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Showing 28 results for Psychometric

Zahra Sadeghi, Mitra Payami, Seyed Nooredin Moosavinasab,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (2-2013)

Background and Objectives: Hospitalization of patients in ICU can be stressful for both patients and their families. This study aimed to assess the effect of family participation in ICU patients care on family’s anxiety level. Material and Methods: This is a quasi-experimental before-after study. Family members of patients hospitalized in ICU of Ayatollah Mousavi Hospital, Zanjan were randomly divided into two experimental and control groups. Family members of the experimental group patients collaborated with the nurses in their patients care two hours a day from the 3rd day to the 7th day of the hospitalization. The control group patients were treated according to the ICU routine. Participants in both groups filled out the DASS-21 questionnaire before and after the intervention. Data were analyzed using the t-test in the SPSS-16. Results: There was a significant difference in the anxiety score among the participants in the intervention group before (21.6±8.4) and after the intervention (12.6±7) (p<0.001). Conclusion: The result of the study indicated that the participation of the family members of patients hospitalized in the ICU in patients care can be effective in decreasing their stress and anxiety.

Cheman Kahrizeh, Saeddah Bazzazian, Mohammad Ghmari,
Volume 4, Issue 1 (9-2014)

Background and Objectives: Subjective well-being is one of the most important indicators of mental health status. Assessing individual needs, and social factors influencing subjective well-being among nurses are essential due to the importance and risks of their jobs. The present study aimed to determine the relationship between psychological hardiness and family function with subjective well- being in nurses. Materials and Methods: This descriptive-correlational study was conducted in 2013. The sample comprised 80 randomly selected nurses. Data were collected using the Family Assessment Devise (FAD), Subjective Well- being questionnaires (SWB) and personal View Scale Kobasa (PVS). Data were analyzed using the Pearson correlation coefficient and stepwise regression analysis in the SPSS-16. Results: Results revealed that subjective well-being was positively correlated with psychological hardiness )r=0/330 P<0/01 (and family function )r=0/406 p<0/01). Regression analysis was used to predict the subjective well-being of dimensions of family functioning and hardiness. The results showed that 21% of the control and 16% of the overall performance could explain variation of subjective well-being. Conclusion: The subjective well-being of nurses may be enhanced by improving their family function and hardiness via educational and counseling programs.

Ahmad Ahmadi, Sayeh Sadat Moosavi Sahebalzamani, Farah Ghavami, Yaaghob Shafiee, Ali Fathi Ashtiani,
Volume 4, Issue 1 (9-2014)

Background and Objectives: Anxiety and postpartum depression are devastating conditions that affect both pregnant women and their infants. The current study aimed to evaluate effect of psychological interventions on postpartum depression, anxiety and infants’ weight in primipara women referred to Baghiatallah and Najmiyeh hospitals in 2013. Materials and Methods: In this randomized controlled trial, out of 534 pregnant women who were in their last trimester of pregnancy, 135 at risk women were selected. The participants were randomly assigned to the experimental or control groups. The intervention program composed of eight educational and cognitive-behavioral sessions. Individuals in the control group received usual care. The symptoms of anxiety and depression were assessed using the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale and the Beck Depression Inventory. Infants' birth weights were also measured. Results: There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding baseline measurements. The anxiety and depressive symptoms scores were reduced significantly in the intervention group (p<0/05). There were no changes in the mean of birth weight in both groups after the intervention. Conclusion: Findings suggested that psychological interventions could reduce symptoms of emotional problems in postpartum period.

Zahra Tagharrobi, Khadijeh Sharifi, Zahra Sooky,
Volume 4, Issue 2 (3-2015)

Background and Objectives: The GHQ-12 is a valid mental health screening tool. One of the proposed scoring styles for the GHQ-12 is C-GHQ. This study was designed to evaluate the reliability and validity of the GHQ-12 with the C-GHQ scoring style in women living in Kashan. Materials and Methods: In this psychometric analysis study, GHQ-12 was translated from English to Persian through back & forward method. A total of 139 women, referred to two health centers in Kashan in summer 2007, were selected through sequential sampling. Data were collected using the GHQ-12 and were scored with the proposed style. Reliability was determined via stability and internal consistency approaches. Validity was assessed via concurrent validity and exploratory factor analysis. The data were analyzed using the Pearson correlation coefficient, intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC), spearman-brown, Guttman, Cronbach’s alpha coefficient and factor analysis in the SPSS-16. Results: The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was 0/79. The questionnaire stability was reported excellent using the test-re-test method. The item-total correlation confirmed the reliability. The GHQ and life satisfaction scale scores had significant correlation (r=-0/462, p<0/0001). The factor analysis extracted two factors with Eigen value more than one which could explain % 46/66 of the total variance Conclusion: The Persian GHQ-12 with C-GHQ scoring style was valid and reliable in measuring women’s mental health.

Abolfazl Artishedar, Masoumeh Mortaghi Ghasemi, Mohammadhossein Agha Jamaat, Zeinab Ghahremani,
Volume 4, Issue 2 (3-2015)

Background and Objectives: The population of elderly is increasing worldwide. Chronic diseases and disabilities arecommon among elderly. Attitudes of health care providers including nurses on elder people affect the quality and priorities of health and medical care. The aim of this study was to assess the attitudes of nurses working in medical-surgical wards in Zanjan hospitals toward elderly. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out using random sampling to recruit 110 nurses working in medical-surgical wards. Data were collected using the Kogan questionnaire and were analyzed using the T-Test and ANOVA. Results: In this study, 107 nurses (97/3%) had positive attitudes toward the elderly. The attitude scores were not significantly different in subgroups of gender, marital status, age, education, employment, work experience, job location, residency, living with an elderly, having or not having income of the elderly. Conclusion: Interventions to improve attitudes of nurses toward elderly seem to influence the quality of care provided by nurses.

Dr Soghrat Phaghizadeh, Dr Nima Motamed, Dr Alireza Shoghli, Dr Mohsen Asoori, Dr Mahboobeh Safaean,
Volume 4, Issue 2 (3-2015)

Background and Objectives: Patient safety is the most vital indicator of hospital management. Ignorance of the patient safety may lead to an increase in hospital mortality rates due to medical errors. Multiple studies have pointed out that there is a positive association between patient safety culture with reduction of medical errors and improvement in healthcare outcomes. This study was conducted in order to evaluate patient safety culture in hospitals of Amol city in Iran. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study was carried out among 530 non-physician- healthcare staff selected from three hospitals of Amol city. The instrument of this study was Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture Questionnaire (HSPSCQ) the items of which measure twelve dimensions of patient safety culture. All statistical analysis was performed in the SPSS-16. Results: Among twelve patient safety culture dimensions, the lowest positive responses included: dimensions of staffing (22%), non- punitive policy concerning medical errors (25%), and frequency of adverse event reporting (33%). Conclusion: The staffing, non-punitive policy and frequency of adverse events of patient safety culture aspects were assessed as less desired by nurses. Providing adequate staff and appropriate work hours, and developing the culture of voluntary adverse events and non-punitive policy can help to improve patient safety culture.

Soheila Ranjbaran, Tahereh Dehdari, Khosro Sadeghniiat-Haghighi, Mahmood Mahmoodi Majdabadi,
Volume 5, Issue 1 (9-2015)


Background and Objectives: Poor sleep quality is a common problem among patients with coronary artery bypass surgery. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of cardiac rehabilitation program on improving quality of sleep in patients with poor sleep quality after coronary bypass surgery.

Materials and Methods: This was a quasi-experimental study. From 88 patients referred to the cardiac rehabilitation clinic of Tehran Heart Center, 50 patients with poor sleep quality were recruited to the study. patients after complete demographic and sleep quality questionnaires, participated in an 8-weeks cardiac rehabilitation program including exercise training and life style education sessions. Participants were followed-up 4 weeks after the intervention. Data were analyzed in the SPSS-18 using statistical tests such as Paired t-test, Independent samples T test, and One-way ANOVA.

Results: After cardiac rehabilitation program, significant differences were shown in the sleep quality (p<0.001) and its dimensions including subjective sleep quality (p=0.024), sleep disturbances (p=0.002), using sleep medications (p<0.001), and day time dysfunction (p<0.001).

Conclusion: The findings showed that cardiac rehabilitation programs had positive effect on improving quality of sleep in patients after coronary artery bypass surgery.

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Ali Mohammadi, Koorosh Kamali,
Volume 5, Issue 1 (9-2015)

Background and Objectives: According to the World Health Organization (WHO), responsiveness is the ability of health systems to meet the legitimate expectations of populations for non-clinical enhancing aspects of health system. Assessment of responsiveness can help to manage resource allocation and improve strategies. The aim of this study was to assess the responsiveness in outpatient clinics of Zanjan. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out in Zanjan hospitals’ outpatient clinics during 2013-2014. A total of 240 patients were selected systematically. The WHO’s responsiveness questionnaire was used to collect data. Data were analyzed using the descriptive and analytical statistics such as mean, frequency, percent, and the Student t -test and one way ANOVA in the SPSS 11.5. Results: The majority of the respondents (over 73%) rated all aspects of the responsiveness as important. Half of the participants (50.6%) rated overall responsiveness as good. The best performance of responsiveness was related to confidentiality (76.3%) and dignity (63.8%) domains. The dignity was rated as the most important domain from outpatients' point of view. There was a statistically significant difference between the male and female patients regarding mean score of dignity. Conclusion: The finding of this study showed that there were gaps between the responsiveness performances and importance of all domains of the responsiveness. Achieving desirable status of responsiveness is essential.
Masoomeh Najafzadeh, Kourosh Amini, Soghrat Faghihzadeh, Hamidreza Monsef Esfahani,
Volume 5, Issue 2 (2-2016)

Background and Objectives: Several studies have shown that nurses working in the ICUs experience high levels of anxiety. Anxiety can not only negatively affect them, but may decrease the quality of care provided by them. The present study aimed to assess the effect of Valerian on anxiety among nurses working in the ICUs of Zanjan teaching hospitals.

Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial, nurses working in morning and evening shifts were recruited to the study. A dose of 530 mg Herbal Sedamin capsules containing dried roots of Valeriana Officinallis were consumed by the nurses in the intervention group twice a day for one week. The control group received placebo. The Speilberger's State-Trait anxiety inventory was completed by the nurses at baseline and after the intervention. The independent t-test and paired t-test were used to analyse data.

Results: After the intervention in two groups (Valerian and Placebo), the trait and state anxiety scores were significantly lower than before of the intervention. But there were no significant differences in the trait and state anxiety scores of the questionnaire between the experimental group and control groups after the intervention (P=0.846).

Conclusion: It seems that the special and different nature of the ICUs has hampered the effectiveness of this herbal medicine. Further studies with higher doses, or in other settings is suggested.

Fatemeh Mahdavisaeb, Mahin Ruhani, Nasrin Hanifi, Kurosh Kamali,
Volume 6, Issue 1 (6-2016)

Background and Objectives: The high clinical competency of Critical Care Nurses (CCNs) is required, as the quality of nursing care in critical care units (CCUs) with critically ill patients is extremely important. This study was conducted to compare CCNs' clinical competency using self-assessment method and assessment by their Head nurses.

Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 148 CCNs who were included in the study in a period of six months (June -November 2014), in the hospitals of the Zanjan university of medical sciences. Data was collected using Nurse Competency Scale (NCS) which assesses 63 skills in seven different domains. The Cohen's kappa coefficient was used to compare the agreement between the clinical competency and the use of skills in CCNs and their head nurses.

Results: The inter-rater agreement was poor between the nurses and their Head nurses in the evaluation of the clinical competency, and in two aspects was very poor. The "Quality assurance" (0.098) and the" Helping Role" (0.373) domains had the lowest and the highest level of agreement, respectively. The inter-rater agreement of the use of skills by nurses was reported very poor in all domains.

Conclusion: The current study revealed that there is no agreement between the evaluation of CCNs' clinical competency by own nurses and their head nurses indicating these two methods are not interchangeable.

Azam Maleki, Soghrat Faghihzadeh,
Volume 6, Issue 1 (6-2016)

Background and Objectives: Men's participation in family care programs is one of the important strategies in maternal and child health care. The present study aimed to evaluate the fathers' function after the transition to fatherhood stage and its related factors.

Materials and Methods: The study was a cross-sectional design that conducted in Zanjan between 2012-2013. The function of 403fatherswere investigated whose wives had delivered in last 8 weeks. The samples were selected randomly, and the data was collected using the Inventory of Functional Status- Father (IFS-F) scale, which in the fathers' function were categorized according to the median cut-off point. The content validity and reliability of the scale was approved using Content Validity Ratio (CVR=0.89) and Cronbach’s Alpha in the function of the components were 0.52- 0.90, respectively. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and kruskal-Wallis H test (Acceptable P value<0.05).

Results: The highest and lowest mean score of fathers' function belonged to the job and social dimensions, respectively. There was an increased level of fathers' participation in home activities (23.2%), and taking care of the other children (30.4%) compared to pregnancy period. The fathers' function dropped by 7% and 27.6% in their job and social activity dimensions, respectively. A significant association was found between the mean score of fathers' function and the marriage age, the number of children, educational level, and the time of first fatherhood experience.

Conclusion: Moderate fathers' function in most of the fatherhood dimensions was remarked in the current study. Given that the importance of the men's participation in maternal and child health care, and influencing of the demographic characteristics on this process, it is recommended that the fathers, and young fathers with low education level particularly, to be attended fatherhood preparations courses.

Homa Dorodi, Korosh Amini, Maryam Hashemi,
Volume 6, Issue 3 (11-2016)

Background and Objectives: Due to the importance of the effect of occupational hazards on the performance of health workers and professional satisfaction, this study was done to determine the relationship between the injuries caused by job with job satisfaction, stress and employee turnover mediated by perceptions of safety climate about health workers.

Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive-correlative study. The statistic population of this study included all medical and administrative staff of Zanjan’s teaching hospitals. The sample was 268 people who were selected among the therapeutic staff of Ayatollah Mousavi and Valiasr hospitals by using Cochran method and accessible sampling. Data were collected by a local standard questionnaire. The validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by factor analysis (KMO=0.809) and its ostensible validity and reliability was confirmed by Cronbach's alpha coefficient (0.82) report. Data analysis was done using descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation and multiple regression by SPSS software, version 22.

Results: Multiple regression showed that there is a significant relation between the injuries caused by job and job satisfaction, job stress and turnover (p<0.05). Also, the mediating role of perceptions of safety climate variable was confirmed.

Conclusion: Organizations should pay more attention to the prevention of injuries to prevent the decline in employees' perception of safety so that the attitude of staff and their job satisfaction do not change.

Nastaran Mansoreyeh, Hamid Poursharifi, Mohammadreza Taban Sadeghi, Mohammadreza Seirafi,
Volume 7, Issue 3 (11-2017)

Background: As a chronic disease, heart failure (HF) is a growing problem that not only impacts patients but also their family members and friends. Self-care is the main part of HF treatment. Despite the significance of determining variables involved in self-care, the relationships of self-efficacy, illness perception, and social support with self-care and the predictive roles of these variables in the treatment of HF have not been investigated.
Objectives: The present study was aimed at exploring the predictive roles of self-efficacy, illness perception, and social support in self-care of patients with heart failure.
Methods: In this predictive correlation study, 149 patients with HF were selected through convenience sampling from Tabriz Research Treatment Centre of Heart in 2016. To collect data, a demographic information questionnaire, self-care behaviour scale, general self-efficacy (GSE), brief illness perception questionnaire (Brief-IPQ), and social support scale were used. To analyse data, SPSS software version 16, descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation coefficient, and multiple stepwise regression analyses were employed.
Results: Out of 149 subjects, 102 (68%) participants were male, and 47 (32%) of them were female. The mean and standard deviation of samples’ age were (64.40±10.32) ranging from 37 to 88 years. Most of participants were married (82%). The mean scores were as follows: Self-care (40.66±13.16), self-efficacy (45.81±22.03), illness perception (56.05±18.24), and social support (49.09±6.74). Data analysis demonstrated significant correlations between illness perception and self-care (p<0.001, r=0.649), self-efficacy and self-care (p<0.001, r=-0.678), social support and self-care (p<0.001, r=-0.518), and age and self-care (p<0.001, r=-0.506). The standardized coefficient of illness perception was (β=0.274), social support was (β=-0.237), self-efficacy was (β=-0.230), and age was (β=-0.211). In addition, 56% of self-care variance is explained by age, social support, self-efficacy, and illness perception.
Conclusion: All of the investigated variables were found to have a predictive role in self-care. Illness perception was recognized as the most effective factor in predicting self-care. Hence, illness perception can be used to explain 27% of self-care ability of patients with HF.

Atefeh Rajabi, Azam Maleki, Mohsen Dadashi, Farzaneh Karami Tanha,
Volume 8, Issue 1 (6-2018)

Background: Mothers with preterm infants experience numerous stressful problems which can be associated with negative effects on maternal role adaptation.
Objectives: The present study aimed to evaluate maternal role adaptation in mothers with late-preterm infants and its related factors.
Methods: This descriptive-analytical study was conducted in Ayatollah Mousavi Hospital in Zanjan, Iran during June-November 2017. A total of 95 women with preterm infants were selected by convenience sampling method. Data were collected using demographic and maternal role adaptation questionnaires. Finally, the obtained data were analyzed by the SPSS software employing descriptive statistics test and regression models at a confidence level of 95% (P<0.05).
Results: Based on the results, the highest mean of maternal role adaptation belonged to the areas of child dependency and emotional development while the lowest mean was related to the area of concern and anxiety. In addition, the results demonstrated a significant correlation between the degree of maternal role adaptation and its areas such as family income, maternal and parents level of education, parents occupational status, birth weight, Apgar score, the gender of the infant, and delivery method.
Conclusion: In general, the adaptation of mothers with preterm infants was low in the area of concern and anxiety compared to the other areas. Therefore, planning appropriate interventions to strengthen the maternal role is of great importance for the parents who have preterm infants, low level of education, and are unemployed with insufficient income.

Bahman Alimoradi, Hamid Nejat,
Volume 8, Issue 1 (6-2018)

Background: Mood disorders constitute a prevalent problem during postnatal period. Nonetheless, three is not adequate information on the underlying mechanism of postpartum depression (PPD).
Objectives: Therefore, this study aimed to investigates the role of early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) and premenstrual syndrome (PMS) in mothers with postpartum depression (PPD) referring to health centers in Mashhad.
Methods: In order to carry out this cross-sectional study purposeful sampling was used to select 179 mothers who referred to health centers in Mashhad during February, March, and April of 2018 and met the relevant criteria of study as the participants. Participants completed Young’s Early Maladaptive Schema, Premenstrual syndrome (PSST) and the Edinburgh Depression Scale. Descriptive statistics and stepwise regression analysis were used to analyze the data with SPSS version 20.
Results: The participants ranged in age from 19 to 41 and their mean age was 29.7±8/7.  This group of participants consisted of 106 mothers who had experienced their first delivery, 42(24.4%) mothers who had experienced their second delivery, and 24(14%) mothers who had experienced their third delivery. The results revealed that PMS (P<0/001; r=0.56) and EMSs (P<0/05; r=0.65) had significant correlations with PPD. PMS and EMSs together predicted 42% of the variance of PPD.
Conclusion: The findings of this study suggests that PMS and EMSs affect mothers’ PPD.
Elmira Aziziz, Azam Maleki, Saeideh Mazloomzadeh, Reza Pirzeh,
Volume 8, Issue 2 (9-2018)

Background: Stress during pregnancy and delivery is associated with unfavorable outcomes, which negatively affects maternal breastfeeding self-efficacy.
Objectives: This study aimed to determine the relationship between perceived stress and breastfeeding self-efficacy of women in Zanjan, Iran.
Methods: This descriptive- analytical study was performed on 224 pregnant women, who participated in delivery preparation classes and were selected by Poisson random sampling. The data were collected using Demoghraphic and midwifery characteristics Questionnaires, Cohen’s perceived stress scale, and Dennis’s breast-feeding self-efficacy scale. In addition, data analysis was performed using descriptive statistics, Pearson’s correlation coefficient, and logistic regression model at 95% confidence interval.
Results: In this study, the mean age of the participants was 26.56±4.61 years. Moreover, a majority of mothers were nulliparous (81.3%), had academic degrees (56.7%), and were housewives (86.6%). According to the results, there was a significant and reverse association between perceived stress and breastfeeding self-efficacy and neonatal weight at birth (P=0.0001) (P=0.01). While breastfeeding self-efficacy had a direct association with natural delivery, wanted pregnancy, neonatal weight, and family income level, It had a significant and reverse relationship with history of abortion (P<0.05).
Conclusion: Due to the significant and negative relationship between perceived stress and self-efficacy as well as the importance of this issue in the rate of exclusive nutrition and continuation of lactation, planning to control perceived stress in nulliparous women with a history of abortion, unwanted pregnancy, and low income levels seems necessary
Shabnam Asgari, Mahin Roohani, Kourosh Amini, Soghrat Faghihzadeh,
Volume 8, Issue 2 (9-2018)

Background: One of the psychological complications of heart failure is anxiety, especially death anxiety, which leads to poor quality of life in patients and impaired prognosis of the disease.
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to Investigating Death Anxiety and its Relationship with Some Demographic Variables in Patients with Heart Failure investigate death anxiety level and its association with some demographic variables in patients with heart failure.
Methods: It was a descriptive-analytical study conducted on 80 patients with heart failure referring to Valiasr Hospital and Ayatollah Mousavi Zanjan between March 2018 and August 2018. A three-prat questionnaire was used to collect data: 1. Demographic characteristics, 2. Templer death anxiety scale 3. Beck anxiety scale (to determine patients' baseline anxiety). For analyzing the data, descriptive statistics and ANCOVA were used in SPSS v.22 software.
Results: The age range of the patients was between 27 and 98 years, with the highest age group (65 years) with 83.8%. Fifty-two percent of the sample were female (n=42) and 47% were male (n=38). Seventy two point five percent were married, 61% were illiterate, 40% were unemployed and 55% reported poor financial status. The mean score of death anxiety in heart failure patients was 47.95. The highest score of death anxiety in these patients was 61 (1.3%) and the lowest score was 30 (1.3%). More than 90% of patients had moderate (82/5%) and severe (11/25%) death anxiety. The results of ANCOVA showed that the relationship between death anxiety level and employment status variable (P<0.04) was significant.
Conclusion: The results of this study indicated a high death anxiety among the majority of studied population which can be due to lack of adequate training in coping with death anxiety in patients with heart failure. Accordingly, it is suggested that more attention should be paid to mental health authorities in order to improve the mental health of these populations in this area.

Maryam Damghanian,
Volume 8, Issue 2 (9-2018)

Background: Urinary incontinence (UI) is a health problem which can affect women's sexual function. Pelvic floor exercise (PFE) is offered as a first-line therapy to women with UI. It has been shown that PFE might improve different dimensions of sexual function; however, few data is available on the sexual function and its related factors in the women with UI treated by PFE.
Objectives: The present study aimed to determine sexual function and its related factors in the women with UI treated by PFE.
This is a cross-sectional study on 183 married participants with confirmed UI treated by PFE in 2015-2016 using convenience sampling method in Imam Khomeini and Mohebe Yas urogynecology clinics. Data collection tools included demographic information, the Questionnaire for UI Diagnosis (QUID), Incontinence Severity Index (ISI), the Pelvic Organ Prolapse/Urinary Incontinence Sexual Questionnaire (PISQ-12) and the Broom self-efficacy scale. Statistical analysis was run using univariate and multivariate linear regressions via STATA software.Results: The mean age of patients was 51.43±4.00 years, and the mean of sexual function according to PISQ-12 scale was 23.82±3.28 in women. The mean score of sexual function was less than the median of the scale score. Aging (p=0.018), retirement of husbands (p=0.044), being underweight (p<0.001), the history of abortion (p=0.036) and high self-efficacy in doing PFE (p<0.001) were found to be effective factors in sexual function.
Conclusion: Modifiable factors included being underweight and having self-efficacy in performing PFE, which can be controlled using more management strategies to increase women's self-efficacy in doing PFE.
Soudabeh Mehdizadeh, Soheila Abbasi, Kourosh Kamali,
Volume 8, Issue 2 (9-2018)

Background: Although medical students gain essential knowledge about healthy lifestyles, studies show that this group does not behave in a healthy way and no effective lifestyle courses are also available for this group.
Objectives: The present study aimed to determine the health-promoting lifestyle in medical and non-medical students in Zanjan during 2016-2017.
The population of this comparative-descriptive study included all students studying at the medical and non-medical universities of Zanjan Province. Census and randomized cluster sampling techniques were used for selecting medical and non-medical students, respectively. The senior students who showed their tendency could participate in the study. In addition, the data were collected by demographic information and health-promoting behavior (HPLPII) questionnaires. Finally, the data were analyzed through using descriptive (frequency, frequency percentage, mean, and standard deviation) and inferential (independent t-test and the Chi-square) statistics in SPSS 16 and P<0.05 was considered as the significance level.Results: There was a significant difference regarding some demographic variables (sex, educational degree, dwelling place, average family income, the number of family members, along with mother’s education and employment status) between medical and non-medical students. The mean and standard deviation of health-promoting lifestyle score in medical and non-medical students were 2.52±0.39 and 2.53±0.41, respectively, indicating a moderate level. Based on independent t-test, health accountability was higher in medical students compared to non-medical students although physical activity and the nutritional habits of medical students were weaker in this group as compared to non-medical students (P<0.05). However, no significant difference was observed between the mean of the other subgroups and the total score of the health-promoting lifestyle of the two groups (P>0.05).
Conclusion: Based on the results, more accurate reviewing and planning are necessary regarding improving the health-promoting lifestyle, especially in the field of physical activity and nutritional habits while removing health promotion lifestyle barriers among students, especially medical students
Roya Mohammadi, Nasrin Jafari Varjoshani, Mitra Payami Bousari, Zeinab Ghahremani,
Volume 8, Issue 3 (12-2018)

Background: Renal failure is a chronic disease getting more prevalent nowadays.
Objectives: Since caring for the patients is expected to result in family functioning disorders, this study was done in Zanjan Province in 2019 to determine the extent of the hemodialysis patients’ family function.
Methods: This is a descriptive study. 199 patients undergoing hemodialysis treatment were selected through the stratified random sampling method. Data collection tools included demographic information questionnaire and McMaster Family Functioning Questionnaire. The data were analyzed by Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, descriptive statistics, independent t-test and Pearson correlation coefficient in the SPSS software version 25.
Results: About half of the participants were male (52.3%), married (76.4%), the family caretaker (56.3%) and urban dwellers (70.4%), having insufficient income per month (75.4%). 52.7% of the patients under study were more than 60 years old. The age group 20-29 (six percent) had the lowest frequency in the population of the hemodialysis patients under study. Furthermore, 15.1% of the participants had no health insurance coverage and there was no social support system backing 67.3% of the participants. All dimensions of family functioning, under this study, fell within the normal range. The mean scores of family functioning dimensions were lower in terms of problem solving dimension than in other dimensions (The problem solving dimension score equaled 1.88 within the range of 0–4) and families functioned better in this respect. Furthermore, the results proved significant statistical relationship between number of family members, sufficient family income, and the distance from the hemodialysis centers and being covered by the social support system on the one hand and some dimensions of family functioning on the other hand (p<0.05).
Conclusion: Regarding the study results, the healthcare system is suggested to provide social support for the patients and their families; furthermore, education of families is recommended in order to promote favorable performance.

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