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Showing 161 results for Type of Study: Orginal research

Mojgan Alsadat Aghvamy, Morteza Torabi Ahmadi, Mahnaz Afshinjoo,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (9-2011)
Abstract

  Background and Objectives: Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases in childhood period. It decreases the quality of life of children. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of group education using compact disks on the quality of life in children 8-12 years with asthma referring to the asthma and Allergy clinic in Valiasr medical center in zanjan, 2009.

  Material and Methods: This is a quasi-experiment single blind study. We evaluated the Effectiveness of Group Education using CDs on Quality of Life of Children with Asthma. Data were collected using the PedAQLQ. Some other items were added by the researchers to measure the physical, psychological and social domains. The 40 participants were selected using non-random sampling method. Data were analyzed using paired t-test.

  Results: The average score of the quality of life in the three domains indicated that the quality of life has been increased appropriately. The score was increased significantly after the intervention (p<0/05).

  Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the educational intervention using CDs improved the quality of life in children suffering from Asthma.


Mitra Payami Bousaria , Hosein Ebrahimi, Gholam Ali Taghiloo, Heydar Ali Abedi, Fazlo Allah Ahmadi, Hosein Bagheri,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (9-2011)
Abstract

Introduction: Conflict among nurses has been identified as a significant issue within healthcare settings all around the world. Nurses confront with different types of interpersonal conflicts in their work. It's important to know causes and effects of conflicts in nursing units before deciding to manage them. Aim: describing the experiential aspects of nurses' inter group conflicts focused on causes and effects. Methods: Unstructured and in-depth interviews were conducted according to the grounded theory method. Data were transcribed, coded and categorized in order to generate conceptual categories using constant comparative method. Results: 310 codes extracted from 18 interviews resulted in a model describing the nature and causes of inter group conflicts within nursing: Extra and intra organizational elements with personal and environmental characteristics provide the instincts for creating the conditions which lead to inter group conflicts. Discussion: According to findings context and work place atmosphere must be consider before any try to manage inter group conflicts properly.


Reza Abbaschian, Azar Avazeh, Soheyla Rabi Siahkalis,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (9-2011)
Abstract

  Background and Objectives: Nurses are among the most influential human resources in health systems. Job satisfaction can increase efficiency of systems and commitment of employees to organizations. Identifying the effective factors on job satisfaction can help to increase job satisfaction and motivation of nurses to perform their tasks appropriately. This study was conducted to determine job satisfaction and its related factors among nurses working in the public hospitals of Zanjan.

  Material and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we recruited 472 nurses from public hospitals at Zanjan University of Medical Sciences using stratified random sampling. Data gathering tools included a researcher–made questionnaire including 25 items in the areas of job security, management style, work environment, facilities, salary and benefits, self-concept and social image of nurses. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and chi-square test in the SPSS.

Results: The job satisfaction among nurses was moderate (51.2±1.87). The highest mean score (62.2 ± 2.39) was related to the social prestige of the nursing profession in society. The lowest average scores were related to satisfaction with work and welfare (44.82 ±2.62), and rights and benefits (45.76±2.63), respectively. Conclusion: Facilities, working conditions, and salary and benefits were the most important factors affecting job satisfaction. It seems to be necessary to adjust the work hours, and shifts to enhance the quality of nursing care and nurse satisfaction


Hamid Reza Haririan, Ali Aghajanloo, Mansor Ghafouri Fard ,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (9-2011)
Abstract

  Background and Objectives: Chronic Renal Failure (CRF) influence patients’ lifestyles, health statuses, and role functions, and lead to physical and psychosocial problems. Social support is an important copping mechanism by which quality of life and health status of patients improve. The aim of this study was to determine informational and instrumental support in hemodialysis patients in hospitals of Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, 2010.

  Material and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 84 patients with CRF who were referred to the hemodialysis centers of Zanjan were recruited to the study. The participants answered to the two sets of questionnaires: 1) demographic items 2) standard instrument of social support. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics in the SPSS-16 .

  Results: The study showed that 20.3% and 29.7% of participants had optimal informational and instrumental support, respectively .

  Conclusion: More than two third of the patients did not have optimal social support. Regarding positive relationships between social support, quality of life and survival rate in hemodialysis patient, it is suggested that health care policymakers and managers consider the instrumental and informational support in order to improve quality of life in hemodialysis patient.


Azam Malekia, Elahe Ahmadnia,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (9-2011)
Abstract

  Background and Objectives: Increasing d aily intake of 400 micrograms folic acid to 80% among childbearing women up to 2010 is a public health goal. This study aimed to assess the knowledge and practice of pregnant women on folic acid intake and its related factors.

  Material and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 361 literate pregnant women attending health centers in Zanjan were recruited to the study using a convenience sampling method. Data were collected usinf a questionnaire. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the items was 0.75. Data were analyzed using statistical t-test, ANOVA, Chi-square, and logistic regression. The mean of knowledge score was considered as the average knowledge and ranges more or less than the average were considered as high or low knowledge, respectively.

  Results: About 25.2 percent of pregnant women had good knowledge, 53.2 percent had average knowledge, and 21.6 percent had low knowledge. The knowledge score had a significant relationship with the occupation, mothers’ age, and education .More than 60 percent of the participants used folic acid alone or in combination with multivitamins or iron. The folic acid usage had a significant correlation with gestational age as the highest percentage of consumption of folic acid was in the second trimester of pregnancy and the lowest percentage was in the first trimester. Most of the women (73.1%) had heard about folic acid. Public clinics were the most cited source of information. Marriage classes had provided the least information.

  Conclusion: Despite a large percentage of women who had heard about folic acid, most of them had not enough knowledge about benefits of folic acid consumption during pregnancy. Folic acid intake amount was near the public health goal however, most of the participants had started taking the pills after their first trimester. Therefore, educating women on the benefits of folic acid intake during pregnancy should be considered in educational classes


Poran Mokhtari, Parvin Shiri, Elahe Ahmadnia , Tarane Khooshehchin,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (9-2011)
Abstract

  Background and Objectives: This study aimed to investigate nurses’ and midwives’ current knowledge about the osteoporosis. 

  Material and Methods: In this survey, we used the FOOQ (The Facts on Osteoporosis Quiz) questionnaire to measure osteoporosis knowledge on 214 nurses and midwives in Valiasr hospital in Zanjan.

  Results: Findings indicated a generally moderate to high level of knowledge about certain risk factors among the participants. The main deficit in the knowledge of the participants was about walking and bone health.

  Conclusion: The study findings were consistent with the results of other studies which have reported that the knowledge of osteoporosis among nurses and midwives is less than adequate. The findings showed the requirement to focus on in the osteoporosis educational interventions among nurses and midwives.


Gholam Reza Mahmoodi, Fateme Alhani, Manije Anousheh, Ghanbar Rouhi,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (9-2011)
Abstract

  Background and Objectives: Burnout is a syndrome usually found in health providers such as nurses and hospital employees. According to Maslach, burnout is a reflective physical and emotional exhaustion , depersonalization and personal accomplishment. Therefore, assessment of its related factors such as age, work duration, type of wards, and work schedule are very important.

  Material and Methods: This was a descriptive–analytical correlational study. The study was conducted among 272 nurses in hospitals. The research instrument was the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) questionnaire consisted of three parts including: 1) emotional exhaustion 2) depersonalization and 3) personal achievement with the Likert scoring scale. Data were analyzed using the SPSS.

  Results: There were 95 males and 177 females 60 singles and 206 married nurses. About 100 nurses had no children, and 33 nurses had three or more children. A majority of the participants were married. Most of the male (n=80), and female (n=156) nurses had BSc. educational level. The majority of the nurses had experience of clinical work in circular shifts. The study showed that 43.8% of the nurses had high level of emotional exhaustion burnout. In addition, there were significant relationships between severity and frequency of depersonalization with the number of children (p=0.001), position (p=0.008), and hospitals of different cities (p=0.022). There were also significant relationships between personal achievement and hospitals of different cities (p=0.02) and also depersonalization with employee (p=0.041).

  Conclusion : The results of this study showed that there were burnouts among nurses in dimension of e motional and depersonalization. There were also significant relationships between some family and professional factors.


Amir Vahedian Azimi , Somaye Ghasem Kashani , Azar Avazeh, Mansore Sepehri Nia , Mahin Rohani,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (9-2011)
Abstract

  Background and Objectives: Patients’ rights are the patients’ expectations from health services. Patients’ rights declaration is to protect individuals’ rights in order to be ensured, in case of being sick they will receive enough qualified care in a respectful context regardless of their age, gender, and economic situation. The purpose of this study was to determine the level of nurses’ awareness from patients’ rights and the extent to which they respect such rights in Mashhad’s hospitals.

  Material and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. The participants were 486 nurses who were selected based on the random simple stratified sampling . The instrument used for data collection was a questionnaire including two main sections: 1) demographic information and 2) situational rights of the patients. Data were analysed in the SPSS.

  Results: The results of the study revealed that the level of awareness and the degree to which the nurses observe patients’ rights were at excellent level in more than 50% of the cases. The study also demonstrated that awareness and observation of the patients’ rights were not significantly correlated to age, experience, and educational level ( P>0/05) .

  Conclusion: According to the results of the study, observation of the patients’ rights were at excellence level in more than half of the cases however, regarding the importance of the issue in question, it is essential that policymakers set legislating rules which protect patients’ and nurses’ rights, so as to expect improvements in the quality of health and clinical services.


Mansor Ghafouri Fard, Mitra Payami Bousaria , Ali Reza Heyadari Some A ,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (3-2012)
Abstract

  Background and Aim: War is an unpleasant event imposes for peoples and that causes physical and psychological disorders. One of these complications is blindness. Whereas the blindness may affect the adjustment state of warfare veterans and also the psychological effects of blindness was not studied. So this study was performed to detect the adjustment status among warfare Veterans with one eye blindness in Zanjan city, 2011.

  Materials and Methods: This study is a crosssectional analytical descriptive study which 45 warfare veterans of zanjan city participated in the study according to census. Data was gathered using Bell Adjustment inventory . We used SPSS ver.16 and ANOVA test for statistical analysis.

  Results: 45 warfare veterans of zanjan city with mean age of 48 ± 7 years participated in the study. The results showed that 66/7% of samples had moderate home adjustment. Only 11/1% had good home adjustment. Regarding to the health adjustment, most portions of samples (66/7%) had fair adjustment. Pearson correlation showed a meaningful relation between health adjustment and age of veterans (p=0/041, r=-0/30). Pared t-test showed meaningful differences between means of home and health adjustment scores. There was a meaningful difference between social adjustment and age category (p=0/016). But there were no differences in the mean of home and health adjustment scores according to age, marriage status, education, exercise, income, percentage of veterans and reason of hurt ( p>0/05).

  Conclusion : In this study, a lot of veterans had not a good adjustment. So it is expected from authorities of our country to pay a lot of attention to the psychological status of veterans and holds the educational sessions about life skills and active participating in social fields to promote the physical and psychological health of veterans.


Akefe Ahmadiafshar, Banafshe Parvizy, Noraldin Mousavinasab,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (3-2012)
Abstract

  Background and Objectives: The incidence and etiologic factors of chronic urticaria, a common disease, was varied in different studies. The purpose of this study was to determine some causes of chronic urticaria and response to treatment in the patients suffering from chronic urticaria in allergy clinic of Vali-Asr Hospital in Zanjan during May 2004 to September 2007.

  Material and Methods: In this study, after taking thorough history and examining patients, laboratory test including atopy, thyroid disorders, collagen vascular, liver disorders and stool examination for parasitic infestation were taken. Data were analyzed using the SPSS.

  Results: One hundred forty six patients had chronic urticaria (100 females and 46 males, mean age: 30.69 years) 75 patients (51.4%) had idiopathic urticaria. From all, 42 patients (28.8%) had atopy and 25 patients (17%) had physical urtiaria. Response to treatment was seen in more than 80% of the patients.

  Conclusion: In our study, idiopathic urtiaria was the most common one however, the incidence was low in comparison with the other studies. We could not find any association between the consumption specific food and drugs with the urticaria. The response to treatment using the anti-histamines was very good.


Kajal Rezaei, Reza Ghanei, Mansor Ghafouri Fard,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (3-2012)
Abstract

  Background and Objectives: Sleep apnea involves repetitive cycles of obstructive sleep that disrupt sleep. This complication is the most important modifiable risk factors for stroke. The aim of this study was to assess sleep apnea in patients with stroke. 

  Material and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 132 patients with stroke were recruited using convenience sampling. Data were gathered using the Berlin Questionnaire and were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistical tests.

  Results: The mean age of participants was 69/5 ± 11/6 years. The results showed that 54.5% of the patients were at high risk of sleep apnea. Moreover, there were significant differences between systolic (p=0.0001) and diastolic (p<0.01) blood pressures in high and low risk groups for sleep apnea.

  Conclusion: Regarding the high prevalence of sleep apnea in patients with stroke and the relationship between sleep apnea with high blood pressure, it is recommended to use screening procedures to identify high risk patients.


Maryam Sakkaki, Khadije Hajimiri,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (3-2012)
Abstract

  Background and Objectives: Normal vaginal delivery is the best type of delivery in most cases and cesarean section is restricted to cases in which vaginal delivery is accompanied with risks for mother and baby. The aim of this study was to determine rate and causes of cesarean delivery in an educational hospital in 2009.

  Material and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. Data were gathered using 467 patients' medical files and interviews with 391 women who underwent cesarean section and were recorded in a data sheet. Data were analyzed using the SPSS.

  Results: The rate of cesarean section was 31.5% of all live births. The most causes of cesarean section were repeated cesarean section (29.6%), mecuneum staining (15%), breech presentation (14.1%), and placenta previa (10.9%).

  Conclusion: The findings of the study showed that the rate of cesarean section in our selected hospital was more than the reported rates by the WHO. Based on the results, we should decrease the rate of the first cesarean sections. In order to achieve this goal, it is essential to implement interventional programs in order to change women’s attitudes towards benefits of vaginal delivery. Moreover, we should admit low risk mothers in active phase of labor.


Fateme Saremi, Shamsi Taran, Azam Malekia,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (3-2012)
Abstract

Background and Objectives: Health status, lifestyle and previous history of pregnancies significantly affect pregnancy outcome however, many adverse pregnancy outcomes are preventable. This study aimed to investigate causes of hospitalization of pregnant women in delivery unit of Zanjan Ayatollah Mosavi hospital. Material and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, the causes of hospitalization of 4830 women with gestational ages more than 20 weeks were investigated during 2009-2010. Data were collected using a check list including patients' chief complaint, women’s demographic characteristics and delivery history. Data were analyzed using descriptive test, chi square, and t-test in a confidence level of 95 %. Results: From 4830 hospitalized women, 1278 were hospitalized due to obstetrics complications. The mean age of women was 26.52±6.26 year. The mean gestational age was 264.24±21.40 days. The most common causes of hospitalization were rupture of amniotic membranes (49.1%), preterm labor (29.3%), meconium staining (15.5%), and hypertension (11.8%). The rate of caesarian section, male baby, APGAR score lower than six in the 1st and 5th minutes of delivery, hypertension, and twin pregnancies were high in preterm labors. Meconium staining and rupture of amniotic membranes were common in term and post term deliveries. Conclusion: Findings showed that the most common causes of hospitalization were rupture of amniotic membranes and preterm labor. It is necessary to conduct more research on the causes of these complications


Soheyla Abbasi, Kolsom Fadakar Sogheh , Sodabe Mehdizadeh,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (3-2012)
Abstract

  Background and Objectives: Having a mentally retarded child has adverse effect on the structure and function of family and has physical, social and economic tension to family. The aim of this study was to investigate emotional conditions of families of mentally retarded children under protection of welfare centers.

  Material and Methods: In this survey, 140 parents of children who were suffered from mental retardation were recruited to the study. Data were gathered using a research-structured instrument via interviews with the participants. Data were analysis in the SPSS-14 using Chi-square test and the Fisher’s exact test.

  Results: The result of our study showed that 57.9% of the parents had emotional problems. The emotional problems were more serious in parents of children who were female, had mild mental retardation, were completely dependent to their family, and had behavioral problems. Moreover, in the families whose mothers were housewives, father had physical illness, the number of family members were more than four, and the monthly income of the family was less than 2000000 Rilas, the condition was more serious (p<0/05) Conclusion: It is recommended to pay more attention to families of mentally retarded children via providing coping techniques and counseling services as well as supporting financially.


Mahdi Khezeli, Tahere Dehdari,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (3-2012)
Abstract

  Background and Objectives: Cervical cancer can be recognized in pre-malignancy phase using Pap smear test. Health services employees can play an important role in educating women to participate in regular screening program. The purpose of this study was to determine knowledge, attitude and practice of female employees of health network in Guilan-Gharb about Pap smear and cervical cancer in 2011.

  Material and Methods: In this study, 70 women were recruited. Data were gathered using a four-part questionnaire. Data were analyzed using central indexes, one way ANOVA test, and Pearson correlation coefficient.

  Results: Participants had moderate knowledge (66.2% of the total score). There was a significant relationship between the knowledge with education, job, duration of marriage, and number of pregnancy. Participants had optimum attitude (68.97% of the total score). There was a significant relationship between the attitude with education, job, and the number of pregnancy. In total, 65.7% of the participants had once undergone a Pap smear test.

  Conclusion : Health employees have important role in educating and encouraging women to do Pap smear test so, it is essential to promote their own knowledge, attitude, and practice on the Pap screening test.


Shahnaz Tork Zahrani , Leila Rastegari, Nahid Khoda Karami , Parvin Mohebbi,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (3-2012)
Abstract

  Background and Objectives: Cervical cancer is one of the most common cancers in developing countries. This disease and its treatment influence various aspects of quality of life. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between the quality of life and social support among cervical cancer survivors.

  Material and Methods: In this study 65 women treated for cervical cancer during 2001-2008 were recruited. Data were gathered using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire – Cervix 24, the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire – core 30, Version 3, and the social support questionnaire. The instruments’ validity was assessed using content validity and the reliability was assessed via test-retest and Cronbach's alpha.

  Results: Results of our study showed that the quality of life scores for patients treated for cervical cancer was moderate (60/7 ± 98/46). The score of social support was moderate, too (91/20 ± 11/34). There were no relationships between the physical, psychological and social dimensions of quality of life with the social support. There were also no relationships between the mental and spiritual well-being with the quality of life (P> 0.05).

  Conclusion: The findings showed that the quality of life and social support scores were moderate among the participants of our study.


Nasrin Meshgin Abadi, Farhad Ramezanibadr, Khalil Mahmoodi,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (7-2012)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI) is a common procedure in treatment of coronary artery diseases. Anxiety is a common psychological reaction to cardiovascular interventions. Anxiety can affect physiological responses and cause blood pressure increase, cardiac output decrease, cardiac o2 demand increase, and finally ischemic pain. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of aromatherapy massage on anxiety of patients undergone the PCI. Materials and Methods: In this semi-experimental study, 76 patients undergone elective PCI who had met the inclusion criteria for the study were recruited using convenience sampling method and were randomly divided into two control and experimental groups. The patients in the control group received routine care with eight hours bed rest after the PCI. The patients in the experimental group underwent aromatherapy massage with a solution composed of mint, celery and lavender essences in sweet almond oil )%1 concentration). The intensity of anxiety was measured using the Spilberger state anxiety inventory in three stages (prior to the intervention, immediately after the intervention, and two hours after the intervention) .The incidence of bleeding was observed before and after the intervention. The incidence of hematoma was observed 24 hours after the intervention. Results: The intensity of anxiety had significantly decreased after aromatherapy massage in the experimental group in comparison with the control group (P< 0.0005). The effect was stable up to two hours after the intervention (P< 0.0005). In the experimental group, anxiety decreased significantly after the intervention (P< 0.0005). None of the patients in the study had bleeding. Moreover, 92.1% of patients were satisfied from the intervention procedure. Conclusion: The results showed that the aromatherapy massage was a safe, non-expensive, and effective method in decreasing anxiety of patients undergone the PCI.


Payman Janani, Masoud Roudbari, Iman Tahamtan, Shahram Sedghi,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (7-2012)
Abstract

Background and Objectives: The journal articles published in the Iranian journals are valuable resources for nurses and midwives. This article aimed to analyze the content of the articles published in the nursing and midwifery journals of Iranian universities of medical sciences. Material and Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive study, 565 articles published during 2005-2007 in the 20 Iranian nursing and midwifery journals were collected. Data were collected using a checklist and were presented using descriptive statistics in the SPSS-16. Results: Most articles were published equally in nursing classification (12/4%) and miscellaneous articles (12/4%). Most of the articles were conducted using descriptive methodologies. The most cited subjects were nursing education (20%) and pregnancy (16.6%) in the nursing and midwifery subheadings, respectively. The Magiran database indexed the most nursing and midwifery articles. Conclusion: There were few scientific nursing and midwifery journals published by the medical sciences universities. A majority of the articles published in the nursing and midwifery universities were related to other medical fields. It seems that there should be a distinct publishing policy in nursing and midwifery journals. Creating a specific database for indexing nursing and midwifery articles is recommended.


Nahid Daryaei, Mitra Payami Bousari , Noraldin Moosavi Nasab , Eskandar Nourizadeh,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (7-2012)
Abstract

Background and Objectives: Chest tube removal is a prompt painful procedure. The pain is gradually relieved after removal of the tube. Cold application in combination with the Indomethacin suppository administration may increase the duration for analgesic need. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of cold in combination with Indomethacin suppository on the duration for analgesic need after chest tube removal. Materials and Methods: This quasi-experimental single-blinded study was conducted on 66 patients aged 18-68 years with chest tube in pleural space. The patients were randomly allocated into two intervention and control groups. In both groups, 100mg Indomethacin suppository was administered one hour before chest tube removal. In the intervention group, a 4ºc cold pack was applied in the chest tube side for 20 minutes. In the control group, the applied pack was in room temperature. The severity of pain was evaluated using the visual analogue score 20 minutes before and 15 minutes after the chest tube removal. The duration for analgesic need after chest tube removal was recorded in both groups. Results: Despite reduction, there was no statistically significant difference between the mean score of pain before the chest tube removal and 15 minutes after the procedure (p>0.05). After chest tube removal, patients in the control group requested for analgesic earlier than the patients in the intervention group. Conclusion: The application of cold in combination with the Indomethacin suppository increased the duration for analgesic need after chest tube removal. The application of cold in combination with the Indomethacin suppository is recommended as a solution to reduce the need for analgesic after chest tube removal.


Hosein Masoomi, Rahim Sorouri Zanjani ,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (7-2012)
Abstract

Background and objective: Vasectomy as a none-expensive and easy contraceptive method is not mentioned by most of men in Zanjan. This study aimed to assess the rate of satisfaction from vasectomy among men undergone vasectomy in Zanjan, 2009. Materials and methods: In this cross-sectional study, data were collected using 101 files of patients who undergone vasectomy in Zanjan health centers. Data were gathered using a self-structured questionnaire through face to face interviews and were analyzed using statistical tests in the SPSS. Results: Overall, 56.4% of men were satisfied from vasectomy. Satisfaction rate was higher among those who aged 45 years old and more (62%). Men whose wives were housekeepers were more satisfied than men whose wives were working (74% vs. 55%). Men living in rural areas were more satisfied than men who lived in urban areas (72% vs. 55%). Conclusion: Considering the causes of dissatisfactions in designing family planning programs should promote the rate of vasectomy in health centers.



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