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Showing 9 results for Ghavami

Mohammad Bagher Ghavami, Ali Haniloo, Jamshid Mohammadi,
Volume 12, Issue 49 (Dec 2004)

Background: Mosquitoes are the most important blood feeding insects that can transmit serious diseases such as malaria and arboviruses. Each species of mosquitoes selects a specific host according to biological conditions of the region and genetic characteristics. Anopheles maculipennis complex and Culex theileri are dominant mosquito species in Zanjan. This study was carried out in order to determine the blood feeding index of mosquitoes by Sanduwich Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) in 2004. Materials and Methods: An. maculipennis complex and Cx. theileri mosquitoes were collected from indoors and outdoors by pyrethrum spray catch (PSC) and light trap in 2003 and blood fed samples were separated and kept at -20°c subsequent to drying. The samples were tested for human blood after establishing Sandwich ELISA technique. The results were analyzed through test. Results: A total of 6436 samples were studied, out of which 3072 (47.73%) were An. maculipennis and 3364 (52.3%) Cx. theileri. Human blood-feeding index in An. maculipennis complex was 3.2% while this rate reached 1.5% in Cx. theileri. An. maculipennis complex showed 2.12% more anthropophilic behavior than Cx. theileri. Anthropophilic index of this anopheles by PSC was 0.2%. This index was 7.3% (93) in samples collected by light trap. There was a significant difference in two rates (p=0001). In PSC samples anthropophilic index was 35.17 times less than light trap samples. Anthropophilic index of this Culex was 1.8% through PSC and 1.3% through light trap, which shows no significant difference. Conclusion: With regard to high human blood feeding index of An. maculipennis complex, we suggest that health officials of the province pay careful attention to malaria control and monitoring programs. To reduce human blood feeding index people should be encouraged to use personal protection and keep livestock to divert mosquitoes. More research associated with molecular biology, ecology and bionomy is recommended to determine this difference.

Mohammad Bagher Ghavami, Jamshid Mohammadi, Hossein Ladoni,
Volume 13, Issue 52 (Sep 2005)

Background & Objectives: Blatella germanica as a significant urban pest, can transmit various diseases and cause allergy. In spite of frequent pyrethroid spraying, contamination to German cockroach continues in Shahid Beheshti hospital and so far no survey has been carried out concerning the cause of persistent contamination to this pest. This study was carried out to assess the susceptibility of German cockroach in shahid Beheshti hospital during 2003-2004.
Materials and Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, B. germanica samples were collected from different wards of Shahid Beheshti hospital and transferred to the laboratory. Both hospital and susceptible strains were divided into treatment and control groups. Adult males were sorted out and bioassayed through surface contact with 15.62, 31.25, 62.5, 125, 250 and 500 mg/m2 of permethrin and the number of knockdown samples was counted at different time intervals in all groups. Each dose of permethrin was tested in three replications of ten and a control replication of ten, surface contact with acetone was also carried out. The data were analyzed through probit test and linear regressions between contact time and percentage of knockdown samples was plotted through which knockdown time for 50% of samples (KT50) was estimated.
Results: The survey of 480 cockroaches in two group of 240 (60 control and 180 treated) showed resistance to knockdown effect in contact with permethrin in hospital samples. At contact dose of 15.61 mg/m2, hospital samples were heterogeneous (P=0.0004) and resistant samples were easily recognized from susceptible ones. In this dose, KT50 in hospital samples was 63.6 (95% CI: 60.37-67) minutes and in susceptible strain 22.42 (95% CI: 20.28- 26.65) minutes. Resistance ratio in hospital samples reached 2.83 (95% CI: 2.72-2.96).
Conclusions: Regarding the resistance to permethrin, the study of genetic nature of resistance, cross resistance to new pesticides and their bioassay are necessary in control measures.

Mohammad Bagher Ghavami, Hossein ,
Volume 13, Issue 53 (Dec 2005)

Pari Rahimi, Dr Mohammad Bagher Ghavami, Dr Ali Haniloo, Dr Abbas Ali Nourian, Dr Alireza Biglari,
Volume 16, Issue 65 (12-2008)

Background and Objective: Fascioliasis is an important zoonotic disease that causes several health problems and economical losses in different parts of Iran including Zanjan. Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica are recognized as causative agents of the disease. The differential diagnosis between these two species is very important for planning and control of infection. This study was designed to identify the Fasciola species by molecular methods in Zanjan (Iran). Methods and Materials: A number of 535 adult Fasciola worms were collected from the natural infected livers of cattles and sheep in local slaughterhouse. Living flukes were washed extensively in PBS at 37 OC and then anterior half of adult worms were stored at -20 OC in 70% ethanol. Total genomic DNA was extracted from individual flukes by modified phenol-chloroform method. Nucleotide polymorphism of ITS2 fragment of rDNA was investigated using PCR-RFLP assay and sequencing technique. Results: The results of PCR-RFLP and comparison of ITS2 sequences with the BLAST GenBank database clarified that all specimens were F. hepatica. The obtained sequences are available in the GenBank, with accession numbers EU391412 to EU391424. Conclusion: The results of this study showed no evidence of F. gigantica infection in sheep and cattles in Zanjan as all of the isolates were found to be F. hepatica. Key words: Fasciola, Liver flukes, rDNA, ITS2, PCR-RFLP

Mohammad Mohammadi, Mohammad Bagher Ghavami, Jamshid Mohammadi,
Volume 21, Issue 87 (6-2013)

Bakground and Objective: The soft tick, Ornithodoros tholozani, is of major medical importance due to biting humans and taking blood-meal. Despite the medical importance of this tick, no in-depth studies have been carried out to distinguish different forms and their capability in transmitting the disease. To this end, this study was carried out to identify phenotypic diversity, and contamination of the different strains of this tick to Borrelia persica in Zanjan province. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive study, microscopic examination was carried out with 0.1 micrometer precision, and 20 quantitative morphometric indexes were measured alongside the assessment of qualitative factors. The contamination to Borrelia was investigated through feeding on three-day-old neonate mice, and injection of squashed suspension into the peritoneum of the mice. Results: laboratory investigation revealed that the contamination by Borrelia in tick samples was 0.004-0.008. Morphologic traits examination revealed that body size of the ticks from Khodabandeh and Mahneshan cities was 6.81× 3.93 mm. The two strains of Khodabandeh and Mahneshan had different capitulum widths, and genital opening sizes. Males of Ornithodoros tholozani were smaller than females reaching a size of 4.6 × 2.6 mm. Apart from the length and width of capitulum which were higher in Mahneshan samples than in Khodabandeh, the other indexes were not significantly different. The nymphs in the two strains differed in the body size, the length and width of capitulum, the lengths of the second and fourth segments of the palp however, they were identical in other indexes. Conclusion: Regarding the morphologic distinction between samples in the study sites and their contamination by Borrelia and lack of comprehensive knowledge in analyzing the data, it seems necessary to conduct extensive research in order to review description of the species, express taxonomic position of different strains and provide molecular identification protocol in order to prioritize the application sites, and monitor the administration plans to precisely determine the infection rate of the ticks to Borrelia in diverse geographical regions.

Habibeh Mirzadeh, Mohammad Bagher Ghavami, Habib Zeyghami, Behrouz Taghiloo, Fahimeh Pour Rastgoo,
Volume 23, Issue 100 (7-2015)

Background and Objective: Human flea (Pulex irritans) is one of the most important human ectoparasites that transmits various pathogens and causes skin irritation by biting humans and animals. Planning control measures against this vector in various regions requires the knowledge of the pathogens within the vector. Thus, this study was carried out to identify Bartonella and Rickettsia infection of P. irritans in Zanjan province.

Materials and Methods: Flea samples were collected via human baits from animal farms in Khodabande and Mahneshan districts from September 2013 to October 2014. DNA was extracted from human fleas, and a part of gltA gene for identification of Rickettsia, and ITS region for identification of Bartonella were amplified by specific primers. A number of PCR products were sequenced after purification.

Results: Out of 1136 collected flea samples 1079 (94.98%) were P. irritas, 36 (3.16%) C. canis and 21 (1.84%) were C. felis. 4.9 % of human flea samples had Reckettsia infection, while no Bartonella infection was observed.

Conclusion: High frequency and rickettsial infection of P. irritans in the studied areas need more attention of administrators and taking into account control measures against this vector. Although Bartonella infection was not observed in our samples, more comprehensive studies are required to verify this viewpoint.

Fahimeh Pourrastgou Haghi, Mohammad Bagher Ghavami, Jamshid Mohammadi, Behrouz Taghiloo, Habibeh Mirzadeh,
Volume 24, Issue 102 (3-2016)

Background and Objective: Human flea is assumed as the most dominant ectoparasite associated with transmitting diseases via biting humans. Insecticides are widely employed to curb this vector. Assessment of susceptibility level of populations to various pesticides is necessary for taking appropriate control measures.

Materials and Methods: Subsequent to collection of human flee from indoor areas of Khodabandeh and Mahneshan located in Zanjan province from August 2013 to November 2014, they were kept under standard laboratory conditions. The samples were exposed to inconsistent doses of Permethrin and Lambdacyhalothrin and consequently their mortality rates were assessed after 24 hours.

Results: Out of 1074 collected fleas, 88.1% were Pulex irritans, 7.2% Ctenocephalides cani and 4.7% C. felis. Bioassay[s1]  results gave evidence to homogeneity of study population. LD50 values for permethrin and lambdacyhalothrin were 288.40 – 295.15 µg/ cm2 and 21.87 – 24.54 µg/cm2, respectively.

Conclusion: High levels of LD50 values to pyrethroides of human flea in the studied area indicated the requirement of more attention of health workers to control the vector and Further[s2]   research is necessary to assess the resistance status of human flea to alternative effective insecticides.

Mohammad Bagher Ghavami, Safoura Ahmadi,
Volume 25, Issue 112 (7-2017)

Background and Objective: Head louse (Pediculus humanus capitis) is one of the most important parasites in humans and applying permethrin is the standard method for its control. Continuous application of this chemical increases the probability of permethrin resistance and gradually the addition of alternative substances is necessary. The aim of this study was evaluation of the efficacy of eucalyptus and cinnamon essential oils in head lice treatment compared to permethrin.

Materials and Methods: The essential oils of Eucalyptus globules and Cinnamomum zeylanicum were extracted using a hydrodistilation method and their components were identified via gas chromatography. In the single-blind clinical trial, 95 infested cases residing in Zanjan were categorized into groups of 34, 31 and 30, receiving eucalyptus, cinnamon and permethrin treatment respectively. The lice infestation and hatching rate of nits were investigated before and after the intervention.

Results: The major components of eucalyptus and cinnamon were 1,8-cineole, alpha-pinene, cinnamaldehyde, and 2-propenal, 3-phenyl respectively. The hatching rate of nits was equal in study groups before the intervention. Eucalyptus shampoo showed a higher therapeutic effect than the other substances (p < 0.06). Mortality rates of nits before and after the treatment with eucalyptus and permethrin showed a significant difference (p= 0.009), whereas this difference was non-significant with cinnamon (p= 0.08). The efficacy of cinnamon and permethrin shampoos was equal (p= 0.139). The comparison of nit mortality rates showed a significant difference between the eucalyptus-cinnamon groups (p= 0.06), while differences between the eucalyptus-permethrin groups and the cinnamon-permethrin groups were non-significant (p> 0.28).

Conclusion: Eucalyptus essential oil had a greater therapeutic effect on head lice. This compound is recommended as an alternative to permethrin or for use in combination with permethrin in the head lice control program.

Mohammad Bagher Ghavami, Sakineh Khoeini, Soghrat Faghih Zadeh,
Volume 26, Issue 117 (9-2018)

Background and Objective: Anopheles maculipennis is one of the most important species of mosquito that can cause serious public health problems worldwide and applying insecticides and synthetic repellents are the current methods used for its control. The continuous application of these chemicals increases the probability of resistance, reduces insecticide efficiency and causes environmental problems. Therefore, introducing alternative substances (especially natural repellents) to control programs is necessary. The aim of this study was to compare the repellency effect of Ziziphoratenuior essential oil (EO) with DEET.
Materials and Methods: Ziziphoratenuior was collected from Zanjan and its EO was extracted from dried leaves via a hydro-distillation process. The chief components of the essential oil were identified through the GC-mass method and serial dilutions of the essential oil and DEET were prepared. Adult An. Maculipennis’ were collected and kept in a laboratory. Contact bioassays were conducted by 9 volunteers, through a single-blind study where their arms were impregnated with repellent solutions. Non-blood fed female mosquitoes were exposed to different doses of repellents. The effective doses of 50% (ED50) and 90% (ED90) and duration of repellency were determined for each repellent.
Results: Thymol, geraniol and carvacrol are the chief components of Ziziphora EO and form 36.2%, 11.16% and 4.9% of it, respectively. The ED50 and ED90 for this EO against An. Maculipennis were 1.7 and 3.67 mg/cm2, respectively. A 30% Ziziphorasolution prevented biting for 240 minutes. The response of An. Maculipennis to Ziziphora EO in high doses was similar to that of DEET, however, this response differed in doses lower than 1 mg/cm2.
Conclusion: Ziziphora essential oil 30% solution has similar repellency effect to DEET and can prevent biting of An. Maculipennis for 240 minutes. Synergists could be added to increase its effectiveness and electrophysiologic studies could determine the mechanism of action of thymol and carvacrol at molecular levels.

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