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Showing 8 results for Zamani

Zahra Shamsi, Mohammad Reza Yaftian, Abdol Hossein Parizanganeh, Abbas Ali Zamani,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (12-2017)

Background: Water pollution is an important environmental problem, undoubtedly, the presence of toxic heavy metals forms the main source of water contamination. Sorption characteristics of polyurethane foams modified with bis (2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (DEHPA) for the removal of zinc, lead and cadmium ions from contaminated solutions were investigated.
Methods: Operating variables, such as initial pH of the aqueous solution (1-6), ion concentrations (5-100 mg/l), sorbent dosage (1-8 g) and contact time (0-60 min), were studied.
Results: A value of 98 ± 3% of initial amount of studied ions (20 mg/l) was eliminated using 5 g of polyurethane sorbent modified with DEHPA (0.01 M in methanol) at pH 5. The selectivity order for metal ions toward the sorbent is Zn> Pb> Cd. Analysis of the equilibrium sorption data using Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin models revealed that the Langmuir model was well suited to describe the zinc, lead and cadmium ions sorption. Power function, simple Elovich, pseudo first-order and pseudo second-order kinetics were applied for kinetic study in batch sorption and it was found that experimental data can be suitably described by pseudo second-order model.
Conclusion: Removal of studied metal ions from real samples shows that the modified polyurethane foam is useful for the treatment of polluted waters.

Younes Khosravi, Abbas Ali Zamani, Abdol Hossein Parizanganeh, Mir Ali Asghar Mokhtari, Akbar Nadi,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (12-2017)

Background: This research aims to measure and study spatial changes, and the reason behind the increasing nitrate content in water wells in the Central District of Khodabandeh County in the Zanjan Province.
Methods: The nitrate and nitrite content, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, temperature, total hardness and pH were measured at 40 sampling stations in the study area. The obtained features were categorized into four classes by principal component analysis. The kriging and cokriging methods along with electrical conductivity and total hardness covariates were used to study the spatial changes. By using the cross-validation method, the linear model for cokriging method with electrical conductivity covariate was selected as the best model for nitrate zoning in ArcGIS 10.2 software.
Results: The principal component analysis indicated that nitrate feature was in the same classification as that of electrical conductivity and total hardness. The comparison of surface digital elevation model, geology and land use maps with nitrate zoning indicated that nitrate pollution in the south and south-west regions was due to geological content, agricultural activities, and the discharge of human sewage into absorbing wells.
Conclusion: The findings of the present research revealed that lowlands with agricultural use had more nitrate content than other uses, and the most important reason could be attributed to the excessive use of nitrate containing chemical fertilizers.


Seyedeh Monireh Mirgerami, Mohammad Reza Yaftian, Abdol Hossein Parizanganeh, Abbas Ali Zamani,
Volume 4, Issue 2 (6-2018)

Background: The present study aimed to estimate the flow of electronic waste (e-waste) in Iran in order to establish a baseline for these toxic, potentially valuable wastes.
Methods: Questionnaires were prepared to determine the amount of waste produced by households, institutions, repair centers, and importers and sellers of electronic products. In total, 22 electronic products (e-products) were tracked and classified into several categories, including computers, televisions, batteries, CD/DVDs, computer peripherals, telephones, multimedia players, and recorders. The questionnaires were completed in Tehran, Mashhad, Sanandaj, and Zanjan cities, Iran. In total, 860 questionnaires were completed via face-to-face interviews. The results were generalized to the entire country so as to estimate the level of e-waste.
Results: In 2012, the amount of e-waste in Iran was 288,000 tons, which was estimated to reach 444 million tons by 2032. This translates to an estimated annual e-waste per capita of 5.37 kilograms, which is lower than the current global value (7.2 kilograms). In addition, the findings indicated that technological innovation and market expansion accelerate the replacement of equipment, thereby significantly increasing e-waste.
Conclusion: According to the results, the management of e-waste requires proper infrastructures to avert a crisis in e-waste management in Iran.

Maryam Shamsi, Abbasali Zamani, Younes Khosravi, Abdolhossein Parizanganeh, Zahra Shamsi,
Volume 6, Issue 1 (3-2020)

Background: Focus on environmental heavy metals is important due to their adverse impact on the human health and environment. This study aimed to determine the lead and nickel concentrations and their spatial patterns in the street dust of Zanjan city, Iran, which is enclosed with metal production (especially lead and zinc industries).
Methods: Fifty urban street dust samples were collected from Zanjan and analyzed for lead and nickel after Aqua Regia digestion via flame atomic-absorption spectrophotometry. The sediment contamination degree and origin of the pollutants were assessed using the geo-accumulation index. Pollution status was assessed using the enrichment factor and potential ecological risk index (Hakanson index).
Results: The mean, minimum, and maximum lead were 745, 30, and 4610 mg/kg and 72, 32, and 154 mg/kg for nickel, respectively. The mean lead concentration was higher than the local background value. The element spatial distribution showed higher lead concentration in the east, west, and southwest, main streets, and Qazvin-Tabriz highways. Higher potential ecological risk was observed for lead, confirming regional pollution.
Conclusion: High lead concentrations could be attributed to vehicle emissions and industrial activities (lead and zinc companies in Zanjan). Traffic and frequent braking of vehicles could increase nickel concentrations.

Zahra Miryousefiaval, Abbasali Zamani, Younes Khosravi,
Volume 6, Issue 4 (12-2020)

Background: This aimed to compare the interpolation of lead and zinc concentration at the National Lead and Zinc Corporation using Landsat satellite and laboratory data to introduce an optimal interpolation method.
Methods: After collecting the laboratory data, geostatistical approaches were applied to model the spatial distribution of lead and zinc, including radial basis functions, inverse distance weighting, and ordinary kriging (Gaussian, spherical, exponential, and circular). Estimation accuracy was evaluated by cross-validation and MAE, MBE, and RMSE diagnostic statistics.
Results: The Gaussian model had the lowest error and was the optimal method for modeling lead and zinc. After investigating the correlations between the Landsat 5 satellite bands and soil element concentrations, the spatial distribution of lead and zinc was re-zoned in the ArcGIS software. In both methods, estimation accuracy was evaluated by cross-validation and MAE, MBE, and RMSE diagnostic statistics.
Conclusion: The MAE and RMSE of the satellite data of lead were 38.36 and 91.73, while they were 52.93 and 74.57 for zinc, respectively. The experimental data of lead were 53.04 and 125.18while they were 108.15 and 239.25 for zinc, respectively. The accuracy of the satellite data in the interpolation of the investigated elements had lower error and higher accuracy.

Parvin Asadifard, Abbasali Zamani, Farideh Piri, Somayyeh Piri,
Volume 7, Issue 3 (9-2021)

Background: In this research, the adsorption efficiency of Cellulose (as a raw compound prepared from trash papers) and Cellulose Nanopolystyrene (CNP) as adsorbents for waste water treatment was investigated. Lead and cadmium ions as the pollutants added to aqueous solutions and a synthetic effluent solution was prepared.
Methods: The effective factors influencing the adsorption process including the pH of aqueous phase and its ionic strength, the adsorbent dose, the duration of adsorbent, and time dependency have been assessed.  The removal efficiency was assessed by determination of studied metal ions using a flame atomic absorption spectrometer before and after removal procedure.
Results: It was found that 0.1g of Cellulose as adsorbent removed 96.81%‚ 50.06% of Pb2+and Cd2+ from 45 mL of synthetic effluent solution at pH =5 after 30 min at 27°C, respectively.  Moreover, 0.1g of the CNP removed 96.88%‚ 60.41% of Pb2+and Cd2+ from similar above-mentioned conditions. The CNP showed better adsorbent characteristics in the adsorption of Pb2+ and Cd2+ ions than the Cellulose. The Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models successfully demonstrated the experimental observations for removing Pb2+ and Cd2+ ions by CNP as the adsorbent. The Dubinin-Radushkevich   D-R) and Temkin isotherm models were better adapted than other used models for the adsorption procedure.
Conclusion: This research confirms the efficiency of treated Cellulose and Cellulose Nano-polystyrene (CNP) adsorbents from trash papers for eliminating Pb2+ and Cd2+ ions from synthetic effluent solution.

Fatemeh Zahra Takin, Younes Khosravi, Abbasali Zamani,
Volume 7, Issue 4 (12-2021)

Background: This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between land use changes and physicochemical characteristics of groundwater in the Dalaki watershed in Bushehr province, from 2006 to 2016.
Methods: In this study, changes in the amounts of chlorine, calcium, sodium, sulfate, and total dissolved solids were investigated. In the first step, the spatial relationships of the aforementioned parameters were evaluated and the optimal models were selected for mapping. Then, using Landsat satellite images, the land use classification was done. Finally, the relationships between land use changes and the physicochemical characteristics of groundwater were surveyed.
Results: According to the analysis of the results, the highest concentration of groundwater in the studied years was observed in rainfed agriculture, palm groves and orchards land uses.
Conclusion: A significant relationship can be established between agricultural uses and the increase in the concentration of groundwater physicochemical characteristics. In other words, agricultural use caused groundwater resources salinity and reduced their quality. Because of the vastness of land use, a large amount of groundwater is taken to irrigate crops. Moreover, rainfed agriculture increased and decreased the number of quality characteristics, however using planting palm trees only increased them.

Mina Islami, Mohammad Abadi, Abbasali Zamani, Jaber Aazami, Hamid Badiee,
Volume 8, Issue 3 (9-2022)

Background: The present study aims to assess the amounts of Zn, Cu, Cd, Pb, Ni, Co, Mn, and Fe by analyzing the particle composition of the surficial sediments in Ghezel Ozan River located in Zanjan, Iran.
Methods: 18 sediment samples were collected from Ghezel Ozan River. After Aqua Regia Digestion, the studied heavy metals in sediment samples were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Several pollution indices, such as Enrichment Factor (EF), Geo-accumulation Index (Igeo), Pollution Factor (Cd), and Pollution Load Index (PLI), were calculated.
Results: Observed average values (in unit mg kg1) were in the range of Zn: 480.0-34294.0, Cu: 7.8-32.00, Cd: not detected -100.0, Pb: 22.0-256.0, Ni: 2.50-60.00, Co: 7.60-34.0, Mn: 144.0-31600.0 and Fe: 9320.0-62300.0. The Igeo index confirmed that the average values of Zn, Pb, and Cd are in the heavily contaminated levels. The mean EF index suggested minimal enrichment for Cu, Ni, Mn, and Co, whereas Zn, Cd, and Pb indicated severe enrichment.

Conclusion: The average Cd, RI, and PLI indices for all investigated heavy metals confirmed a considerable contamination level.

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