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Showing 11 results for Heavy Metal

Zohre Farahmandkia , Faramarz Moattar, Farid Zayeri , Mohammad Sadegh Sekhavatjou , Nabiollah Mansouri,
Volume 2, Issue 3 (6-2017)

Background: Heavy metals are the main air pollutants in cities. Therefore, assessment of the risk of exposure to these metals through inhalation, ingestion, and dermal contact on inhabitants of contaminated areas of the world is of great importance.
Methods: A weekly sampling of air particles smaller than 10 microns was performed in a residential area of Zanjan for two years. Risk assessment in the face of heavy metals from inhalation, ingestion, and dermal contact for were measured for two children and adults. After fingerprinting high-risk metals, the air pollutants of the region were analyzed according to the PMF5 model.
Results: The results showed that children at risk assessment (1.40 × 1000) at the highest concentration of manganese. The PMF5 model results of fingerprinting 15 heavy metals showed that predominant pollutants in the region, included lead and zinc industries with 42.3%, suspended soil with 26.4%, industrial activities with 23.5%, and combustion and fuel with 7.8% of contamination. It was also found that 55.5 percent of manganese emission was associated with lead and zinc industries and 22.4 percent were related to suspended soil.
Conclusion: Risk assessment showed that children were exposed to non-cancerous diseases due to inhalation of manganese particles.

Zahra Shamsi, Mohammad Reza Yaftian, Abdol Hossein Parizanganeh, Abbas Ali Zamani,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (12-2017)

Background: Water pollution is an important environmental problem, undoubtedly, the presence of toxic heavy metals forms the main source of water contamination. Sorption characteristics of polyurethane foams modified with bis (2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (DEHPA) for the removal of zinc, lead and cadmium ions from contaminated solutions were investigated.
Methods: Operating variables, such as initial pH of the aqueous solution (1-6), ion concentrations (5-100 mg/l), sorbent dosage (1-8 g) and contact time (0-60 min), were studied.
Results: A value of 98 ± 3% of initial amount of studied ions (20 mg/l) was eliminated using 5 g of polyurethane sorbent modified with DEHPA (0.01 M in methanol) at pH 5. The selectivity order for metal ions toward the sorbent is Zn> Pb> Cd. Analysis of the equilibrium sorption data using Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin models revealed that the Langmuir model was well suited to describe the zinc, lead and cadmium ions sorption. Power function, simple Elovich, pseudo first-order and pseudo second-order kinetics were applied for kinetic study in batch sorption and it was found that experimental data can be suitably described by pseudo second-order model.
Conclusion: Removal of studied metal ions from real samples shows that the modified polyurethane foam is useful for the treatment of polluted waters.

Mosummath Hosna Ara, Abu Rayhan Khan, Nazim Uddin, Palash Kumar Dhar,
Volume 4, Issue 4 (12-2018)

Background: Vegetables are the main source of nutrients for the human being but the intake of contaminated vegetables causes several diseases. Therefore, the aims of this study were to examine heavy metals concentration in leafy, fruit and root vegetables and their growing soil in Mongla, Bangladesh; and to estimate the health risks (non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic) caused by heavy metal exposure through ingestion of vegetable using hazard quotient (THQ) and target cancer risk (TCR).
Methods: United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) deterministic approaches were used to assess the potential health risks to the human.
Results: The average concentration of Fe, Cd, and Pb was 489.47, 0.48 and 8.15 mg/kg respectively, which was above the permissible limit recommended by WHO/FAO. Furthermore, THQ values for these metals and combined impacts of all metals (HI) were greater than the acceptable limit (1.0) which indicated a potential non-carcinogenic health risk. TCR values of Cd and Pb were greater than USEPA risk limit (>10 -6); which exerts moderate to high carcinogenic risk to the human.
Conclusion: The total health risk index showed that the consumption of vegetables from this study area poses a health risk and therefore regular monitoring of heavy metals is strongly recommended. 

Mehdi Shamsaie Mehrgan , Seyed Pezhman Hosseini Shekarabi, Bahareh Hassanzadeh, Seyed Hadi Seyed Alhosseini,
Volume 5, Issue 4 (12-2019)

Background: The present study aimed to determine the concentrations of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in water, bottom sediments, and tissues of sampled fish from Mellat artificial lake in Iran.
Methods: Two stations were selected to evaluate the heavy metal concentrations, including the IRIB qanat (S1) and middle part of the lake (S2). The measurements were performed in triplicate via flame atomic absorption spectroscopy.
Results: In water, the highest levels of Pb (5.33 mg/l) and Cd (0.650 mg/l) were observed in the sampled sediments from S2 in autumn and winter, respectively (P < 0.05). Seasonal analysis revealed that the highest and lowest Pb concentrations were in the fish muscles in summer (8.107 mg/kg) and spring (0.487 mg/kg), respectively, while the fish liver showed the maximum (3.982 mg/kg) and minimum Pb concentrations (0.690 mg/kg) in autumn and winter, respectively. The Pb concentration in the fish muscle and liver was above the standard limits for human consumption. However, the Cd level in the fish muscle in spring was below the standard limits, which gradually increased and exceeded the standard limits.
Conclusion: Precautions are required to avoid the contamination of Mellat Lake with heavy metal-based sources due to the discharge of pollutants.

Maryam Shamsi, Abbasali Zamani, Younes Khosravi, Abdolhossein Parizanganeh, Zahra Shamsi,
Volume 6, Issue 1 (3-2020)

Background: Focus on environmental heavy metals is important due to their adverse impact on the human health and environment. This study aimed to determine the lead and nickel concentrations and their spatial patterns in the street dust of Zanjan city, Iran, which is enclosed with metal production (especially lead and zinc industries).
Methods: Fifty urban street dust samples were collected from Zanjan and analyzed for lead and nickel after Aqua Regia digestion via flame atomic-absorption spectrophotometry. The sediment contamination degree and origin of the pollutants were assessed using the geo-accumulation index. Pollution status was assessed using the enrichment factor and potential ecological risk index (Hakanson index).
Results: The mean, minimum, and maximum lead were 745, 30, and 4610 mg/kg and 72, 32, and 154 mg/kg for nickel, respectively. The mean lead concentration was higher than the local background value. The element spatial distribution showed higher lead concentration in the east, west, and southwest, main streets, and Qazvin-Tabriz highways. Higher potential ecological risk was observed for lead, confirming regional pollution.
Conclusion: High lead concentrations could be attributed to vehicle emissions and industrial activities (lead and zinc companies in Zanjan). Traffic and frequent braking of vehicles could increase nickel concentrations.

Ayodele Owolabi, Patrick Adesida,
Volume 6, Issue 1 (3-2020)

Background: Blasting is used for the extraction of hard rocks using explosives and has easy operation and high efficiency. The explosives used in blasting are combined chemical substances, which enter the environment after detonation. This study aimed to investigate the effects of the chemicals released into the environment in blasting.
Methods: Water and soil were collected from inside and outside the quarry. Heavy metals and other deleterious constituents were assessed for AAS, and the results were compared with the WHO standards (domestic water use) and FAO (classification of soil macro- and micronutrients). The impact of mining on water and soil was evaluated by comparing the samples of the inside/outside the quarry.
Results: The mean pH of the water samples of the inside and outside the quarry was 5.52 and 5.47, respectively. Manganese and chromium in both water samples were WHO standard, while lead and cadmium were not detected in these samples. The mean pH of the soil samples of the inside and outside was 5.98 and 6.0, respectively. The heavy metals in the soil samples were FAO standard.
Conclusion: Quarrying adversely affects the environment. The EIA and strict implementation of the outlined mitigation measures should be enforced to guarantee sustainability.

Md Juel Mahmud, Mahfuza Sharifa Sultana, Sakhawath Hossain, Sajin Sultana, Md Mostafizur Rahman,
Volume 6, Issue 3 (9-2020)

Background: Food security is an alarming issue to researchers. This study aimed to evaluate the trace metals in fruits and vegetables and their impact on human health in Konabari industrial area (Gazipur, Dhaka, Bangladesh) during 2016-2017.
Methods: Wet acid digestion determined the concentrations of eight trace elements (aluminum, calcium, iron, potassium, magnesium, manganese, sodium, and zinc) in 28 samples of 10 fruits and vegetables (papaya, guava, banana, Malabar spinach, eggplant, jute tender leaves, watercress, water spinach, gourd leaves, and cauliflower) using a microwave and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. To assess the human health risk, the target hazard quotient (THQ) was calculated only for iron, manganese, and zinc in Microsoft Excel.
Results: The mean concentrations of aluminum, calcium, iron, potassium, magnesium manganese, sodium, and zinc were 764.2, 6664.6, 556.2, 3551.14, 4479.4, 1034, 1559.8, and 128.6 mg/kg, respectively, which decreased as Ca>Mg>K>Na>Mn>Al>Fe>Zn. Most values exceeded the total nutritional levels for these fruits and vegetables, while the estimated daily intake of the elements was acceptable. The THQ of the fruits and vegetables consumed by the adult population was <1.
Conclusion: As the THQ was <1, the consumption of the samples posed no major health risks in terms of the trace elements.

Hanan A. Zaher, Azza H. Mohamed, Sahar E. Hamed, Ayman El-Khateeb,
Volume 7, Issue 1 (3-2021)

Background: Heavy metal toxicity at low levels damages the function of the brain, lungs, kidney, liver, blood composition, and other important organs. Long-term exposure leads to gradual disease progression in multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, muscular dystrophy, and cancer.
Methods: In total, 100 crustacean samples (50 crabs and 50 prawns) were analyzed in terms of nickel, zinc, chromium, and copper residues using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer and compared to Egyptian standard limits.
Results: The concentrations of nickel, zinc, chromium, and copper in the crab samples were 0.292 ± 0.02, 20.688 ± 3.06, 1.158 ± 0.01, and 22.304 ± 4.04 µg/g of wet weight, respectively. The values in the prawn samples were 0.373 ± 0.01, 16.204 ± 2.01, 0.844 ± 0.01, and 18.524 ± 1.03 µg/g of wet weight, respectively.
Conclusion: Our findings could lay the groundwork for monitoring the heavy metal contamination of marine organisms. The estimated daily detection intake of nickel, zinc, chromium, and copper was below the reported PTDI of each element. In addition, the THQ and HI values of the heavy metals were below 1.00 in the crab and shrimp samples, suggesting no significant risks to the community health due to the consumption of the crab and shrimp samples.

Md. Abu Rayhan Khan, Mosummath Hosna Ara,
Volume 7, Issue 3 (9-2021)

Background: During recent years various anthropogenic and natural activities contribute to high levels of heavy metals in environments. These toxic metals are accumulated in foods mainly in vegetables which consuming them may cause different fetal diseases among humans. Therefore, the main aims of this study were to review the heavy metals level in vegetables and to evaluate related human health risks indifferent parts of Bangladesh.
Methods: Various keywords such as heavy metals, vegetables, and health risk were used to search published articles from 2015-2020 on heavy metals in vegetables (Searching Location: Khulna, Bangladesh). Twenty two articles were selected to review the present study.
Results: In this review, the level of Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb in vegetables was considered for study which their  level in many researches were above the safe limits recommended by joint FAO/WHO (Food and Agricultural Organization/World Health Organization) leading to  health hazards for human being. 
Conclusion: This study showed that vegetables cultivated in the contaminated areas were the main sources of heavy metals entrance to human body which pose severe health risks. Thus proper waste management systems should be suggested to reduce the heavy metals level in environments. 

Aida Abdali Dehdezi, Ebrahim Alaei, Pejman Azadi, Mahmoud Shavandi, Seyed Amir Mousavi,
Volume 7, Issue 4 (12-2021)

Background: Using plants for removing heavy metals from contaminated soils is an economical and effective strategy. Phytoremediation is one of the suggested methods that plants absorb and accumulated heavy elements in plants. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of Cadmium (Cd) phytoremediation from soil using Bermuda grass.
Methods: This experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with four levels of (Cadmium nitrate) Cd (NO3)2 (0, 20, 50, 60 mg/ kg soil) and Nickle solution (NiCl2×6 H2O) (0, 150, 300,450 mg/ kg soil) with three replications in the Research Institute of Petroleum Industry. 
Results: The obtained results of the analysis of variance showed that metal significantly affected traits such as shoot and root dry weight, plant height, stomatal resistance, chlorophyll and antioxidant enzymes. It was also observed that Cd accumulation in plant root increased with increasing cadmium concentration. Furthur, Ni accumulation in the root tissues was higher in all the treatments than aerial parts.
Conclusion: According to the findings, seedlings of Cynodon dactylon can be suggested for Ni and Cd remediation in polluted soils.

Sima Fekri, Ebrahim Fataei, Ali Akbar Imani,
Volume 9, Issue 1 (3-2023)

Background: This study investigated the effect of waste segregation on the concentration of chemical characteristics in the organic waste of Ardabil city, Iran.
Methods: The samples were collected in order to analyze the amounts of Cd, Pb, pH, EC, TDS, OC, K, Ntotale, and P with standard methods.
Results: The results showed that the average concentration of Pb was determined to be 102 mg/kg in area 3 and 125 mg/kg in area 4. Also, the average concentration of Cd in municipal waste compost samples was 3.139 mg/kg and 4.21 mg/kg in regions 3 and 4. The percentage of nitrogen (N) in both managed samples of regions 3 and 4 was 0.32% and 0.18%. The average percentage of phosphorus (P) in unseparated and separated urban waste compost of region 3 was 0.089% and 0.13%, respectively. In region 4, the average percentage of P in managed municipal waste compost was 0.24% and in unmanaged was 0.201%. The concentration of potassium (K) in separated urban waste compost in areas 3 and 4 was found to be 60.2 ppm and 39 ppm, respectively.
Conclusion: According to the results, it can be said that the effect of management on the number of heavy metals in the waste was significant at the possible level of  P>5%. Further, waste separation at the source systematically reduces the waste with heavy metals.

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