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Showing 22 results for Seizure

, اعظم امینی کمیجانی,
Volume 12, Issue 48 (9-2004)

Mr Palizvan, A Esmaeili, H Rajabian, Y Jand, E Mirzazadeh,
Volume 14, Issue 56 (9-2006)

Background & Objective: Regarding the high prevalence of epileptic seizures, its complications and the necessity to control them, this study was carried out in order to assess the role of progesterone administration in newborn rats on Pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) kindling susceptibility after maturity. Materials & Methods: This experimental study was carried out on 32 newborn Wistar rats. Rats were randomly divided into four groups, which are as follows: progesterone-injected females, progesterone-injected males, sesamoid-injected females and sesamoid-injected males. Progesterone and sesamoid groups were injected with progesterone (100 mg/Kg) and sesamoid (100 mg/Kg) respectively. Sixty days after injection chemical kindling in the rats was analyzed by PTZ administration. Results: Progesterone significantly increased the susceptibility for PTZ kindling in female rats however it did not have a significant effect on seizure parameters in male rats. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that chronic administration of progesterone can only increase susceptibility for chemical kindling in female rats and not in the males.

M Barzegar, Mr Rashidi, Ah Jafari Rouhi, A Jouyban, F Jabbari Bar, A Melekian,
Volume 15, Issue 58 (3-2007)

Background & objective: Due to high kinetic variation of antiepileptic medications in children, judgment on the efficacy of intravenous phenytoin and phenobarbital in treatment of refractory status epilepsy, requires measurement of serum levels of the drugs. The aim of this study was determine and compare serum levels of phenytoin and phenobarbital, as the two major and common first- line drugs in treatment of children with status epilepsy and refractory status epilepsy. Materials & methods: Serum levels of phenytoin and phenobarbital in 20 children (1month – 12years) with refractory status epilepsy (candidates for midazolam infusion) was compared with 20 children with status epilepsy. Age, gender, etiology, type of seizure and previous use of antiepileptic drugs were matched. Results: In patients with status epilepsy and refractory status epilepsy mean serum levels of phenobarbital were 28.03 ± 12.7 µg/ml, 37.22 ± 20.78 µg/ml respectively while serum levels of phenytoin were 30.38 ± 16.80 µg/ml, 31.42 ± 14.81 µg/ml respectively. There was no significant difference between phenobarbital (P=0.1) and phenytoin (P=0.8) serum levels in these two groups. There was no significant correlation between phenobarbital serum level with age in the group of status epilepsy (P=0.1) and refractory status epilepsy (P=0.8). In contrast, increased phenytoin serum level was associated with increased age in status epilepsy group (P=0.004) and refractory status epilepsy group (P=0.01). In both groups, blood level of the drugs were within the therapeutic range. Conclusion: High pharmacokinetic variation of antiepileptic medications in children does not cause any changes in the serum level of intravenous phenytoin and phenobarbital in the groups of status epilepsy and refractory status epilepsy. Development of refractory status epilepsy is probably due to the nature of disease or other unknown factors which need further studies.

F Golipour, H Arabzadeh,
Volume 17, Issue 66 (5-2009)

Background and Objective: Cerebrovascular accidents are one of the most common causes of disability in human population all over the world. Regarding the incidence of post- CVA Seizures and its effect on morbidity and mortality in these patients and due to lack of enough similar studies in our country, we decided to carry out this study in Valiasr hospital, Zanjan. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study was conducted on 404 CVA patients who were admitted in Valiasr hospital from Mar to Oct 2007. The data such as gender, age, type of CVA, damaged brain zone, occurrence of seizure in the first week, type of seizure and the expiration date (if patient had expired), was collected through questionnaire the data were analyzed using appropriate softwares. Results: The total mean age was 70.3 years old. 227 (56/2%) were men and 177 (43/8%) were women. Out of 404 patients with CVA, 362 cases (89/6%) were admitted with ischemic and 42 cases (10/4%) with hemorrhagic CVA. 16 cases (4%) had at least one seizure attack at the first week after CVA. Fifteen patients (4.1%) with ischemic CVA and 1 case (2.4%) with hemorrhagic CVA had at least one episode of early seizure in the first week (P= 0.579). The mortality rate was 7.5 and 31.3% in patients without and with seizure attack respectively. Conclusion: This study showed that early seizure following CVA was more common in ischemic type of CVA, especially in embolic form. The risk of early seizure was higher at the first day after CVA. In addition, early seizure was correlated with higher mortality rate in CVA patients. The incidence of early seizures was higher in men. So prescribing prophylactic anticonvulsant drugs may reduce the incidence of post CVA seizure and its complications in these patients.

M Ganjkhani, K Moradi, S Ramezani, F Mirzamohammadi, A Fallah,
Volume 18, Issue 70 (3-2010)

Background and Objective: Epileptic seizures are generally considered as complex and abnormal hyperexcitable phenomena in the brain. Probable changing of excitability in visual cortex by dark rearing (DR) might lead to clonic seizure. In this study the possible effect of dark rearing on Pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) - induced generalized clonic seizure was studied. Materials and Methods: To assess the generalized clonic seizure (GCS) threshold and incidence and latency of GCS, 0.5% Pentylenetetrazol was administrated intravenously and 80 mg/kg subcutaneously to the control and dark reared animals. Results: Our results showed that generalized clonic seizure threshold in DR group was not changed but occurring of GCS in DR animals was significantly lower and its latency was higher than the control animals. The tonic – clonic seizure was not different between the two groups. Conclusion: In spite of increasing seizure susceptibility in visual cortex by light deprivation, a kind of protection was observed in dark reared animals. Further studies seem to be necessary to elucidate the role of other factors such as melatonin.

Mansour Sadeghzadeh, Parisa Khoshnevis Asl, Seyed Norodin Mousavinasab, Ali Koosha, Mahmoud Norouzi Pakdel,
Volume 19, Issue 74 (3-2011)

Background and Objective: Febrile seizures (FS) are the most common seizures seen in childhood with a prevalence of 2-14% in different societies. This study was carried out regarding the possibility of the relationship between serum zinc levels and occurrence of FS.
Materials and Methods: 117 children ranging from 6 months to 5 years were divided into four groups: FS (n=39), febrile patients with no seizures (FNS) (n=40), control group of afebrile patients with no seizures (AFNS) (n=32), and patients with seizures without fever (n=6). After completion of a questionnaire and obtaining blood, serum zinc levels were measured. Data was analyzed using SPSS software.
Results: The mean serum zinc levels in 39 FS patients was 75.67 mcg/dl, 40 febrile patients with no seizure had a mean serum zinc level of 87.58 mcg/dl. 32 afebrile patients with no seizure had a mean serum zinc level of 89.06  mcg/dl and in 6 afebrile patients with seizure; the mean serum zinc level was 96/67 mcg/dl. The serum zinc level in FS patients was significantly lower than the other groups (p=0.002 and p=0.001), whereas the 3 other groups had no significant difference (P= 0.971).
Conclusion: Regarding the high incidence of hypozincaemia in FS, low serum zinc levels may be associated with the occurrence of FS.

Mohhamad Hossein Esmaeili, Mahin Ganjkhani, Aliosat Mellati, Hashem Haghdoost-Yazdi, Mohammad Sofiabadi,
Volume 19, Issue 75 (4-2011)

Background and Objective: Opiates have complex effects on seizure activity. They have both anti- and proconvulsive effects depending on experimental conditions.
The aim of this study was to determine the effects of different doses of morphine and naloxon on spontaneous seizure activity in mouse brain hippocampal slices.
Materials and Methods: Spontaneous epileptic activity in the brain hippocampal slices of mouse was induced by continuous perfusion of low magnesium artificial cerebrospinal fluid (low -Mg2+ ACSF). Extra cellular recordings were performed in the hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cell layer to account for the effects of the drugs on amplitude, duration and number of the ictal events as well as number of interictal spikes. 
Results: Application of morphine had a biphasic effect on the recorded spontaneous seizure-like events. In a low concentration (10 µM), morphine decreased seizure activity. Higher morphine concentrations (30 & 100 µM) enhanced seizure activity in an apparent dose-dependent manner. Naloxone, a nonselective opiate antagonist, blocked the proconvulsant action of morphine.
Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the effect of morphine on seizure in mouse is dose dependent. In other words, low systemic doses of morphine have anticonvulsant effects while high doses are proconvulsant.

M Nazarzadeh, Z Bidel, E Ayubi, A Bahrami, J Tezval, M Rahimi, F Jafari,
Volume 21, Issue 84 (3-2013)

Background and Objective: The age of smoking is declining in the developed and developing countries. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of smoking stages in a sample of high school students in Zanjan and assessing its related risk factors. Materials and Methods: Among the high school students in the academic year 2011-2012, a sample size of 1,064 subjects was selected by random multistage sampling. Data was gathered through standard self administered questionnaire including questions about demographical, socio-economical, psychological characteristics, smoking behavior and familiarity with various drugs. Binary logistic regression was used for assessing relationship between smoking and related factors. Results: Out of 354 (34.2%) students who reported smoking, 242 (23.4%) were classified as experimenters and 112 (10.8%) as regular smokers. The multivariate analysis by logistic regression shows that older age (OR=1.20), risk taking behaviors (OR=1.83), familiarity with Tramadol (OR=2.19), lower self-esteem (OR=1.07), positive attitude to smoking (OR=1.15), positive thinking about smoking (OR=1.07), and having friends who smoke (OR=1.94) associated with smoking. Conclusion: Results show that the prevalence of different stages of smoking among high school students in Zanjan is high compared to the studies with similar questionnaire reported from other provinces of Iran. Familiarity with Tramadol and having smoker friend/s had high association with smoking. More attention to the school base education may be effective in improvement of smoking control among high school students.

S Saeidi, H Azhdari Zarmehri, E Erami, B Alimohammadi,
Volume 21, Issue 86 (5-2013)

Background and Objective: Epilepsy is the most common neurological disorder after stroke. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Heracleum persicum on pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) - induced seizure in mice. Materials and Methods: In this study, 30 male mice were divided into five groups. 30 minutes after IP administration with different doses of extract (75,150, 300, 600mg/kg), PTZ (80 mg/kg) was injected to animals and they were instantly transferred to a special cage. Consequently, the convulsive behaviors of the mice were recorded by a camera as long as 20 minutes and the data were converted into seconds to be considered for analysis. Results: The results indicated that hydroalcoholic extract of Heracleum persicum has a significant effect on threshold tonic seizure in doses of 150 mg/kg, 300mg/kg and 600 mg/kg. In clonic phase, threshold increased slightly with an increase in doses of extract. In tonic-clonic phase, threshold increase was significant only in doses of 150 mg/kg and 900 mg/kg. This extract significantly decreased seizure duration time both in tonic and tonic-clonic phases upon dose increasing. Conclusion: The results of the present study imply that injection of hydro-alcoholic extracts of Heracleum persicum led to anticonvulsant activity. This extract augmented the onset of different seizure phases while reduced duration of tonic and tonic-clonic phases.

A Kazemi, Rsh Badv, B Aharchi, K Kamali,
Volume 21, Issue 89 (8-2013)

Background and Objective: Benzodiazepines are used for prophylaxis of febrile seizures. This study compares the effectiveness of intermittent Nitrazepam versus Diazepam therapy in preventing the recurrence of febrile seizures. Materials and Methods: This prospective randomized controlled trial was performed on neurologically normal children aged from 6 months to 3 years with a history of febrile seizures without history of prescribed antiepileptic drugs and family history of epilepsy. The patients were randomly prescribed oral nitrazepam (36 cases) or diazepam (37 cases) at the beginning of febrile disease. They were advised to use the medication within the first 48 hours of the onset of fever. All patients were followed for 9 months since the last seizure. Results: Recurrence of seizures occurred in 4 (10.8 %) patients of diazepam group, but it was not observed in any patients of the nitrazepam group. Age, sex, weight, height, grade of fever at the beginning of febrile seizure, seizure duration and hemoglobin level did not reveal a significant difference between the two groups of patients, and likewise, these variables did not show any statistically significant difference among patients with or without recurrence. Conclusion: Intermittent nitrazepam therapy for febrile seizure seems clinically advantageous in comparison to diazepam. To obtain more precise clinical and statistical results, further research is recommended.

K Sayehmiri, H Tavan, F Sayehmire, I Mohamadi,
Volume 23, Issue 97 (4-2015)

Background and Objective: Epilepsy is a one of the most common diseases causing many problems in Iran. Hence, this study was an attempt to assess the prevalence of epilepsy using meta-analysis and systematic review methods in Iran. Materials and Methods: Nine Iranian papers published in time period of 2002 to 2010 were selected using valid keywords and searching in the SID, Google scholar, PubMed and Elsevier databases. The heterogeneity of samples was dealt with using the I2 index. Results: In this study, the data of 7723 patients was used and nine papers were selected for meta-analysis among the published papers. The total prevalence of epilepsy was calculated to be 5% (95% confident interval (CI): (2%-8%) in Iran. The prevalence of epilepsy in central, northern and eastern areas of Iran was found to be 5% (95% CI, 2%-8%), 1% (95% CI, -1%-3%) and 4% (95% CI, 3%-11%), respectively. Somatic diseases and inheritance were the common risk factors of epilepsy with the percentage of 39% (95% CI, 15%-62%) and 26% (95% CI, 9%-42%), respectively. Conclusion: The findings in our study indicated a 5% more prevalence of epilepsy in Iran until 2010 in comparison to similar countries though this trend decreased with increasing age. Geographic area evidence showed a remarkable prevalence in the Center, East and North of the country and physical illnesses comprised the major risk factors. References 1-Valizadeh L, Akbarbegloo M, Zamanzadeh V, Rahiminia E, Caleb Ferguson F. The relationship between psychosocial care and attitudes toward illness in adolescents with epilepsy. Epilepsy Behav. 2013 27: 267-71. 2- Papavasilion AS, Kotsalis C, Paraskevoulakos E, Karaqouis P, Pizou C, Baziqou H. Intravenous midazolam in convulsive status epilepticus in children with pharmacoresistant epilepsy. Epilepsy Behav. 2009 14: 661-4. 3- Pei-min Yu, Ding Ding G, Lan Xu, et al. Treatment of epilepsy in adults: expert opinion in China. Epileosy Behav. 2012 23: 36-40. 4-Asadi-Pooya A, S. Lennox–Gastaut syndrome in south Iran: electro-clinical manifestations. Seizure. 2012: 21: 760-3. 5-MartinsHHAlonso NB, Vidal-Dourado M, et al. Are adverse effects of antiepileptic drugs different in symptomatic partial andidiopathic generalized epilepsies? The Portuguese–Brazilian validation of theLiverpool adverse events profile. Epilepsy Behav. 2011 22: 511-7. 6-Pondal-Sordo M, Diosy D, Tellez-Zentenob JF, Sahjpaul R, Wiebe S. Usefulness of intracranial EEG in the decision process for epilepsy surgery. Epilepsy Res. 2007 74: 176-82. 7- Landmark CJ, Fossmark H, Larsson PG, Rytter E, Johannessen SI. Prescription patterns of antiepileptic drugs in patients with epilepsy in a nation-wide population. Epilepsy Res. 2011 95: 51-9. 8- Barzegar M, Rashidi M, Jafari Rouhi A, Jouyban A, Jabbari Bar F, Melekian A. A Comparison of Phenobarbital and Phenytoin Serum Levels between Children with Status Epilepsy and refractory status epilepsy. J Zanjan Univ Med Sci. 2007 15: 24-31. 9- Al-Rashed H, Al-Yahya D, Al-Kandari A, Al-Sabah R, Al-Taiar A. Knowledge of, perceptions of, and attitudes toward epilepsy among university students in Kuwait. Epilepsy Behav. 2009 14: 367-71 10- Schmidt D. Drug treatment of epilepsy: options and limitations. Epilepsy Behav. 2009 15: 56-65. 11- Kerling F, Pauli E, Lorber B, Blümcke I, Buchfelder M, Stefan H. Drug withdrawal after successful epilepsy surgery: how safe is it?, Epilepsy Behav. 2009 15: 476-80. 12- Hao XT, Wong IS, Kwan P. Interrater reliability of the international consensus definition of drug-resistant epilepsy: a pilot study. Epilepsy Behav. 2011 22: 388-90. 13- Mushia D, Burton K, Mtuya C, Gona JK, Walker R, Newton CR. Perceptions, social life, treatment and education gap of Tanzanian children with epilepsy: a Community-based study. Epilepsy Behav. 2012 23: 224-9. 14- Feldman AE, Gidal BE. Prolongation by antiepileptic drugs and the risk of torsade de pointes in patients with epilepsy. Epilepsy Behav. 2013 26: 421- 6. 15- Saz EU, Karapinar B, Ozcetin M, et al. Convulsive status epilepticus in children: etiology, treatment protocoland outcome. Seizure. 2011 20: 115-8. Jonathan H. McKinnon 16- Shareef YS, Mc Kinnon JH, Gauthier SM, Noe KH, Sirven JI, Drazkowski JF. Counseling for driving restrictions in epilepsy and other causes of temporary impairment of consciousness: how are we doing? Epilepsy Behav. 2009 14: 550-2. 17-Hosseinia N, Ahmadi F, Zare M. Striving for balance: coping with epilepsy in Iranian patients. Epilepsy Behav. 2010 18: 466-71. 18- Aydemir N, Trung DV, Snape D,Baker GA, Jacoby A. Multiple impacts of epilepsy and contributing factors: findings from anethnographic study in Vietnam. Epilepsy Behav. 2009 16: 512-20. 19- The global campaign against epilepsy. Geneva: World Health Organization 2000. 20- Scott RA, Sander. The treatment of epilepsy in developing countries: where do we go from here? Bull World Health Organ. 2001 79: 344-51. 21- WHO, 'International Bureau for Epilepsy, International League Against epilepsy.Atlas: Epilepsy Care in the World. Geneva: Who (2005). 22- Szaflarski M, Szaflarski JP, Privitera MD, Ficker DM, Horner RD. disparities in the treatment of epilepsy: what do we know? what do we need to know? Epilepsy Behav. 2006 9: 243-64. 23- Nachvak M, Rezaei M Haghighat HR, 'Prevalence and monitoring of retarded childs in Tehran at 2002. J Kermanshah Univ Med Sci. 2004 3: 34-42. 24- Pashapour A, Sadrodini A. Grandmal epilepsy and variations in primary school children at Tabriz. Med J Tabriz Univ Med Sci. 2001 50: 23-7. 25- Mohammadi MR, Ghanizadeh A, Davidian H, Mohammadi M, Norouzian M., Prevalence of epilepsy and comorbidity of psychiatric disorders in Iran. Seizure. 2006 15: 476-82. 26- Javaheri R, Neshat-Doost HT, Molavi H, Zare M. Efficacy of cognitive-behavioral stress management therapy on improving the quality of life in females with temporal lobe epilepsy. J Arak Univ Med Sci. 2010 13: 32-43. 27- Kaheni S, Rezvani Kharashad MR, Sharifzadeh Gh, Nakhaei S, Riyasi HR. 'Prevalence of epilepsy in children at primary schools and awareness of teachers about epilepsy at primary schools of Birjand at 2010. J Birjand Univ Med Sci. 2011 3: 135-42. 28- Rezaei AK, Saeidi Sh. Survey of starting age and gender of epilepsy and effective parameters on the Sina and Ghaem hospitals patients at 1989 till 1995. Iran J Child Neurol. 29- Ashtari F, Akrami S. Clinical and paraclinical findings in admitted patients in epilepsy ward. J Isfahan Med Sch. 2011 28: 3 rd week 30- Nasehi MM, Shamsabadi M, Ghofrani M. Associated factors in response to treatment in children with refractory epilepsy. J Babol Univ Med Sci. 2010 12: 61-6. 31- Etemadifar M, Mirabdolbaghe P. Demographic and clinical characteristics of young epilepsy mortalities in Isfahan. Iran South Med J. 2006 2: 160-4.

N Mirazi, S Shamohammadi, A Hosseini,
Volume 23, Issue 101 (8-2015)

Background and Objective: Malva silvestris (Malvaceae), which is used in traditional medicine has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. The effects of this plant on clonic seizure have not yet been studied. The present study evaluated the anticonvulsant effect of M. silvestris in a model of clonic seizures induced with pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) on male mice.

Materials and Methods: In this experimental study the anticonvulsant effect of M. silvestris was investigated using i.v PTZ-induced seizure models on mice. Different doses of the hydroethanolic extract of M. silvestris (150 and 300 mg/kg) were administered intraperitonally 2 hours before the  induction of PTZ. The effect of M. silvestris on the appearance of three separate seizure endpoints including myoclonic, generalized clonus and forelimb tonic extension phase was recorded. Differences were considered significant at p <0.05.

Results: The results showed that the M. silvestris extract had anticonvulsant effects on all the experimental treatment groups and significantly increased the seizure threshold. Hydroethanolic extract of M. silvestris significantly increased the onset time of myoclonic seizure (p<0.001) and increased the threshold for the forelimb tonic extension seizure (p<0.01) compared with the control group. But it did not show any significant effect on generalized clonic phase response.

Conclusion: The results of the present study imply that injection of hydroethanolic extracts of M. silvestris led to anticonvulsant activity in i.v. PTZ-induced seizure in male mice.

Aa Azizzadehdelshad, Mh Ghaini , R Mirtahmaseb Mohamadi Mohamadi,
Volume 24, Issue 103 (4-2016)

Background and Objective: Because of the critical role of cell death in the pathology of neurodegenerative diseases, its prevention is regarded as one of the most salient ends in neuroprotective strategies. Concerning the bulk of reports about the putative neuroprotective effects of erythropoietin (Epo), in the present study following axotomy, the effects of different doses of Epo  on spinal motoneurons in neonates was investigated.

Materials and Methods: Following transection of  the right sciatic nerve of 20 two-day-old neonate rats and induction of apoptotic cell death in related motoneurons, the animals were subdivided into three experimental and one control groups. The experimental groups received different doses of 2500, 5000, 10000U/kg recombinant human Erythropoietin (rhEpo), and the control group was treated with equal volume of normal saline, intraperitoneally for 5 successive days. 24 hours following the last injection, histologic sections from the neonate spinal cords were prepared for counting of spinal motoneurons. In all samples, the intact side was regarded as the internal control.

Results: The difference between motoneuron means of intact and axotomy sides was significant in all groups, which advocates the efficacy of axotomy in cell death induction. Comparison of axotomized side of different groups indicated significant differences between both 5000 and 10000U/kg groups with control, and also between 10000 and 2500 groups, but no significant differences could be seen between other groups. Thus, 5000U/kg of rhEpo can be considered as the neuroprotective dose which can prevent cell death of axotomized motoneurons.

Conclusion: rhEpo has dose-dependent neuroprotective effects on axotomized spinal motoneurons.

P Zareie, M Sadegh, Mr Palizvan,
Volume 25, Issue 109 (4-2017)

Background and Objective: In spite of various and effective anti seizure drugs available, 30% of epileptic patients are not adequately treated with current medications. Based on the effectiveness of phytocannabinoids on epileptic and seizure models, in this study the effects of 2-achidonoylglycerol (2-AG) injection, as an important endocannabinoid, on tonic-clonic seizures induced by pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) was examined.  

Materials and Methods: The study was performed on male wistar rats (180-200 g). Tonic-clonic seizures were induced through a single intra-peritoneal injection of PTZ (80 mg/Kg) and then seizure behavior was monitored for 30 minutes. The intra-peritoneal injection of 2-AG (1 mg/Kg) in dimethyl solfoxide (DMSO) was performed 15 minutes before the PTZ injection. In the sham group an equivalent volume of DMSO was injected 15 minutes before PTZ. Data on the delay of seizure stage occurrence, duration of the stages, number of occurrences for each stage and mortality rate due to tonic-clonic seizures were collected for analysis.

Results: PTZ injection in association with DMSO significantly increased the delay for seizure stages 1 and 2, in comparison with just a PTZ injection (P<0.05), but had no significant effect on the duration and delay of seizure stages 3-5. Intra-peritoneal injection of 2-AG in association with DMSO before the injection of PTZ had no significant effect on the delay and duration of seizures but reduced the occurrence of each seizure stage and also reduced mortality due to tonic-clonic seizures in comparison with PTZ injection associated with DMSO. The mean seizure stage was also significantly decreased (P<0.05).

Conclusion: It seems 2-AG injection could be effective in reducing seizure parameters in seizures induced by PTZ.

N Jafari, Z Molaei, M Hoseini,
Volume 25, Issue 112 (7-2017)

Citrullinemia is an autosomal recessive urea cycle disorder that causes ammonia and other toxic substances to accumulate in the blood. It manifests with lethargy, brain edema, seizures, coma and possibly death. Electrocardiographic (ECG) abnormalities in patients with type 1 citrullinemia have not been reported so far. A long QT interval may be congenital or may be acquired such as in the use of antiarrhythmic drugs or during electrolyte imbalances. The neonate reported in this article had a long QT interval and hyperammonemia.

Dr Hassan Ahangar, Helia Pournaghshband, Dr Hanieh Paydari, Dr Ali Niksirat,
Volume 26, Issue 119 (11-2018)

Syncope is the state of lack of consciousness and temporal loss of postural tone. Syncope might be in association with a variety of benign and life-threatening conditions. Pulmonary embolism (PE) has been shown to be associated with syncope in 13-30 percent of cases. This article presents a novel case report of PE whom syncope was his only manifestation.

Dr Sara Asalgoo, Dr Gila Pirzad Jahromi, Dr Boshra Hatef, Dr Hedayat Sahraei,
Volume 26, Issue 119 (11-2018)

Background & Objective:  Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety reaction, which occurs as a result of encountering a seriously traumatic event during one’s lifetime. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of saffron aqueous extract and crocin on spatial memory and learning with the Barnes maze in a PTSD model on male Wistar rats (Weighting 200–250 gr).
Materials & Methods:  Wistar rats (n=48) were randomly divided into two groups: PTSD and non-PTSD. The PTSD group first received intra-cerebero-ventricular (ICV) administration of 10 µg/rat aqueous saffron extract, crocin or saline and then an electric foot shock. After 21 days, both groups were returned to the electric shock box in order to remember stressors without receiving any shocks. Corticosterone levels were then measured in the samples. Concurrently, a digital camera was recording the animals’ behaviors. Upon this, spatial learning and memory was assessed for five consecutive days.
 Results:  The saffron extract and crocin caused a significant increase (P<0.001) in corticosterone levels and a significant reduction (P<0.05) in freezing behavior, as well as a significant difference (P<0.001) in spatial learning of the two groups.
Conclusion:  Our results indicate the potential role of saffron aqueous extract and its active derivative (crocin) in improving behavioral symptoms and spatial learning in PTSD models.

Dr Amir Shafa, Dr Mohamadreza Habibzade, Dr Hamidreza Shetabi, Dr Ali Agil,
Volume 27, Issue 120 (1-2019)

Background and Objective: Several studies have shown that topical and intravenous Dexmedetomidine and Lidocaine can decrease pain and reduce consumption of analgesic drugs. However, Lidocaine may be accompanied with several side effects such as respiratory suppression, seizure, and cardiac arrhythmias. On the other hand, Dexmedetomidine has favorable properties such as low risk of apnea, analgesia, sympatholysis, and sedation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the effects of nebulized Dexmedetomidine and nebulized Lidocaine on hemodynamic characteristics of the patients undergoing bronchoscopy.
Materials and Methods: In the present randomized, double-blind study; 75 children (1-6 years old) undergoing fiber-optic bronchoscopy were allocated to three groups. Group 1 received nebulized solution containing 2 µg/kg of Dexmedetomidine. Group 2 received nebulized solution containing 4 mg/kg of Lidocaine 1%. Group 3 received nebulized solution containing 0.9% of normal saline as the control group. Heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure and SpO2, Bispectral Index (BIS) were measured and compared. BIS, indicating the depth of anesthesia was considered as a confounding factor. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software.
Results: The mean of arterial blood pressure and heart rate was significantly lower in group 1 compared to groups 2 and 3 during bronchoscopy (P< 0.05). Blood oxygen saturation and sedation scores were significantly higher in group 1 compared to the other groups during bronchoscopy (P< 0.05). Furthermore, the hemodynamic parameters were more stable in group 1 compared to the other groups during recovery.
Conclusion: Premedication with nebulized Dexmedetomidine was significantly associated with more stable hemodynamic parameters and lower risk of side effects compared to nebulized Lidocaine in children undergoing fiberoptic bronchoscopy.

Fariba Namdar, Farideh Bahrami, Zahra Bahari, Bahram Ghanbari, Seyed Ahmad Elahi, Mohammad Taghi Mohammadi,
Volume 27, Issue 124 (9-2019)

Background & Objective: The potent antioxidant property of fullerene C60 nanoparticles and their derivatives has been demonstrated in a wide range of in vitro and in vivo studies. Hence, we examined the effects of fullerene C60 on the oxidative stress parameters at brain and liver of rats in normal situation.
Materials & Methods: The study was performed in two groups of Wistar rats (each group, n = 6); normal and fullerene-treated normal animals. Treated rats received orally fullerene via oral gavage at dose of 1 mg/kg/day for 60 days. At termination of the study, the oxidative stress parameters were determined at brain and liver tissues, including the contents of glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA), and the activity of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). The t-test was used to analyze the data between two groups.
Results: Fullerene C60 treatment did not change blood glucose of treated rats compared to untreated rats. Fullerene C60 significantly increased the value of CAT activity (by 66%) and MDA levels (by 68%), whereas decreased SOD activity (by 33%) at liver of treated rats compared to untreated animals (P< 0.05). Fullerene administration significantly increased only CAT activity of brain in the treated rats (0.34±0.10 U/mg protein) compared to untreated animals (0.12±0.03 U/mg protein), (P<0.05).
Conclusion: Our findings indicated that oral administration of fullerene C60 nanoparticles differently changes the oxidative stress parameters in liver and brain at normal condition. It is suggested that these effects must be considered for application of these nanoparticles in various therapeutic purposes.

Leila Safaeian, Behzad Zolfaghari, Najmeh Assarzadeh, Akram Ghadirkhomi,
Volume 27, Issue 125 (12-2019)

Background & Objective: Although Pinus eldarica is considered as a pine with many valuable phytochemical constituents, little is known about the pharmacological effects of its bark extract. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate in vivo antioxidant activity and also the possible beneficial effects of the bark extract of P. eldarica on dexamethasone-induced dyslipidemia in rats.
Materials & Methods: Total phenolic content was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu method. The in vivo antioxidant assays included the measurement of hydroperoxides level and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) value in plasma samples of rats receiving intraperitoneal injections (IP) injections of plant extract (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) for 28 days. For induction of dyslipidemia, dexamethasone (10 mg/kg) was subcutaneously administered during 8 days. Different doses of extract were given orally plus dexamethasone in three groups of animals. Serum lipids, blood glucose and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and liver histopathology were assessed.
Results: High total phenolic content was determined as 375±1.2 mg gallic acid equivalent/ g of dried bark extract. The extract significantly decreased plasma hydroperoxides level at all doses and increased FRAP value at the dose of 400 mg/kg during in vivo antioxidant analysis. P. eldarica led to a significant reduction in serum levels of blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride and MDA and improved liver histopathological changes at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg in dyslipidemic rats.
Conclusion: These findings suggest the potential antioxidant, antihyperlipidemic and antihyperglycemic activities for the bark extract of P. eldarica which may be due to the high amounts of phenolic compounds.

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