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Showing 54 results for Behavior

Mitra Payami Bousaria , Hosein Ebrahimi, Gholam Ali Taghiloo, Heydar Ali Abedi, Fazlo Allah Ahmadi, Hosein Bagheri,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (9-2011)
Abstract

Introduction: Conflict among nurses has been identified as a significant issue within healthcare settings all around the world. Nurses confront with different types of interpersonal conflicts in their work. It's important to know causes and effects of conflicts in nursing units before deciding to manage them. Aim: describing the experiential aspects of nurses' inter group conflicts focused on causes and effects. Methods: Unstructured and in-depth interviews were conducted according to the grounded theory method. Data were transcribed, coded and categorized in order to generate conceptual categories using constant comparative method. Results: 310 codes extracted from 18 interviews resulted in a model describing the nature and causes of inter group conflicts within nursing: Extra and intra organizational elements with personal and environmental characteristics provide the instincts for creating the conditions which lead to inter group conflicts. Discussion: According to findings context and work place atmosphere must be consider before any try to manage inter group conflicts properly.


Reza Abbaschian, Azar Avazeh, Soheyla Rabi Siahkalis,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (9-2011)
Abstract

  Background and Objectives: Nurses are among the most influential human resources in health systems. Job satisfaction can increase efficiency of systems and commitment of employees to organizations. Identifying the effective factors on job satisfaction can help to increase job satisfaction and motivation of nurses to perform their tasks appropriately. This study was conducted to determine job satisfaction and its related factors among nurses working in the public hospitals of Zanjan.

  Material and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we recruited 472 nurses from public hospitals at Zanjan University of Medical Sciences using stratified random sampling. Data gathering tools included a researcher–made questionnaire including 25 items in the areas of job security, management style, work environment, facilities, salary and benefits, self-concept and social image of nurses. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and chi-square test in the SPSS.

Results: The job satisfaction among nurses was moderate (51.2±1.87). The highest mean score (62.2 ± 2.39) was related to the social prestige of the nursing profession in society. The lowest average scores were related to satisfaction with work and welfare (44.82 ±2.62), and rights and benefits (45.76±2.63), respectively. Conclusion: Facilities, working conditions, and salary and benefits were the most important factors affecting job satisfaction. It seems to be necessary to adjust the work hours, and shifts to enhance the quality of nursing care and nurse satisfaction


Fateme Saremi, Shamsi Taran, Azam Malekia,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (3-2012)
Abstract

Background and Objectives: Health status, lifestyle and previous history of pregnancies significantly affect pregnancy outcome however, many adverse pregnancy outcomes are preventable. This study aimed to investigate causes of hospitalization of pregnant women in delivery unit of Zanjan Ayatollah Mosavi hospital. Material and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, the causes of hospitalization of 4830 women with gestational ages more than 20 weeks were investigated during 2009-2010. Data were collected using a check list including patients' chief complaint, women’s demographic characteristics and delivery history. Data were analyzed using descriptive test, chi square, and t-test in a confidence level of 95 %. Results: From 4830 hospitalized women, 1278 were hospitalized due to obstetrics complications. The mean age of women was 26.52±6.26 year. The mean gestational age was 264.24±21.40 days. The most common causes of hospitalization were rupture of amniotic membranes (49.1%), preterm labor (29.3%), meconium staining (15.5%), and hypertension (11.8%). The rate of caesarian section, male baby, APGAR score lower than six in the 1st and 5th minutes of delivery, hypertension, and twin pregnancies were high in preterm labors. Meconium staining and rupture of amniotic membranes were common in term and post term deliveries. Conclusion: Findings showed that the most common causes of hospitalization were rupture of amniotic membranes and preterm labor. It is necessary to conduct more research on the causes of these complications


Soheyla Abbasi, Kolsom Fadakar Sogheh , Sodabe Mehdizadeh,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (3-2012)
Abstract

  Background and Objectives: Having a mentally retarded child has adverse effect on the structure and function of family and has physical, social and economic tension to family. The aim of this study was to investigate emotional conditions of families of mentally retarded children under protection of welfare centers.

  Material and Methods: In this survey, 140 parents of children who were suffered from mental retardation were recruited to the study. Data were gathered using a research-structured instrument via interviews with the participants. Data were analysis in the SPSS-14 using Chi-square test and the Fisher’s exact test.

  Results: The result of our study showed that 57.9% of the parents had emotional problems. The emotional problems were more serious in parents of children who were female, had mild mental retardation, were completely dependent to their family, and had behavioral problems. Moreover, in the families whose mothers were housewives, father had physical illness, the number of family members were more than four, and the monthly income of the family was less than 2000000 Rilas, the condition was more serious (p<0/05) Conclusion: It is recommended to pay more attention to families of mentally retarded children via providing coping techniques and counseling services as well as supporting financially.


Arman Latifi, Tahereh Dehdari,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (7-2012)
Abstract

Background and Objectives: Iron deficiency is a prevalent nutrition deficiency in the world. Women are at risk for iron deficiency anemia. Changing behavior towards healthy eating habits in women helps iron deficiency anemia decrease. The purpose of this study was to assess eating habits of female students residing in the dormitory of the Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences focusing on prevention of iron deficiency anemia in 2009. Material and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a convenience sample of 348 female students was selected. Data were gathered using the demographic and nutrition pattern inventories related to prevention of iron deficiency anemia. The reliability and validity of the scale was confirmed. The statistical analysis of the data was done in the SPSS 16. . Results: The results showed that 0.2 percent of the participants had low level eating habit, 59 percent had a moderate level, and 40.2 percent had a high level eating habit. Conclusion: Regarding the importance of the anemia and the role of healthy diets in prevention of anemia, it is recommended to increase the knowledge of women aged 15-49 years old towards health eating.


Zahra Sadeghi, Mitra Payami, Seyed Nooredin Moosavinasab,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (2-2013)
Abstract

Background and Objectives: Hospitalization of patients in ICU can be stressful for both patients and their families. This study aimed to assess the effect of family participation in ICU patients care on family’s anxiety level. Material and Methods: This is a quasi-experimental before-after study. Family members of patients hospitalized in ICU of Ayatollah Mousavi Hospital, Zanjan were randomly divided into two experimental and control groups. Family members of the experimental group patients collaborated with the nurses in their patients care two hours a day from the 3rd day to the 7th day of the hospitalization. The control group patients were treated according to the ICU routine. Participants in both groups filled out the DASS-21 questionnaire before and after the intervention. Data were analyzed using the t-test in the SPSS-16. Results: There was a significant difference in the anxiety score among the participants in the intervention group before (21.6±8.4) and after the intervention (12.6±7) (p<0.001). Conclusion: The result of the study indicated that the participation of the family members of patients hospitalized in the ICU in patients care can be effective in decreasing their stress and anxiety.


Tahere Dehdari, Maryam Chegni, Lale Dehdari,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (2-2013)
Abstract

Background and Objectives: There are high tendency among adolescence for consuming junk foods. The aim of this study was to predict the junk food consumption based on the theory of planned behavior among female student in Kermanshah, 2011. Material and Methods: In this descriptive-analytical study, 207 female students studying in middle schools of Kermanshah were selected using multi stage sampling method. The students filled out a self-structured questionnaire provided based on the theory of planned behavior. Statistical analysis of the data was done in the SPSS using correlation analysis, regression analysis and One-way ANOVAs. Results:Most of the students had consumed junk foods. The findings showed that behavioral intention, perceived behavioral control and subjective norms could predict 44 percent of the variation in junk food consumption behavior. Among constructs of the theory of planned behaviors, only perceived behavioral control was able to predict 44 percent of the variation in junk food consumption intention. Conclusion: Regarding more consumption of junk foods than nutrient foods and fruits among students, it is essential to conduct educational interventions based on theories of behavioral sciences. students is high and various interventions based on behavioral change theories (for example, the theory of planned behavior) it is necessary.


Masoume Alidosti, Zeynab Hemati,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (9-2013)
Abstract

Background and Objectives: Regarding the important role of peers in health behaviors of adolescents suffering from chronic diseases such as diabetes, this study aimed to assess the effects of an educational program on the knowledge and behaviors of the peers of students with Type 1 diabetes in Shahre kord in 2012. Material and Methods: In this experimental study, 64 students were randomly assigned to the experiment and control groups. Data were measured using the knowledge questionnaire (14 knowledge questions and six demographic questions) and the 8-item behavior scale at baseline and one month after the intervention. The Cronbach's alpha coefficients were calculated for the knowledge questions (0.82), and the behavior items (0.76). Data were analyzed using the t-test, and the Chi-squared test with a confidence level of 95%. Results: The mean scores of the knowledge and behavior scales did not differ significantly after the intervention in the control group. After the intervention, the mean scores of the knowledge and behavior scales were increased in the experimental group (p<0.001). There were no relationships between the educational levels of parents with the knowledge and behavior. There was a significant positive correlation between the knowledge and behaviors of the students (r=0.65). Conclusion: Given the positive effects of peer education, peers training programs are recommended to be implemented in schools.


Arezoo Imani, Elham Imani,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (9-2013)
Abstract

Background and Objectives: Self-care training is an important issue among patients. The aim of this study was to assess the educational needs for self-care training among patients with coronary artery disease. Material and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 200 patients were recruited from the Shahid Mohamadi hospital in Bandar Abbas in 2011. Data were collected using a 22-item questionnaire including demographic characteristics and needs assessment items (four dimensions) in a Likert-type scale. The validity and reliability of the questionnaire was confirmed using the content validity and the Cronbach's alpha (0.81). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Mann-Whitney U, Kruskal-Wallis and one-way ANOVA tests with 95% confidence coefficient. Results: The results showed that of 18% (36) of patients were the least. The educational needs were moderate in 44% (88) of patients and high in 38% (76) of the patients. The most educational items in the dimensions of cardiac disease, activity and rest, cardiovascular drugs and diet were the symptoms of cardiac disease 82% (164), exercising program 90% (180), medications 76% (152) and limitation of food supply 76% (152), respectively. There was a significant relationship between the educational needs and the literacy levels (P=0.04). Conclusion: The findings showed that most of the patients had moderate to high educational needs about the cardiac diseases and its conditions. It is necessity to provide educational programs based on the need assessments, especially in patients with low literacy.


Sayed Hossein Siadatian, Amir Gomrani, Mahmod Jalali, Zahra Kholghi,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (9-2013)
Abstract

Background and Objectives: Regarding the importance of pleasure in people`s psychological well-being and the quality of parents` care-taking behaviors, the present study compared the anhedonia among parents of children with or without mental retardation. Material and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 52 parents were recruited to the study (27 parents of mentally-retarded children and 25 parents of healthy children) using the random-sampling method. Data were gathered using a questionnaire containing demographic characteristics and the Snaith–Hamilton`s Anhedonia items based on four factors and the 5-scale Likert. High score showed high capacity of pleasure. The reliability of the questionnaire was confirmed using the Cronbach's Alpha (0.86). Data were analyzed using the logistic regression, t-test, and descriptive statistics. Results: The results showed that parents of mentally-retarded children had lower scores in all factors of the anhedonia in compare with the parents of healthy children (p<0/001). Conclusion: Parents with mentally-retarded children experienced anhedonia. It seems necessary to codify pedagogical patterns and to increase social supports for parents


Fereshte Javaheri Tehrani , Soghra Nikpour,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (9-2013)
Abstract

  Background and Objectives : According to the role of the health behaviors in preventing diseases, the present study was conducted to investigate the effect of an educational program based on the Health Belief Model on preventive behaviors of the urinary tract infection among women.

  Material and Methods : In this quasi-experimental study, 170 women with history of the urinary tract infection referred to four hospitals in Tehran were selected via convenience sampling method. The participants were allocated to the intervention and control groups. The intervention group received the educational program. Data were gathered using a self-structured questionnaire including demographic characteristics and items on the health behaviors related to the urinary tract infection at baseline and 12 weeks after the intervention. The validity and reliability of the questionnaire was evaluated using the expert panel opinions (r=0.81), and the Cronbach's alpha test (α=0.93.). Data were analyzed using the Man Whitney test, Chi-Squared test, and the Wilcox on test. The P<0.05 was considered as the significance level.

  Results : There were no significant differences between the two groups at baseline regarding the health behavior scores. Comparison of the mean scores of the total health behaviors and five subgroups showed significant differences between the intervention and control groups after the intervention (P<0.001). There was no significant difference in the score of the treatment regimen adherence (P=0.07).

  Conclusion : According to the positive effect of this program designed based on the Health Belief Model this program can be used in order to prevent urinary tract infections among women.


Mazaher Yousefiamiri, Seyedreza Seyedjavadin, Aryan Gholi Pour, Mohammadmasoud Vakili,
Volume 3, Issue 2 (2-2014)
Abstract

Background and Objectives: Organizational citizenship behavior is related to some organizational variables such as job satisfaction, quality of services and organizational productivity. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between personality traits with the organizational citizenship behavior among nurses in Zanjan in 2012. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive study in which 128 nurses working in the hospitals of Zanjan University of Medical Sciences were selected using quota sampling and simple random sampling methods. The participants filled up the questionnaires of personality traits and organizational citizenship behavior. Data were analyzed using the correlation coefficient and regression analysis in the SPSS-19 Results: The result showed that three personality dimensions were related to the organizational citizenship behavior including agreeableness, conscientiousness and neuroticism (P<0.05). These personality traits could explain 0.173 of the organizational citizenship behavior variance. There were no significant relationships between the organizational citizenship behavior with gender, matrimony, age and tenure statuses of the nurses. Conclusion: Personality traits of nurses are effective factor to make their organizational citizenship behavior. Hospitals managers can promote/make a visible organizational citizenship behavior through creating positive workplace to choose and recruit nurses with suitable personality traits.


Maryam Mahmoudi, Tahereh Dehdari, Davood Shojaeezadeh, Ladan Abbasian, Seeyd Saleheh Mortazavi,
Volume 3, Issue 2 (2-2014)
Abstract

Background and Objectives: Patients with HIV/AIDS have different experiences regarding coping with stress. Understanding these experiences is essential to design tailored interventions. The aim of this study was to explore experiences of patients with HIV on coping with stress strategies. Materials and Methods: In this qualitative content analysis study, 26 participants with HIV were selected using purposive sampling from counseling of behavioral diseases center, Imam Khomeini hospital in Tehran in 2012. In-depth semi-structured interviews were used to collect data during nine months. The transcripts were analyzed using the Diekelmann’s method. Results: The participants were aged 20 to 73 years. Analyzing the data emerged two themes including emotional–based coping strategy with two sub-themes including adaptive and maladaptive coping strategy and the problem–based coping strategy with three sub-themes including seeking education and counseling, medication adherence and healthy life style. Conclusion: Clarification and explanation of coping with stress strategies can be used to design and implement effective intervention for reducing stress in patients with HIV/AIDS.


Sona Pashaee, Sima Lakdizaji, Azad Rahmani, Vahid Zamanzadeh,
Volume 4, Issue 1 (9-2014)
Abstract

Background and Objectives: Caring is central to the nature of nursing. Due to the special conditions of patients in the critical care wards, caring behaviors are important to be considered. Despite the important role of nurses in quality of care, viewpoints of nurses on the caring behaviors are unclear. This study investigated the views of critical care nurses toward caring behaviors priorities. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive-correlative study, 200 critical care nurses were selected based on the stratified random sampling. Data were collected using the Caring Questionnaire developed by Larson. Caring behaviors were ranked on a 5-point Likert-type scale with 57 caring behavior items ordered in six subscales. The data were analyzed using the statistical methods in the SPSS-21.0. Results: Results showed that the highest priority was related to the "confident communication with patients" and the lowest priority was related to the "being accessible" and "anticipation". Furthermore, nurses ages had significant relationship with physical relaxation, confident relationship and follow-ups through subgroups (p=0.01). Female nurses ranked "monitors and follow-ups through" higher than male nurses (p=0.01). Conclusion: Most nurses based their work according to the confident communication with patients. The availability and anticipated needs of the patients care were identified as the lowest priorities. Providing long-term and short-term programs by policymakers in order to conduct appropriate trainings are recommended.


Cheman Kahrizeh, Saeddah Bazzazian, Mohammad Ghmari,
Volume 4, Issue 1 (9-2014)
Abstract

Background and Objectives: Subjective well-being is one of the most important indicators of mental health status. Assessing individual needs, and social factors influencing subjective well-being among nurses are essential due to the importance and risks of their jobs. The present study aimed to determine the relationship between psychological hardiness and family function with subjective well- being in nurses. Materials and Methods: This descriptive-correlational study was conducted in 2013. The sample comprised 80 randomly selected nurses. Data were collected using the Family Assessment Devise (FAD), Subjective Well- being questionnaires (SWB) and personal View Scale Kobasa (PVS). Data were analyzed using the Pearson correlation coefficient and stepwise regression analysis in the SPSS-16. Results: Results revealed that subjective well-being was positively correlated with psychological hardiness )r=0/330 P<0/01 (and family function )r=0/406 p<0/01). Regression analysis was used to predict the subjective well-being of dimensions of family functioning and hardiness. The results showed that 21% of the control and 16% of the overall performance could explain variation of subjective well-being. Conclusion: The subjective well-being of nurses may be enhanced by improving their family function and hardiness via educational and counseling programs.


Elmira Hassanpour, Nadereh Naderi Ravesh, Zahra Safavi Bayat, Malihe Nasiri, Kianoush Niroumand Zandi,
Volume 4, Issue 1 (9-2014)
Abstract

Background and Objectives: Considering the importance of thinking styles in individuals' decision making, this study was conducted to investigate the correlation between thinking styles with clinical decision making among nurses working in educational hospitals affiliated to Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive–correlational study, 196 nurses were recruited using random sampling method. Data were collected using the Thinking Styles Inventory and a researcher structured questionnaire. Data were analyzed using the Pearson correlation test and multiple regression analysis. Results: The results showed that hierarchical thinking had the most significant relationship with the clinical decision making (p<0.001 r=0.427). Conservative and internal thinking styles showed significant negative relationships with the clinical decision making (p<0.05 r=-0.201, r=-0.149, respectively). According to the multiple logistic regression analysis, type 1 thinking styles predicted better clinical decision makings and type 2 thinking styles were associated with low scores of clinical decision making. Nevertheless the relation intensity obtained from the test was poor (R2=0.171 p<0.001). Conclusion: Considering significant relationship between thinking styles with clinical decision making, further studies are recommended.


Ahmad Ahmadi, Sayeh Sadat Moosavi Sahebalzamani, Farah Ghavami, Yaaghob Shafiee, Ali Fathi Ashtiani,
Volume 4, Issue 1 (9-2014)
Abstract

Background and Objectives: Anxiety and postpartum depression are devastating conditions that affect both pregnant women and their infants. The current study aimed to evaluate effect of psychological interventions on postpartum depression, anxiety and infants’ weight in primipara women referred to Baghiatallah and Najmiyeh hospitals in 2013. Materials and Methods: In this randomized controlled trial, out of 534 pregnant women who were in their last trimester of pregnancy, 135 at risk women were selected. The participants were randomly assigned to the experimental or control groups. The intervention program composed of eight educational and cognitive-behavioral sessions. Individuals in the control group received usual care. The symptoms of anxiety and depression were assessed using the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale and the Beck Depression Inventory. Infants' birth weights were also measured. Results: There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding baseline measurements. The anxiety and depressive symptoms scores were reduced significantly in the intervention group (p<0/05). There were no changes in the mean of birth weight in both groups after the intervention. Conclusion: Findings suggested that psychological interventions could reduce symptoms of emotional problems in postpartum period.


Mohsen Hassanpour, Ali Delshad, Ali Alemi,
Volume 4, Issue 1 (9-2014)
Abstract

Background and Objectives: Prostate cancer is a common cancer among men and is considered to be the second cause of death among men after lung cancer. This study was conducted to determine the effect of an educational intervention based on empowerment model on awareness, attitudes, self-esteem and self-efficacy in men aged 35 to 55 years in preventing prostate cancer. Materials and Methods: This randomized clinical trial was conducted in Gonabad in 2013. Sixty men aged 35 to 55 years old were randomly allocated into intervention (n=30) and control (n=30) groups. The intervention group received an education based on individual empowerment model. Data were collected using a valid and reliable questionnaire before and two months after the intervention. By the SPSS-20, we analyzed the collected data using the T- test, Chi-squared test and Fisher's exact test. Results: There were no significant differences between the intervention and control groups in terms of all the study variables at baseline (p>0.05). After the intervention, significant differences were shown between the groups regarding awareness (p=0.007), attitude (p=0.041), self-steam (p=0.049) and self-efficacy (p=0.034). Conclusion: Implementing educational intervention in men based on empowerment model would be effective on awareness, attitudes, self-esteem and self-efficacy in preventing prostate cancer.


Mandana Goodarzi, Mohammadreza Sarmadi, Nasim Saeed,
Volume 4, Issue 2 (3-2015)
Abstract

Background and Objectives: Mobile-based education as the most basic form of e-health initiatives can be an important aspect to be considered and valued for providing health services. This study assessed the effect of education via short message service on hemoglobin A1C and self-efficacy among patients with type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods: This was a randomized clinical trial in which 81 patients with type 2 diabetes were selected based on the inclusion criteria and were randomly allocated into two experimental (n=43) and control (n=38) groups. The experimental group received educational messages. Data were measured at baseline and three months after the intervention. Data were analyzed using the Fisher’s exact test, t-test and ANCOVA in the SPSS-17. Results: The hemoglobin A1C (p<0.001) and self-efficacy (p=0.024) were significantly different between the control and experimental groups after the intervention. Conclusion: Our findings indicated a favorable effect of an educational intervention using the mobile phone capabilities. Using digital communication technology in the field of health care delivery and management of health are recommended to change individuals’ behavior.


Leili Yekefalah, Tahere Ashktorab, Homan Manouchehri, ,
Volume 4, Issue 2 (3-2015)
Abstract

Background and Objectives: The concept and meaning of futile care depends on the existing culture, values, religion, beliefs, medical achievements and emotional status of a country. We aimed to elaborate the concept of futile care from view points of nurses working in critical care units in Iran. Materials and Methods: The participants of this phenomenological study included 25 nurses working in the ICUs. Face-to-face interviews and observations were used to collect data. All interviews were recorded and codes and themes were extracted using the Van Manen's analysis method. Results: Initially, 191 codes were extracted. During data analysis and comparisons, the codes were reduced to 178 ones. Ultimately, nine sub-themes and four themes were emerged. The participants defined the futile care as: “useless and ineffective care that wastes resources and irritates and annoys the patients and nurse and includes Nursing and medical aspects”. Conclusion: Regarding key role of nurses in managing futile care, being aware of their experiences in this regard could be the initial step for providing useful care and delivering educational programs in ICUs.



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