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Showing 31 results for Participation

Zahra Sadeghi, Mitra Payami, Seyed Nooredin Moosavinasab,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (2-2013)

Background and Objectives: Hospitalization of patients in ICU can be stressful for both patients and their families. This study aimed to assess the effect of family participation in ICU patients care on family’s anxiety level. Material and Methods: This is a quasi-experimental before-after study. Family members of patients hospitalized in ICU of Ayatollah Mousavi Hospital, Zanjan were randomly divided into two experimental and control groups. Family members of the experimental group patients collaborated with the nurses in their patients care two hours a day from the 3rd day to the 7th day of the hospitalization. The control group patients were treated according to the ICU routine. Participants in both groups filled out the DASS-21 questionnaire before and after the intervention. Data were analyzed using the t-test in the SPSS-16. Results: There was a significant difference in the anxiety score among the participants in the intervention group before (21.6±8.4) and after the intervention (12.6±7) (p<0.001). Conclusion: The result of the study indicated that the participation of the family members of patients hospitalized in the ICU in patients care can be effective in decreasing their stress and anxiety.

Fereidoun Eskandari, Mehrnoosh Pazargadi, Mansoureh Zagheri Tafreshi, Soheila Rabie Siahkali, Ali Reza Shoghli,
Volume 3, Issue 2 (2-2014)

Background and Objectives: Nurses are the largest group of health workers whose professional abilities play important role in realization of health sector mission. Nurses' perceptions of their work environment forms their sense of empowerment and commitment to the organization. This study aimed to determine the relationship between psychological empowerment and affective commitment among nurses. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive-correlative study, 491 nurses working in Zanjan province hospitals were selected to the study in winter 2010. The data collection tool included the "Sprietzer psychological empowerment questionnaire" and the "organizational commitment questionnaire of Allen and Meyer". The validity and reliability of the questionnaire were assessed through appropriate methods. Data were analyzed using the ANOVA, t-test, Pearson correlation, and linear regression method in the SPSS-16. Results: Most of the participants (%90.6) were female. The mean age of the participants was 30.7 years. The mean score of the empowerment perception among %85.7 of nurses was high. The mean score of the affective commitment was moderate (3.17±0.88). The correlation and linear regression tests indicated that psychological empowerment was statistically correlate with the affective commitment of nurses and could predicted it. Conclusion: Based on the findings of this study, psychological empowerment was a predictive factor for affective commitment. In order to improve affective commitment of nurses, hospital managers should try to increase independency and participation of nurses in organizational decision-makings.

Ms Narges Moradi, Ms Farahnaz Addollahzadeh, Dr Azad Rahmani, Dr Vahid Zamanzadeh, Dr Iraj Asvadi, Mr Karim Ghaleban,
Volume 3, Issue 2 (2-2014)

Background and Objectives: Patients with breast cancer have many pshychological needs. The spouses are main resources for meeting the psychological needs of the patients. The aim of present study was to assess the effects of psychoeducation to spouses on psychological needs of women with breast cancer. Materials and Methods: In this randomised clinical trial, 94 couples were recruited to the study from Tabriz support group for breast cancer patients. The couples were randomly allocated to experimental (47 couples) and control (47 couples) groups. After the baseline measurements, three educational sessions were held for men on psychological needs of their spouses with breast cancer in the experimental group. One month later, all women were asked to complete the 22-items psychological subscale of the Supportive Care Needs Survey instrument. The validity and reliability of the instrument was assessed using content validity, and test-retest reliability. Data were analyzed using paired and independent samples t tests. Results: Data from 27 women in the experimental group and 28 women in the control group were collected. The mean of scale in the experimental group was significantly more than control group (p=0.010). Conclusion: Although the psychological needs of patients with breast cancer were decreased via the intervention in our study, further studies are recommended.

Soheila Ranjbaran, Tahereh Dehdari, Khosro Sadeghniiat-Haghighi, Mahmood Mahmoodi Majdabadi,
Volume 5, Issue 1 (9-2015)


Background and Objectives: Poor sleep quality is a common problem among patients with coronary artery bypass surgery. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of cardiac rehabilitation program on improving quality of sleep in patients with poor sleep quality after coronary bypass surgery.

Materials and Methods: This was a quasi-experimental study. From 88 patients referred to the cardiac rehabilitation clinic of Tehran Heart Center, 50 patients with poor sleep quality were recruited to the study. patients after complete demographic and sleep quality questionnaires, participated in an 8-weeks cardiac rehabilitation program including exercise training and life style education sessions. Participants were followed-up 4 weeks after the intervention. Data were analyzed in the SPSS-18 using statistical tests such as Paired t-test, Independent samples T test, and One-way ANOVA.

Results: After cardiac rehabilitation program, significant differences were shown in the sleep quality (p<0.001) and its dimensions including subjective sleep quality (p=0.024), sleep disturbances (p=0.002), using sleep medications (p<0.001), and day time dysfunction (p<0.001).

Conclusion: The findings showed that cardiac rehabilitation programs had positive effect on improving quality of sleep in patients after coronary artery bypass surgery.

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Fatemeh Rostami, Farhad Ramezani Badr , Koorosh Amini, Aub Pezeshki,
Volume 5, Issue 1 (9-2015)

Background and Objectives: Stress is a common and important psychological problem among patients undergoing hemodialysis. Stress can negatively affect the quality of life, treatment acceptance, and disease progress in patients. Participation of patient in self-care activities lead to more independence and patients adjustments with their illnesses. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a self-care educational program based on the Orem's model on stress in hemodialysis patients. Materials and Methods: This semi-experimental pretest-posttest study was conducted in the educational hospitals affiliated to Zanjan University of Medical Sciences. Participants were selected among from patients undergoing hemodialysis through convenience method and were allocated into two intervention and control groups using blocked randomization. After baseline measurement, the educational program was implemented in the intervention group for 30-minutes weekly sessions. Stress was measured before and one month after the intervention in both groups using the stress part of the DASS-42 questionnaire. The data were analyzed in the SPSS-19 using descriptive statistics, paired-t test, independent t-test, and chi-squared test. Results: The mean age of the participants was 55.13±15.1 years. Most of the participants were male (63.3%), 76.0% were married and 47.88% had not finished the high school. There was a significant decrease in the mean stress score after the intervention (P<0.001). There was also a significant difference in the mean of stress score between the two groups after the intervention (p=0.03). Conclusion: According to the positive effect of our educational program designed based on the Orem's self-care model, it seems that the program could be implemented to decrease stress in patients undergoing hemodialysis.

Meysam Nematikhah, Nasrin Bahraminejad, Soghrat Faghihzade, Nematollah Soleyman Nejad,
Volume 6, Issue 1 (6-2016)

Background and Objectives: Improving nurses’ adherance with nursing standard catheter care is needed to enhance the quality of central venous catheters care. This study aimed to compare the effect of collaborative teaching method and lecture method on nursesing care of Central venous catheters.

Materials and Methods: This quasi- experimental pretest-post test design study was conducted on 46 nurses working in intensive care units of two educational hospitals. The participants were allocated non-randomly to the intervention (n=28) and the control group (n=18). The intervention group were received a collaborative-based training program for the period of one month, and control group were received the routine teaching method (provision of a seminar). Before intervention three focus group discussions were conducted for the intervention group to incorporate their views of the teaching methods, type of their participation, in the collaborative-based training program. Data was collected before and three months after intervention using an observational checklist.

Results: The results showed that nurses' performance score of Central venous catheters care in collaborative-based training program group was significantly higher than control group (p<0.001). There was no significant difference in nurses' performance score between intervention and control groups before conducting the intervention.

Conclusion: The results of the current study suggest that collaborative-based training program is more effective than lecture method in improving nurses’ performance of Central venous catheter care.

Azam Maleki, Soghrat Faghihzadeh,
Volume 6, Issue 1 (6-2016)

Background and Objectives: Men's participation in family care programs is one of the important strategies in maternal and child health care. The present study aimed to evaluate the fathers' function after the transition to fatherhood stage and its related factors.

Materials and Methods: The study was a cross-sectional design that conducted in Zanjan between 2012-2013. The function of 403fatherswere investigated whose wives had delivered in last 8 weeks. The samples were selected randomly, and the data was collected using the Inventory of Functional Status- Father (IFS-F) scale, which in the fathers' function were categorized according to the median cut-off point. The content validity and reliability of the scale was approved using Content Validity Ratio (CVR=0.89) and Cronbach’s Alpha in the function of the components were 0.52- 0.90, respectively. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and kruskal-Wallis H test (Acceptable P value<0.05).

Results: The highest and lowest mean score of fathers' function belonged to the job and social dimensions, respectively. There was an increased level of fathers' participation in home activities (23.2%), and taking care of the other children (30.4%) compared to pregnancy period. The fathers' function dropped by 7% and 27.6% in their job and social activity dimensions, respectively. A significant association was found between the mean score of fathers' function and the marriage age, the number of children, educational level, and the time of first fatherhood experience.

Conclusion: Moderate fathers' function in most of the fatherhood dimensions was remarked in the current study. Given that the importance of the men's participation in maternal and child health care, and influencing of the demographic characteristics on this process, it is recommended that the fathers, and young fathers with low education level particularly, to be attended fatherhood preparations courses.

Soleyman Zand, Mohammad Khajehgoodari, Mohammad Rafiei, Fatemeh Rafiei,
Volume 6, Issue 2 (8-2016)

Background and Objectives: Heart failure is more common in the elderly than in the general population. Among the non-drug treatments, the easiest and most comprehensible method is direct implementation of sports program. Due to high cost of hospital care for patients with heart failure and complications, this study examined the effects of walking as a form of rehabilitation program. The subjects were patients hospitalized for heart failure.

Materials and Methods: This study was a double-blind trial carried out on 50 elderly patients with hearth failure evacuation fraction less than 50% in 2014. Then, they were randomly divided into two intervention and control groups. The intervention group did exercise program on all days of the week except Friday. A questionnaire was used to collect date before and after intervention in both groups. To analyze the data, we used Chi-square, Exact Fisher test and Friedman test and SPSS 16.

Results: Fridman test of cardiac function levels in the control group both before and after the implementation period showed no significant difference (p>0/05). In the intervention group, however, a significant difference was observed between two intervening periods (p<0/05).

Conclusion: The results of the study indicate that an exercise program can be safely performed in patients with class II and III heart failure and prevent deterioration of the disease.

Maryam Fathizadeh, Sedigheh Abedini, Shokroollah Mohseni,
Volume 6, Issue 3 (11-2016)

Background and Objectives: Delivery is a stressful event in a woman's life which is often accompanied by anxiety. Lack of awareness of unknown pregnancy problems is the cause of increase of mothers` anxiety and medical intervention. The present study was done to measure the effect of childbirth preparation training classes on the anxiety of pregnant mothers.

Materials and Methods: This was a semi-experimental study for which 98 pregnant women were selected from those who had referred to the Sirik health clinics by using convenience sampling. They were allocated into the experimental and control groups randomly. The experimental mothers` group were subjected to 8 sessions of preparation for childbirth courses and the control group only received a routine prenatal training. Data were collected using pregnancy anxiety questionnaire (PRAQ) in two steps of pre-test and post-test. The data were analyzed by SPSS software using chi-square, t-Test and ANOVA.

Results: The results showed that there was not a significant difference in anxiety level before the intervention between the two groups. However. There was remarkable decline in all aspects of pregnancy anxiety except fear of variations and common states of fear (p<0.05).

Conclusion: Our findings showed that mothers` anxiety decreased due to participation in preparation for childbirth courses. Thus, implementing this program as a continuous intervention process for pregnant mothers is recommended.

Zahra Zolfaghari Lake , Mahin Roohani, Elham Shakibazadeh, Koorosh Kamali,
Volume 6, Issue 4 (3-2017)


Background: Illness perception can affect health-related behaviors and disease outcomes.

Objectives: To determine the effect of an educational intervention of improving illness perception on some modifiable risk factors of coronary artery disease.

Methods: In this clinical trial, 100 patients undergoing coronary angiography that met the inclusion criteria were divided randomly into two intervention and control groups. In the intervention group, three educational sessions were conducted individually, while usual care was conducted for the control group. Measurements on fasting blood glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, blood pressure, body mass index, and smoking status were gathered at baseline, immediately and six months after the intervention in both groups. Data were analyzed using the SPSS.

Results: The mean of systolic blood pressure (p<0.005), fasting triglycerides (p<0.005), and fasting blood glucose (p<0.005) were significantly different before and after the intervention between the two groups.

Conclusion: Improvement illness perception through educational intervention can affect risk factors of coronary artery disease.

Fatemeh Teymouri, Fatemeh Alhani, Anoshiravan Kazemnejad,
Volume 7, Issue 1 (6-2017)

Background: Asthma is considered as the most common chronic disease of childhood that can cause missing school and daily limits. It can also have effects on physical, psychological, and social well-being in children. Therefore, improving two indicators of self-efficacy and self-esteem seem of utmost importance in this domain.
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of family-centered empowerment model (FCEM) on self-efficacy and self-esteem in children with asthma.
Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 60 children along with their parents were randomly divided into two experimental and control groups. Then, family-centered empowerment model was implemented for the experimental group lasting seven 30-minute sessions. After that, self-efficacy and self-esteem were similarly evaluated by distributing questionnaires in both groups before and after the intervention. Moreover, the data were analyzed using the SPSS Software as well as descriptive statistics (frequency, mean, and standard deviation) and inferential statistics (Chi-square test, Fisher’s exact test, independent t-test, and paired t-test).
Results: The self-efficacy scores of all children in the experimental group before (2.95±0.33) and after (3.97±0.49) the intervention showed a significant difference (P=0.0001). Meanwhile, a significant difference was observed in the self-esteem scores of all children in the experimental group before (0.62±0.13) and after (0.77±0.08) the intervention (P=0.0001), while self-efficacy scores of the individuals in the control group before (2.86±0.49) and after (2.88±0.40) the intervention suggested no significant difference (P=0.607) in this respect. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in self-efficacy scores of the control group before (0.67±0.17) and after (0.67±0.13) the intervention (P=0.845).
Conclusion: It seems that empowerment (FCEM) of children suffering from asthma can lead to increased self-efficacy and self-esteem and help them to have an efficient care, and also may result in improvements in their roles. Therefore, further studies are recommended in this domain.

Hossien Izadirad, Shamsoddin Niknami, Iraj Zareban, Alireza Hidarnia,
Volume 7, Issue 1 (6-2017)

Background: Pregnant women need information, skills and social support for the effectiveness of pregnancy care. Health education patterns play a major role in educational needs assessment in designing and implementing educational interventions.
Objectives: The present study aimed to investigate the pregnancy care behaviors, based on the health belief and social support model among pregnant women.
Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2016 with the participation of 215 pregnant women under the control of faculty of Iranshahr Medical Sciences who were selected by multi-stage sampling method. The data were collected through a questionnaire based on the structures of the health belief and social support model, knowledge, behavior and demographic information. Data were analyzed by descriptive, Pearson correlation and multivariate regression tests in SPSS ver19 software.
Results: The highest rate of education among pregnant women (35.8%) was high school. The mean score of mothers' performance was 12.31 out of 22, and among the structures the perceived sensitivity score was the strongest, and the social support score was the weakest. Based on regression analysis, self-efficacy, perceived benefits, and social support were predictive behaviors which generally predict 27.5% of behavioral changes.
Conclusion: Based on the results, the structures of self-efficacy, perceived benefits and social support should be considered as the most important predictor of pregnancy care behaviors in designing educational interventions.

Mohsen Rezaiee Ahvanuiee , Ali Mohammad Nazari, Mohsen Rasoli,
Volume 7, Issue 1 (6-2017)

Background: Work-family conflict is one of the components which have been paid attention in the present era due to changes and evolutions taken place in the field of work nature.

Objectives: The present research was conducted by the aim of investigating the effect of relationship enhancement on solving work-family conflict.

Methods: This is a quasi-experimental study with pretest post-test design with a control group. 30 married staff working in municipality of Karaj city were selected by simple random sampling method, and were allocated randomly into intervention and control groups (n=15). Data was gathered through Rastegar khaled 17 item family-work conflict questionnaires. For the intervention group, relationship enhancement program was held through 7 educational sessions per week. Control group did not receive any formal educational training until the end of the research process. The research data were analyzed through univariate analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) in SPSS 20.

Results: The results indicated that there is a significant difference between intervention and control groups in the family-work conflict variable. In other words, relationship Enhancement program has led to solving family-work conflict among the intervention group subjects in the posttest stage.

Conclusion: It is suggested that counselors use this educational program in different occupational organizations and institutions for the purpose of reducing work family conflicts and improving relationships.

Mohammad Reza Babayi, Ghasem Askarizadeh, Afsaneh Tohidi,
Volume 7, Issue 2 (10-2017)

Background: Thalassemia is one of the most common genetic diseases in Iran with different physical and  psychosocial consequences which affect these patients  quality of life .
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of resilience training and stress management on the quality of life in patients with thalassemia major in Kerman-Iran.
Methods: In this quasi-experimental study with pre-test and post-test design and a control group, 30 patients referred to Samen-al-Hojaj (AS) charity group, were selected by convenience sampling method and randomly divided into two experimental and control groups (each of 15 patients). After completing the pre-test, the experimental group received 10 sessions of training and stress management. Control group received no intervention. The data collection tool was the questionnaire of quality of life (SF-36). Data were analyzed by SPSS software using the covariance analysis.
Results: The results of the covariance analysis in the studied variables indicate that the effect of the group (experimental intervention) on the post-test of physical function, general health, the role limitation for physical and emotional health were significant and respectively were (P=0.005 and F=11.22), (P=0.001 and F=16/02) and (P=0.049, F=4.3). However, the effect of the group on the post-test of role limitation for emotional reasons, physical pain, social function, and fatigue or vitality were not significant and respectively were (P=0.20 and F=1.741), (P=0.774 and F=0.085), (P=0.674 and F=0.183 ) and (P=0.288 and F=1.203).
Conclusion: According to the results, based on the effectiveness of stress relief and management on some components of the quality of life in patients with thalassemia major, this study can be used to reach an effective solution to improve the quality of life and generally improve the mental status of patients.

Hengameh Goudarzi, Leili Salehi,
Volume 7, Issue 2 (10-2017)

Background: As world's population is growing, quality of life (QOL) and related factors such as self-care keep gaining mounting attention as they may affect the lives of the elderly significantly. The majority of the elderly people suffer from at least one chronic illness which plays an important role in elderly QOL.
Objectives: This study was conducted to investigate self-care and related factors to QOL among elderly clients with and without chronic disease who are protected by healthcare centers in Karaj, Iran
Methods: In this cross-sectional study 400 elderly people were selected. A randomized multistage sampling method has been used. The data were collected using a standardized QOL and the Self-Care Assessment questionnaires. Pearson correlation was used to analyze the relationship between QOL and self-care factors.  Additionally, Linear regression was run to identify the association between QOL domains and the independent variables through SPSS (p<0.05).
Results: The average age of the participants was 69.25±6.31. The majority of the participants were married and 48.5% were illiterate. The results related to the average dimensions of QOL were found to be as follows: physical health: 12.98±4.36; psychological health: 12.81±3.86; social relationship: 14.81±25.25; environment: 12.83±3.0; and total QOL: 19.33±4.63. The results also revealed that QOL decreased significantly among the surveyed elderly, while it increased in the case of married and educated without chronic diseases.  Finally, there was a significant positive relationship between all dimensions of SC (except for professional dimension) and dimensions of QOL (P<0.05).
Conclusion: Chronic disease, physical SC, and emotional SC can act as significant predictors of QOL among the elderly. 

Arezoo Safaei Nezhad, Mohammad Masoud Vakili, Loghman Ebrahimi, Roghieh Kharaghani,
Volume 7, Issue 3 (11-2017)

Background: Reproductive variables may play an important role on the correlation between irrational parenthood cognition (IPC) and destructive behaviors of infertile couple.
Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between IPC and destructive behaviors by reproductive variables in primary infertile women.
Methods: The study was descriptive-analytic. 183 cases of primary infertile women living in Zanjan-Iran and attended to the Infertility Clinic in Ayatollah Mousavi Hospital were investigated from 2015 to the end of 2016. The instrument included a three-part questionnaire of individual and reproductive information, IPC, and the destructive behaviors of marital relationship based on Glaser's choice theory. Data were analyzed by SPSS software using descriptive and Pearson correlation test (P<0.05).
Results: There was a significant direct correlation between IPC and destructive behaviors of marital relationship in infertile women (r=0.47, p<0.001). Based on reproductive variables, the highest correlation was observed in the subgroups of less than 10 years elapsed from the diagnosis of infertility, less than 10 years from the onset of infertility treatment, and the expectation of pregnancy under 10 years, a history of twice unsuccessful in vitro fertilization, a tendency to pregnancy due to the pressure of the others and the cause of the unknown infertility (P<0.05). Correlation between IPC and all components of destructive behaviors was significant (p<0.001).
Conclusion: Identifying infertile women with high IPC and destructive behaviors is important to educate regarding life skills and provide counseling services.
Neda Ghavanloo, Somayeh Abdollahi Sabet , Alireza Shoghli, Esmail Rezazade, Benyamin Mohseni Saravi, Nima Motamed,
Volume 7, Issue 3 (11-2017)

Background: Breast cancer is one of the most important malignancies in both developed and developing countries.
Objectives: To reduce the burden of this disease, the prediction of individuals at risk and implementation of efficient preventive interventions can be effective. The present study was aimed at investigating five-year and lifetime risks of the breast cancer in a rural community in Zanjan province, Iran.
Methods: A total of 435 subjects aged 35 years old were randomly selected using systematic randomization in a rural community in Zanjan. The participation rate was 92.4% (402 women). Data collection instrument was a questionnaire in which all associated variables of Gail model and demographic information were included. The data were analyzed using SPSS software version 18, and mean cancer risks were reported.
Results: Family history of breast cancer and history of breast biopsy were found to be positive in 3.5% and 0.3% of participants, respectively. Out of all participants, 84.3% were under 60 years old and 13.2% were illiterate. Five-year and lifetime mean risks were fund to be 0.74% and 7.6%, respectively. About 2% of the participants had a higher cancer risk>1.66%.
Conclusion: The findings demonstrated that based on the Gail model, the lifetime risk of the participants will be one out of 13 women. Given the lower estimations of Gail model in the prediction of breast cancer, we suggest general population interventions and high-risk strategies be implemented to decrease problems associated with the breast cancer in the future.
Marzieh Faghani Aghoozi, Najmeh Tehranian, Malihe Amerian, Sanaz Fayazi, Fahimeh Ramezani Tehrani, Amir Hamta, Shahrbanoo Salehin,
Volume 8, Issue 1 (6-2018)

Background: It seems that in vaginal delivery, serum leptin level increases as a cortisol-dependent factor due to the stress of the embryo. Studies have shown that if the level of serum leptin is low, the risk of chronic metabolic diseases, cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, and obesity in the mother and the baby will increase.
Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between serum leptin levels in pregnancy and the type of delivery.
Methods: This study was a descriptive-analytic study which adopted a longitudinal approach to examine 45 mothers in the first and second trimester of pregnancy in Tehran in 2015. The participants were selected by means of cluster random sampling. After obtaining consent from the mothers, their blood samples were collected at 6-12 and 15-20 weeks of pregnancy and their serum leptin levels were determined. The mothers’ examination continued after their delivery. Finally, the mothers were divided into two groups including the vaginal delivery group (24 participants) and the cesarean group (21 participants). Independent-Samples t-test, Pearson test, regression test, and Lambda test were used to analyze the data. SPSS was employed to carry out analyses at P value<0/05 level.
Results: The mean values of the serum leptin level in the first trimester and second trimester were higher in the normal delivery group in comparison with the cesarean group. Nonetheless, there was not a significant relationship between the serum leptin level and the type of delivery despite the fact that there was a statistically significant relationship between the type of delivery and the changes in leptin levels during pregnancy and these changes were reported more frequently in the normal delivery group in comparison with in the cesarean group (P value=0.021).
Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, leptin level changes during pregnancy can have a predictive role in the mothers’ type of delivery. However, further studies with larger samples are required to confirm the extent and type of this role.

Akbar Pourrahimi, Aida Sheykhlar, Mahnaz Keshvarz Afshar, Mohammad Abdi, Ali Aghajanloo, Sana Mohammadi, Fatemeh Bayat,
Volume 8, Issue 2 (9-2018)

Background: The highest prevalence of depression is observed in the elderly, and the cultural difference in each region causes a difference in the incidence of this disorder.
Objectives: Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the prevalence of depression and its associated demographic factors in the elderly with electronic health records in Zanjan during 2018.
Methods: A total of 400 elderly people with electronic health records participated in this descriptive cross-sectional study, who were selected by the cluster random sampling method from 18 urban community health centers of Zanjan. The data were collected using a demographic questionnaire and the geriatric depression scale(. Finally, data entered the SPSS software and analyzed utilizing descriptive statistics, as well as Chi-square, ANOVA, and logistic regression tests.
Results: The mean age of the elderly was 77.7±5.56 and 68.5% of them had some degrees of depression, including mild (40.5%), moderate (19.2%), and severe (8.8%) depression. Mild depression was more prevalent among younger adults while moderate to severe depression was common in older adults over 75. The results revealed that depression had a significant relationship with age and educational level while not having any significant relationship with sex, marital status, and the dwelling place.
Conclusion: Considering the high prevalence of depression among the elderly in Zanjan, health managers re suggested to prioritize educational programs and social support for this group of individuals and monitor the performance of supportive institutions such as insurance in this regrad. Eventually, they are recommended to pay attention to the geographical and cultural diversity of different regions of the country to reduce the elderly’s depression level.
Kourosh Amini, Sahar Dehghani, Soudabeh Niroomand, Masomeh Hasanlo, Daryoush Amini, Soghrat Faghihzadeh,
Volume 8, Issue 2 (9-2018)

Background: Considering the increasing prevalence of psychological problems, complications, and consequences of depression in patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD), the application of complementary therapies such as meditation counseling is highly important.
Objectives: Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of meditation on depression in patients undergoing HD.
Methods: This clinical trial was conducted on 57 patients who met the inclusion criteria by the convenience sampling method. The participants were randomly allocated to intervention and control groups. Those in the intervention group attended three 15-20 minute educational practice sessions weekly offered over an eight-week period while the control group received no intervention. A validated questionnaire assessed depressive symptoms at baseline and after 4 and 8 weeks. In addition, the CONSORT statement was adhered to where possible. Finally, t-test, repeated-measures ANOVA, Fisher’s exact test, and Chi-square tests were used to analyze data using SPSS 16.
Results: The mean depression score among the patients of the intervention group decreased from 85±1.56 at baseline to 70±1.27 at 8-week follow-up (P=0.003). Further, the mean score of depressive symptoms significantly decreased during eight weeks after the intervention (P<0.001).
Conclusion: Simple and non-expensive meditation exercises could fruitfully decrease depression symptoms in patients undergoing HD. The prevalence of depressive symptoms is high among the patients, therefore, the implementation of meditation exercises should help minimize a major problem in these groups of patients.

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