 (5-2013)

Background and Objective: Epilepsy is the most common neurological disorder after stroke. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Heracleum persicum on pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) - induced seizure in mice. Materials and Methods: In this study, 30 male mice were divided into five groups. 30 minutes after IP administration with different doses of extract (75,150, 300, 600mg/kg), PTZ (80 mg/kg) was injected to animals and they were instantly transferred to a special cage. Consequently, the convulsive behaviors of the mice were recorded by a camera as long as 20 minutes and the data were converted into seconds to be considered for analysis. Results: The results indicated that hydroalcoholic extract of Heracleum persicum has a significant effect on threshold tonic seizure in doses of 150 mg/kg, 300mg/kg and 600 mg/kg. In clonic phase, threshold increased slightly with an increase in doses of extract. In tonic-clonic phase, threshold increase was significant only in doses of 150 mg/kg and 900 mg/kg. This extract significantly decreased seizure duration time both in tonic and tonic-clonic phases upon dose increasing. Conclusion: The results of the present study imply that injection of hydro-alcoholic extracts of Heracleum persicum led to anticonvulsant activity. This extract augmented the onset of different seizure phases while reduced duration of tonic and tonic-clonic phases.

Z Rabiei, E Heidarian, M Rafieian-Kopaei ,
Volume 23, Issue 98 (5-2015)

Background and Objective: Clinically significant changes in central nervous system (CNS) function are observed following brief periods of CNS blood flow interruption. Stroke patients exhibit cognitive, emotional, and electrophysiological changes during the recovery phase. Lavender belongs to the Labiatae family and is used for a variety of cosmetic and therapeutic purposes in herbal medicine. This study investigates the effect of ethanolic extract of lavender on cerebral edema in a rat stroke model. Materials and Methods: Lavender extract was injected intraperitoneally (100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg) for 20 consecutive days. 2 hours after the last dose cerebral artery ligation surgery was performed. 24 hours after the induction of ischemia, cerebral edema was assessed. Also, antioxidant capacities of plasma and brain tissue were assessed in the intact groups. Results: This study shows that treatment of rats with ethanolic extract of lavender caused a significant decrease in brain water content compared with ischemia group. Lavender extracts increased antioxidant capacity in serum and brain tissue in the intacts compared with the control group. Conclusion: The results indicated that lavender extract has neuroprotective activity against cerebral ischemia and the mechanism may be related to augmentation in endogenous antioxidant defense and inhibiting oxidative stress in the rat brain. References 1- Bhuiyan MIH, Kim YJ. Mechanisms and prospects of ischemic tolerance induced by cerebral preconditioning. International Neurourology Journal. 2010 14: 203. 2- Lakhan SE, Kirchgessner A, Hofer M. Inflammatory mechanisms in ischemic stroke: therapeutic approaches. J Transl Med. 2009 7: 97. 3- Warner DS, Sheng H, Batinić-Haberle I. Oxidants, antioxidants and the ischemic brain. J Exp Biol. 2004 207: 3221. 4- Crack PJ, Taylor JM. Reactive oxygen species and the modulation of stroke. Free Radic Biol Med. 2005 38: 1433-44. 5- Chan PH. Reactive oxygen radicals in signaling and damage in the ischemic brain. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2001 21: 2-14. 6- Abramov AY, Scorziello A, Duchen MR. Three distinct mechanisms generate oxygen free radicals in neurons and contribute to cell death during anoxia and reoxygenation. J Neurosci 2007 27: 1129-38. 7- Moopanar TR, Allen DG. Reactive oxygen species reduce myofibrillar Ca2+ sensitivity in fatiguing mouse skeletal muscle at 37 C. J Physiol. 2005 564: 189-99. 8- Vincent AM, Russell JW, Low P, Feldman EL. Oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy. Endocr Rev. 2004 25: 612-28. 9- Simard JM, Kent TA, Chen M, Tarasov KV, Gerzanich V. Brain oedema in focal ischaemia: molecular pathophysiology and theoretical implications. Lancet. 2007 6: 258-68. 10- Omidbaigi R. Production and processing of medicinal plants. Astane Ghods Publications, Mashhad. 2000 3: 106-22. 11- Hajhashemi V, Ghannadi A, Sharif B. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties of the leaf extracts and essential oil of Lavandula angustifolia mill. J Ethnopharmacol. 2003 89: 67-71. 12- Rabiei Z, Rafieian-Kopaei M, Mokhtari S, Alibabaei Z, Shahrani M. The effect of pretreatment with different doses of Lavandula officinalis ethanolic extract on memory, learning and nociception. Biomedicine & Aging Pathology. 2013 4: 71-76. 13- Bigdeli MR, Hajizadeh S, Froozandeh M, et al. Normobaric hyperoxia induces ischemic tolerance and upregulation of glutamate transporters in the rat brain and serum TNF-α level. Exp Neurol. 2008 212: 298-306. 14- Rabiei Z, Rafieian M. Effects of Zizyphus jujuba extract on motor coordination impairment induced by bilateral electric lesions of the nucleus basalis of meynert in rat. Physiology and Pharmacology. 2013 17: 469-77. 15- Benzie IF, Strain J. The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) as a measure of “antioxidant power”: the FRAP assay. Anal Biochem. 1996 239: 70-6. 16- Abdollahi M, Mostafalou S, Pournourmohammadi S, Shadnia S. Oxidative stress and cholinesterase inhibition in saliva and plasma of rats following subchronic exposure to malathion. Comparative biochemistry and physiology part C: Toxicol Pharmacol. 2004 137: 29-34. 17- Astrup J. Energy-requiring cell functions in the ischemic brain: their critical supply and possible inhibition in protective therapy. J Neurosurg. 1982 56: 482-97. 18- Quast MJ, Huang NC, Hillman GR, Kent TA. The evolution of acute stroke recorded by multimodal magnetic resonance imaging. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. 1993 11: 465-71. 19- Wang Y, Hu W, Perez-Trepichio AD, et al. Brain tissue sodium is a ticking clock telling time after arterial occlusion in rat focal cerebral ischemia. Stroke. 2000 31: 1386-92. 20- Rami A, Langhagen A, Steiger S. Focal cerebral ischemia induces upregulation of beclin 1 and autophagy-like cell death. Neurobiol Aging. 2008 29: 132-41. 21- Taghikhani M, Nasri H, Asgari A, et al. The renal toxicity of hydroalcoholic extract of stachys lavandulifolia vahl in wistar rats. Life Sci J. 2012 9: 3025-31. 22- Coyle JT, Puttfarcken P. Oxidative stress, glutamate, and neurodegenerative disorders. Science. 1993 262: 689-95. 23- Alnamer R, Alaoui K, Bouididael H, Benjouad A, Cherrah Y. Sedative and hypnotic activities of the methanolic and aqueous extracts of Lavandula officinalis from Morocco. Adv Pharmacol Sci. 2012 5: 1-5. 24- Rahmati B, Khalili M, Roghani M, Ahghari P. Anti-epileptogenic and antioxidant effect of Lavandula officinalis aerial part extract against pentylenetetrazol-induced kindling in male mice. J Ethnopharmacol. 2013 148: 152-7. 25- Mohagheghi F, Bigdeli MR, Rasoulian B, Zeinanloo AA, Khoshbaten A. Dietary virgin olive oil reduces blood brain barrier permeability, brain edema, and brain injury in rats subjected to ischemia-reperfusion. Sci W J. 2010 10: 1180-91. 26- Baradaran A, Madihi Y, Merrikhi A, Rafieian-Kopaei M, Nasri H. Serum lipoprotein (a) in diabetic patients with various renal function not yet on dialysis. Pak J Med Sci. 2013 29: 33-5. 27- Nasri H. Impact of diabetes mellitus on parathyroid hormone in hemodialysis patients. J parathyr dis. 2014 1: 9-11. 28- Madihi Y, Merrikhi A, Baradaran A, et al. Impact of sumac on postprandialhigh-fat oxidative stress. 2013. in press. 29- Setorki M, Rafieian-Kopaei M, Merikhi A, et al. Suppressive impact of anethum graveolens consumption on biochemical risk factors of atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. J parathyr dis. 2013 4: 889. 30- Khosravi-Boroujeni H, Sarrafzadegan N, Mohammadifard N, et al. White rice consumption and CVD risk factors among Iranian population. J Health Popul Nutr. 2013 31: 252. 31- Akhlaghi M, Shabanian G, Rafieian-Kopaei M, Parvin N, Saadat M, Akhlaghi M. Citrus aurantium blossom and preoperative anxiety. Rev Bras Anestesiol. 2011 61: 707-12. 32- Roohafza H, Sarrafzadegan N, Sadeghi M, Rafieian-Kopaei M, Sajjadi F, Khosravi-Boroujeni H. The association between stress levels and food consumption among iranian population. Arch Iran Med . 2013 16: 145-8. 33- Azadmehr A, Hajiaghaee R, Afshari A, et al. Evaluation of in vivo immune response activity and in vitro anti-cancer effect by Scrophularia megalantha. J Med Plants Res. 2011 5: 2365-8. 34- Shirzad H, Shahrani M, Rafieian-Kopaei M. Comparison of morphine and tramadol effects on phagocytic activity of mice peritoneal phagocytes in vivo. Int Immunopharmacol. 2009 9: 968-70. 35- Amini FG, Rafieian-Kopaei M, Nematbakhsh M, Baradaran A, Nasri H. Ameliorative effects of metformin on renal histologic and biochemical alterations of gentamicin-induced renal toxicity in wistar rats. J Res Med Sci. 2012 17: 621. 36- Nasri H, Nematbakhsh M, Ghobadi S, Ansari R, Shahinfard N, Rafieian-kopaei M. Preventive and curative effects of ginger extract against histopathologic changes of gentamicin-induced tubular toxicity in rats. Prev Med. 2013 4: 316. 37- Heidarian E, Rafieian-Kopaei M. Protective effect of artichoke (Cynara scolymus) leaf extract against lead toxicity in rat. Pharm Biol. 2013 51: 1104-9. 38- Shirzad H, Taji F, Rafieian-Kopaei M. Correlation between antioxidant activity of garlic extracts and WEHI-164 fibrosarcoma tumor growth in BALB/c mice. J Med Food. 2011 14: 969-74. 39- Nikokar M, Shirzad M. Does royal jelly affect tumor cells? J Herb Med Pharmacol. 2014 2: 45-48. 40- Rafieian-Kopaei M, Baradaran A, Rafieian M. Plants antioxidants: From laboratory to clinic. J Nephropathol. 2013 2: 152.

N Mirazi, S Shamohammadi, A Hosseini,
Volume 23, Issue 101 (8-2015)

Background and Objective: Malva silvestris (Malvaceae), which is used in traditional medicine has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. The effects of this plant on clonic seizure have not yet been studied. The present study evaluated the anticonvulsant effect of M. silvestris in a model of clonic seizures induced with pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) on male mice.

Materials and Methods: In this experimental study the anticonvulsant effect of M. silvestris was investigated using i.v PTZ-induced seizure models on mice. Different doses of the hydroethanolic extract of M. silvestris (150 and 300 mg/kg) were administered intraperitonally 2 hours before the  induction of PTZ. The effect of M. silvestris on the appearance of three separate seizure endpoints including myoclonic, generalized clonus and forelimb tonic extension phase was recorded. Differences were considered significant at p <0.05.

Results: The results showed that the M. silvestris extract had anticonvulsant effects on all the experimental treatment groups and significantly increased the seizure threshold. Hydroethanolic extract of M. silvestris significantly increased the onset time of myoclonic seizure (p<0.001) and increased the threshold for the forelimb tonic extension seizure (p<0.01) compared with the control group. But it did not show any significant effect on generalized clonic phase response.

Conclusion: The results of the present study imply that injection of hydroethanolic extracts of M. silvestris led to anticonvulsant activity in i.v. PTZ-induced seizure in male mice.

P Zareie, M Sadegh, Mr Palizvan,
Volume 25, Issue 109 (4-2017)

Background and Objective: In spite of various and effective anti seizure drugs available, 30% of epileptic patients are not adequately treated with current medications. Based on the effectiveness of phytocannabinoids on epileptic and seizure models, in this study the effects of 2-achidonoylglycerol (2-AG) injection, as an important endocannabinoid, on tonic-clonic seizures induced by pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) was examined.  

Materials and Methods: The study was performed on male wistar rats (180-200 g). Tonic-clonic seizures were induced through a single intra-peritoneal injection of PTZ (80 mg/Kg) and then seizure behavior was monitored for 30 minutes. The intra-peritoneal injection of 2-AG (1 mg/Kg) in dimethyl solfoxide (DMSO) was performed 15 minutes before the PTZ injection. In the sham group an equivalent volume of DMSO was injected 15 minutes before PTZ. Data on the delay of seizure stage occurrence, duration of the stages, number of occurrences for each stage and mortality rate due to tonic-clonic seizures were collected for analysis.

Results: PTZ injection in association with DMSO significantly increased the delay for seizure stages 1 and 2, in comparison with just a PTZ injection (P<0.05), but had no significant effect on the duration and delay of seizure stages 3-5. Intra-peritoneal injection of 2-AG in association with DMSO before the injection of PTZ had no significant effect on the delay and duration of seizures but reduced the occurrence of each seizure stage and also reduced mortality due to tonic-clonic seizures in comparison with PTZ injection associated with DMSO. The mean seizure stage was also significantly decreased (P<0.05).

Conclusion: It seems 2-AG injection could be effective in reducing seizure parameters in seizures induced by PTZ.

Ms Parisa Zareie, Dr Mehdi Sadegh, Dr Homeira Moradi-Chameh,
Volume 26, Issue 118 (9-2018)

Background and Objective: 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and anandamide (AEA) are two major endocannabinoids. Using inhibitors of the enzymatic pathways involved in the elimination of 2-AG and AEA as well as synthetic 2-AG, we examined the effectiveness of these endocannabinoids on epileptiform activity induced in Wistar rats by pentylenetetrazol (PTZ).
Material and Methods: Adult male Wistar rats were used in this study. Epileptiform activity was induced in dult male Wistar rats by PTZ injection (20 mg/kg, i.p.). To inhibit 2-AG degradation WWL70 and JJKK048 (JJKK048: 1 mg/kg, WWL70: 5 mg/kg, i.p.) were used. To inhibit AEA elimination, URB597 and LY2183240 (URB597: 1 mg/kg, LY2183240: 2.5 mg/kg, i.p.) were used. Synthetic 2-AG was also examined (1 mg/kg, i.p.) before the PTZ injection. All drugs were dissolved in DMSO as vehicle and injected (i.p.) 15 minutes before the PTZ injection. Latency to onset and duration of the epileptiform activity were considered for statistical analysis.
Results: Injection of (JJKK048+WWL70) before the PTZ significantly increased latency to onset of the epileptiform activity (p<0.01), while reduced duration of the epileptiform activity in comparison to the vehicle (p<0.05). In addition, 2-AG administration significantly increased latency to onset of the epileptiform activity (p<0.05) and reduced duration of the epileptiform activity in comparison to the vehicle (p<0.01). However, these indexes did not show significant changes when URB597+LY2183240 were injected before the PTZ (p>0.05).
Conclusion: It seems increased level of 2-AG but not AEA,effectively decreases PTZ induced epileptiform activity of the hippocampus.

Fariba Namdar, Farideh Bahrami, Zahra Bahari, Bahram Ghanbari, Seyed Ahmad Elahi, Mohammad Taghi Mohammadi,
Volume 27, Issue 124 (9-2019)

Background & Objective: The potent antioxidant property of fullerene C60 nanoparticles and their derivatives has been demonstrated in a wide range of in vitro and in vivo studies. Hence, we examined the effects of fullerene C60 on the oxidative stress parameters at brain and liver of rats in normal situation.
Materials & Methods: The study was performed in two groups of Wistar rats (each group, n = 6); normal and fullerene-treated normal animals. Treated rats received orally fullerene via oral gavage at dose of 1 mg/kg/day for 60 days. At termination of the study, the oxidative stress parameters were determined at brain and liver tissues, including the contents of glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA), and the activity of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). The t-test was used to analyze the data between two groups.
Results: Fullerene C60 treatment did not change blood glucose of treated rats compared to untreated rats. Fullerene C60 significantly increased the value of CAT activity (by 66%) and MDA levels (by 68%), whereas decreased SOD activity (by 33%) at liver of treated rats compared to untreated animals (P< 0.05). Fullerene administration significantly increased only CAT activity of brain in the treated rats (0.34±0.10 U/mg protein) compared to untreated animals (0.12±0.03 U/mg protein), (P<0.05).
Conclusion: Our findings indicated that oral administration of fullerene C60 nanoparticles differently changes the oxidative stress parameters in liver and brain at normal condition. It is suggested that these effects must be considered for application of these nanoparticles in various therapeutic purposes.

Leila Safaeian, Behzad Zolfaghari, Najmeh Assarzadeh, Akram Ghadirkhomi,
Volume 27, Issue 125 (12-2019)

Background & Objective: Although Pinus eldarica is considered as a pine with many valuable phytochemical constituents, little is known about the pharmacological effects of its bark extract. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate in vivo antioxidant activity and also the possible beneficial effects of the bark extract of P. eldarica on dexamethasone-induced dyslipidemia in rats.
Materials & Methods: Total phenolic content was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu method. The in vivo antioxidant assays included the measurement of hydroperoxides level and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) value in plasma samples of rats receiving intraperitoneal injections (IP) injections of plant extract (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) for 28 days. For induction of dyslipidemia, dexamethasone (10 mg/kg) was subcutaneously administered during 8 days. Different doses of extract were given orally plus dexamethasone in three groups of animals. Serum lipids, blood glucose and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and liver histopathology were assessed.
Results: High total phenolic content was determined as 375±1.2 mg gallic acid equivalent/ g of dried bark extract. The extract significantly decreased plasma hydroperoxides level at all doses and increased FRAP value at the dose of 400 mg/kg during in vivo antioxidant analysis. P. eldarica led to a significant reduction in serum levels of blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride and MDA and improved liver histopathological changes at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg in dyslipidemic rats.
Conclusion: These findings suggest the potential antioxidant, antihyperlipidemic and antihyperglycemic activities for the bark extract of P. eldarica which may be due to the high amounts of phenolic compounds.

Ehsan Saboory, Maryam Mahmoodkani, Shiva Roshan-Milani, Yousef Rasmi,
Volume 28, Issue 127 (3-2020)

Background and Objective: Spermatogenesis and oogenesis stress is a primary epigenetic element that can cause lifelong modifications in neural system functions. This study was designed to elucidate whether preconceptional stress during spermatogenesis and oogenesis affects the seizure behaviors and body weight of the offspring later in life.
Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 16 male and 32 female adult rats were included. Half of the rats were subjected to predatory stress. Then, they were coupled as follows: both subjects were intact as the control group (MC-FC), both subjects were stressed (MS-FS), male control/female stressed (MC-FS), and male stressed/female control (MS-FC). The pups were weighed and assessed for pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures. In addition, aniline blue staining was performed to study the chromatin maturity of the sperm in male parents immediately after copulation.
Results: The latency of the first seizure behavior significantly diminished in stressed pups, and the duration of focal and generalized seizures significantly increased in the stressed rats. In addition, the body weight of the pups decreased in the stress groups compared to control rats, and a significant decrease was detected in the chromatin maturity of sperms in stressed rats.
Conclusion: Stress during spermatogenesis and oogenesis can be critical for the general growth (body weight) and seizure susceptibility of the offspring. Therefore, to improve reproductive outcomes, stress-lowering interventions are better to be started before conception.

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